Biology of the Reptilia: Index B

Go to Main Index

Bachia 7:489; 15:131, 133, 138; 16:141; 19:28, 78; 20:186–193, 301; 21:400

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:242, 252, 262, 266–267

ear 2:271

heteropa 20:308

intermedia 20:308

jaw muscles 4:478

peruana 20:308

trisnale 20:308

Bacteria 5:26–27; 8:620, 627, 633

Bacterial infections (see also Pathology) 19:517, 519–520

Bacterial toxins 8:379, 566

Bacterioides 8:633

Bacteriostasis 8:592

Bactrosaurus 9:101, 104

Baena, shell 1:333

Baenidae, shell 1:314, 334, 336

Baikia 21:629, 636, 644, 670

africana 21:626, 668, 671, 731

axial skeleton 1:272

Bailey Index 7:158, 202–203, 210, 214

triple catch 7:159

Bailey’s triple catch 16:343–345

Baiting (see Capture methods)

Balaenoptera, pancreas 3:335

Balanophis 19:236

ceylonensis 19:200; 20:646

? subminiata 20:648

Balkans 2:322

Ball-and-socket articulation 1:205–206, 210, 226, 289, 300

Ballast 13:9

Balsam St. Roco 18:145

Bandwidth 5:84

Barbiturates 3:2; 5:47

Barisia 12:117; 15:628, 669; 16:461–462, 464–465, 512

axial muscles 11:357

imbricata 19:26, 78; 20:302

Barium sulfate 3:34

Baroceptors 12:246

Barometric pressure 5:73

Baroreception 19:318, 468

Baroreceptor sites 5:306

mechanisms 5:312

Barosaurus 9:57, 98

Basal

Alethinophidia 20:354, 394, 399, 416, 418, 420, 422–423, 426–428, 432, 436–438, 440, 464, 470, 472, 476, 478, 500, 329, 550, 554–556, 574, 579, 589, 591

aponeurosis 4:285–286, 296–305, 312, 314– 315, 317–318, 323–324, 333–336, 341–344, 349–351, 353, 356–357, 359, 361, 363–366, 376, 378–379, 382, 388–391, 401–406, 409–410, 415–417, 421, 423–424, 431–434, 436, 445, 467–471

articulation 21:568–569

body(ies) 2:35; 3:126; 6:241–242

cell(s) 2:156, 158, 162, 164; 5:424; 6:65; 8:87, 125

colubrids 20:512, 556

epiphyses 20:156

ganglia 10:248, 251; 17:646

junction 17:34, 36, 81

lamina (see also Basement membrane) 2:204, 210, 214, 216, 238; 6:42, 48; 14:534–535; 560; 570; 618, 625, 700–703, 706–709; 18:436; 19:16, 47

membrane (see also Plasma membrane) 2:23

metabolic levels 5:209

metabolic rate 5:7, 14, 158

plate 4:249, 251–252; 6:241; 9:179, 234; 10:185; 11:3, 11–15, 20–21, 25–29, 39–44, 52, 55–56, 59, 66, 69, 74–76, 78, 93, 97–99, 105, 114–116, 121–123, 136–140, 144–146, 150, 158–160, 162, 166, 168, 170, 172–174, 186, 189, 192, 194–195, 203–204, 207, 213–214, 217–218, 221–225, 229–231, 236, 238, 240, 242–243; 20:9–11, 25, 28, 33, 73, 114, 255, 360–361, 416, 439

process 17:85; 20:12

process of pterygoquadrate (see Basipterygoid

process)

telencephalic area 9:234

tubera 20:43, 70, 88, 91, 101, 104, 124, 135, 147, 156, 158, 163, 172, 182, 192, 204–205, 215, 217, 231, 234, 238, 240, 246

unit 20:54–57

Base (of tooth) 1:118, 146, 171

Basement membrane 2:41, 156, 158–159, 305, 307–308; 3:122–123, 125, 269, 310, 330, 342; 6:45–46, 57–58, 63, 78–79, 266, 274–275, 287, 292, 302; 17:464, 472; 19:504, 506–507, 511, 542; 21:24

of apical ridge 15:65–66, 73, 91

of bilamimar omphalopleure 15:546–547

Basi-parasphenoid 20:403–404

Basibranchial (see also Cornu branchiale II;

Corpus hyoidei) 11:39, 226

Basic lipids 18:151

Basic vertebrate bauplan 20:355

Basicapsular commissure 11:12, 15, 26, 41–42, 55, 137–138, 140, 145, 170, 173, 194; 20:31

Basicranial

axis 11:10, 41, 53, 208

commissure (see also Basicapsular commissure) 20:11

fenestra 4:249; 11:11–13, 15, 29, 41, 43–44, 62, 54, 65, 59, 62, 66, 70, 74, 76, 93, 98, 106, 109, 116–117, 121, 123, 138–140, 144, 153–154, 160, 166, 172–173, 179, 194, 206–207, 209, 213, 217, 238; 14:126; 20:10, 28, 206, 361

Basicranium 20:51, 428

Basidiobolus 5:27

Basihyal (see also Corpus hyoidei; Processus

lingualis) 11:71, 107, 123, 149–150, 183, 215, 226; 20:12; 21:229–230, 233

valve 11:240; 14:407; 414–415; 423; 426–427

Basilar

artery 20:427

membrane 2:204, 209–211, 214, 216–217, 220, 237, 242–251, 253–255, 257–261

papilla 2:204, 209–215, 217, 221–223, 229, 236–239, 242–250, 253, 257–258, 263–264; 10:215

part of cochlear duct 2:209, 252

Basiliscines 20:80

Basiliscus 7:50, 69, 99, 148, 274, 317, 369, 475; 8:682; 10:203, 228; 12:100, 105, 180; 13:289, 293, 296, 299, 308–309, 311; 14:629; 15:306, 329, 334, 342–343, 428; 16:51, 59, 116, 139, 248–249, 257, 261, 463–465, 514; 17:596; 20:40–41, 79, 82–84, 86–87, 89–90; 21:51, 54–55, 87, 92, 153, 159–160, 170, 185, 352, 361

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:269–270

basiliscus 20:83, 291; 21:7, 53, 190

dentition 1:154, 156

ear 2:270

eye 2:26

jaw muscles 4:477

vittatus 20:304; 21:7, 53

Basioccipital 1:204, 226, 290; 4:204–205, 209–211, 214, 216–219, 221, 224–226, 228, 236, 238, 251–257, 267; 11:5, 22, 29, 38, 59–60, 62, 70, 81, 112, 117, 123–124,130–131, 150, 153, 185, 218, 224, 237, 242, 367–368, 370; 20:15, 25, 28–30, 70, 73, 75–76, 88; 89, 91, 101, 104–105, 112, 115, 121, 124, 127–128, 137, 147, 159, 156, 158, 163–164, 166, 172–173, 182–183, 186, 192–193, 195–196, 204, 207, 209, 215, 217, 223, 225, 231–232, 234, 238, 240, 246, 248, 255, 270, 278, 281–282, 287, 355, 357, 361, 365, 369, 371, 373, 375, 379, 381–382, 389–391, 398–399, 403–404, 408–409, 411, 416, 418, 421, 425, 427, 431–432, 434, 438, 442–443, 445, 447, 451, 453, 455, 463, 465, 467, 473–475, 478–479, 497, 499, 501, 503–509, 511, 513, 525–527, 529, 533, 538–541, 543, 562, 566, 569, 571; 21:492, 544–545

bone 2:227, 232

apophysis (Bolyeria) 20:475, 477–478

crest 2:242

articular surface with basisphenoid 20:451

condylar proces 20:421

condyle 20:112, 135

-basisphenoid hypapophysis 20:502, 508

Basipterygoid 20:367; 21:514

articulation 11:125, 130, 135, 195, 198–199, 227, 245; 20:69, 195, 204; 21:479

facet 20:101; 21:516, 530

fossa 20:88, 134, 266

joint 20:25, 49, 51, 55–56, 60, 113, 171, 176, 182, 209, 248, 263, 277, 288

meniscus 11:15, 24, 30, 32, 52, 54–56, 62, 67, 76, 93, 98, 100, 105–106, 110, 123–124, 129–130, 245, 192, 195, 199–200, 203, 211–212

process 1:106;2:9; 4:327, 341, 343, 362, 377, 384, 395; 9:2; 11:11–12, 15, 22–24, 30, 32, 42, 44, 46, 52, 54–56, 60, 62, 66, 68, 74, 76, 81, 90, 93, 98, 100, 103, 105–106, 110, 112, 116–117, 119, 123–124, 127, 129–130, 135, 150, 158, 164, 170, 172–173, 175, 178, 185, 188, 190, 192, 195, 200, 203–204, 210–211, 216–217, 226, 236, 241; 20:7, 10, 25, 28–30, 42, 48, 50, 52, 60, 67, 70, 75, 89, 91, 101, 104, 112, 116, 125, 128, 135, 137, 146–147, 156, 183–164, 166, 172, 181–182, 186, 192, 195, 204–205,215– 217, 222, 231, 234, 238–240, 246, 248, 267, 271, 276, 278, 282, 285, 287, 370, 416, 422, 427, 434, 438, 442–443, 449–450, 455, 464, 474, 478–479, 484; 21:479, 481, 513, 516–517, 520, 523, 528, 530, 535, 569–570

recess 20:185, 215, 217

socket 20:70, 215, 217

Basisphenoid 2:6, 8–9, 67, 73–74, 227, 232; 4:108, 116–117, 205, 210–211, 214, 216–217, 219, 221, 224–225, 228–229, 236, 238, 252–254, 257, 320–321, 349–350, 352, 358, 362, 377, 384; 11:22–23, 32, 58, 60, 62, 70, 81, 84, 90, 98, 106, 110, 112, 117, 123, 131, 150, 153–154, 158, 172, 184–197, 189–190, 203, 216, 219, 236, 242, 245; 14:126; 20:28, 30, 205, 357, 361–362, 365, 368–369, 371, 375, 379, 389–391, 399, 409, 411, 418, 421, 431, 441–443, 445, 451, 453, 455, 463, 465, 467, 471, 473–474, 499, 501, 505, 507, 509, 511, 513, 525, 527, 533, 538–541, 543, 562, 566, 569

crest 20:478

fenestra 20:436, 439, 443

rostrum 4:205, 211, 214, 217, 219, 221, 224, 228, 238, 255, 257; 11:23, 242–243

Basitemporal (see also Parasphenoid) 11:245

Basitrabecular process (see also Infrapolar

process; Basipterygoid process) 21:514, 516, 519, 532

Basking 5:24, 259, 262, 314–316, 375, 399; 12:99–117, 119, 126, 138–139, 143–144, 167; 18:193, 387–390

habits 3:216

range 12:18

Basolateral telencephalon 17:610, 612

Basophilic areas 1:85, 87, 89, 91–92

capsule 1:95

granulocytes (see Basophils)

tubules 5:432–433

Basophils 14:602–603, 609–610, 612–613

Basophily (see also Cyanophily) 3:75, 86–87, 120, 127, 202, 212, 327; 6:42, 115, 245–246, 261, 264, 279, 291

Bassiana 21:397

Bat (see also Chiroptera) 9:85

Batagur 14:179, 183, 220; 16:391, 394, 409, 436

baska 18:315

eye 2:68

Batesian mimicry (see Mimicry)

Bathing fluid 5:439

medium 5:380, 492–495

solution 5:381–32, 391, 395

Batrachemys, head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104, 118, 121, 123–124

Batrachoseps 13:180

Batagurines 14:210, 219–220, 230

Bauchin’s valve (see Pyloric region of stomach)

Bauplan 19:4, 22, 24, 48

Bauria 9:299

Bauriamorpha 9:132, 299, 302

Baurusuchus, skull 4:279

Bavarisaurus 15:340; 20:252, 254, 257–258, 269, 262, 280–281, 283, 287

macrodactylus 20:291; 21:111

Bavariscus, axial skeleton 1:243

Bavayia 20:124, 296

ear 2:271

Bdellostoma, urinogenital system 6:2–3

Beak 1:7, 120, 150, 152–153, 187–189, 192; 5:322

marks (see Injuries)

Bed nucleus of the striata terminalis 18:41, 445

Bedriagaia 16:140

Beeswax 5:98

Beetles 21:45

Behavior (see also Antipredator mechanisms;

Described behavior; Interference; Mating

behavior; Ritualized behavior; Social

behavior; Stereotyped behavior) 5:14, 27, 34, 225, 319, 371; 12:30, 53, 224–225, 277, 302; 19:36, 66–67

alleiomimetic 14:316

balling 7:382

basking 18:193, 387–390

biting 18:163, 170, 189

burrowing 18:119

chin wiping/rubbing 18:117, 143–145, 173, 176, 478

conspecific trailing 18:426

controlling mechanisms

environmental constraints 18:13–14

evolution of 18:13

impediments to the study of 18:13

courting 15:459

defensive 15:344

effects of domestication 18:6

feeding 14:355, 550; 18:54, 130, 424–425, 483–492

female (see also maternal) 15:431

head-shaking 18:478

locomotory 14:550

male 15:431

maternal 14:10, 21, 342, 353, 355–356; 15:283, 626–627, 646, 651–652, 666–667, 669–672, 677, 679; 18:424

mating 14:272, 342; 15:463

mouth-gaping 18:463, 478

nesting 14:272, 342; 15:283

paternal 18:355

perinatal 18:478

phylogenetic effect 7:445

reproductive 14:199, 343

role of chemical senses in 18:494–497

sexual 14:530; 15:458

states 18:3

thermoregulatory 15:609, 612

tongue-flicking (see Tongue, flick)

ultimate causes of variation 7:436–438

Behavioral

capacities 5:4

cycles 5:27

endocrinology, history 18:2

fever 12:228–229, 231

osmoregulation 12:326, 344, 355–362, 386

physiology, herpetological contributions 18:3

responses to temperature 5:94

Belgium 2:322

Bellemus (see Pyxis)

Bellowing 18:202

Belodon 9:79, 303–304

Bends (see Decompression sickness)

Benzalkonium chloride 5:98

Benzamide 8:330

Benzodiazepine binding 18:446

Benzoylarginine

ethyl esterase 8:91, 124–125, 139–140, 144, 147, 165–166, 308, 314, 320–321, 329–330, 333, 614

nitroanilide 8:330

Benzyl benzoate 3:164

Berlin blue 6:317

Bet hedging 13:242–243

Beta (β)

-adrenergic receptor 18:317–319, 344–345, 347

blocking agents 5:237

cell 6:115

cells of pancreas 3:22, 122, 328–335, 337, 339, 341–342; 13:94

cells of pituitary (see also Gonadotrophic FSH

cells) 3:212

-globulin 3:38

glucuronidase 14:608

-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases 15:579, 587

-ionone 18:199

keratin 12:401–402, 408–412, 422

-layer 18:154

layer cells of skin 12:404–405, 413, 421

-lipotropin 17:616, 618, 620

proteins 3:27

receptors 12:238, 246

system 11:325

Betadine 5:98

Between-scale pit (see Interscalar pit)

Biarticular 21:203

Bicarbonate 3:1, 3–7, 13–14, 16–19; 5:11, 59, 81, 102, 239–240, 344, 346, 350–351, 357–358, 413, 428, 478–481, 486, 496; 8:610; 12:327– 333, 345, 363, 383–384; 13:23, 35, 85–87, 138; 19:341–342, 345

concentration 5:174

imidazole solutions 5:358

phosphate 5:358

Biceps brachii 21:31, 212

Bicipital

fossa 21:101–102, 106–110, 113

rib 1:212, 237, 252

tubercule 4:17, 19, 34, 47

Biconcave centrum 1:206, 215, 219, 225, 300

Bicondont teeth 1:119

Biconvex centrum 1:206, 211, 213, 215, 217, 219, 233, 300

Bicuculline 18:453

Biennial cycles 5:36; 13:101, 204, 206, 211

Bienotherium 9:133

Bifid root 1:188

Bifurcated ribs

cloacal rib 1:278–279, 287, 293

sacral rib 1:265

Bilateral synchrony of tooth replacement 1:137

Bile 5:381; 19:494, 497, 499, 501, 514, 516, 522

acid(s) 8:621–626, 658–664, 698; 19:513–514, 524

duct 3:322; 6:203, 458; 14:143, 440

canaliculus(i) 19:491, 493–496, 501, 504, 509

ductules 19:501, 504–506

flow 19:496, 514–516

pigment metabolism 19:515–516

salts 19:496, 513

secretion 10:26; 19:524

system 19:506

tree 19:516, 518, 522

Bilirubin 19:515–516

Biliverdin 19:515–516

Bill-tip organ 9:431

Binding 5:69

constants 11:314

sites (see Brain study, autoradiography)

estrogen 18:33, 36–37, 41–43, 54

progesterone 18:35

testosterone 18:37

Binnensehne (see Basal aponeurosis)

Binocular field of vision 2:21, 75

visual field 17:317

Bio Gel P-2 8:183

Bioassays 18:151

Biochemical methods 5:59

Biochemistry 5:58

Bioelectric recording 5:84

Biogenic amine(s) (see also Norepinephrine; 5-hydroxydopa; 5-hydroxytryptamine) 8:193; 9:372; 10:247; 17:589

law 1:70

Biological clocks 5:34

cycles 5:34

supply houses 5:20

Biomass 13:234

Biomechanics 21:37

Biophysical modeling (see Models, energy

exchange)

models, symbols 12:315–316

Bipedal locomotion (Bipedalism) 15:342–343, 346; 21:38–39, 44, 47, 51, 53–54, 61, 334–335, 337, 342, 358, 363, 376, 384

Bipedidae 16:114; 21:4094, 624

chondrocranium 11:126

Bipes 10:204; 16:114, 253; 19:557; 21:29, 65, 76, 90, 96, 123–124, 134, 140, 152, 395, 404, 623, 633–635, 642, 707

axial skeleton 1:240, 271–273, 277

biporus 21:84, 134, 404, 626, 707, 710–711, 731

canaliculatus 19:33, 81; 21:7, 134, 404

chondrocranium 11:126, 133–134

dentition 1:148

ear 2:250, 254, 268, 271

internal relief of gut 6:190, 192

muscle tissue 11:283, 336

origin and evolution 1:6

pancreas 3:328

tridactylus 21:134, 404

Biplaner centrum 1:205, 226

Bipolar

cells 2:33–36, 38–39, 61, 156, 162

neurons 18:427–428, 433, 435–437, 440

Bird(s) (see also Aves; Avian) 5:5, 7, 12–14, 28, 30, 128, 140, 158–159, 190, 195, 206, 209–210, 245, 251, 254–255, 259, 275, 282, 288, 321, 325–326, 346, 383–384, 391, 413, 415, 421, 429, 436, 438–439, 481, 483; 7:13, 26, 29–30, 54, 72, 120, 137, 241, 600, 665; 8:604–607, 610, 656–657; 9:26, 39, 85, 88–89, 92, 124, 137, 156, 166–167, 248, 288, 302, 323, 341, 372, 408–409, 419, 422, 436; 10:8, 11, 29, 44– 45, 63, 77, 179, 187, 192, 212, 221, 227, 229, 241, 251, 278, 281–282, 294, 299, 330, 332; 12:4, 8–10, 168–170, 172, 183, 185, 196, 200, 203–204, 223, 227, 237, 243, 245, 280, 306, 340, 353, 363, 371, 383, 395, 415, 493–495, 497; 13:12–13, 28, 30, 35, 155, 162, 188, 192, 238, 240–241, 274–275; 16:6, 10, 13, 18, 25, 31, 34, 37, 39, 52–53, 62, 112, 156–157, 163, 165–167, 171, 173, 176, 179–181, 183–184, 188–190, 196, 199, 204, 211, 214–215, 239, 283, 312, 403, 556; 19:2–3, 20, 39, 54–58, 60, 68, 71, 75, 297, 320, 324, 330, 334, 340, 347, 376, 426, 429–430, 462, 473, 486–587, 495, 498, 503–504, 514–515, 524, 534, 536, 539, 541, 545, 568; 21:38, 322, 482

albumin 14:377, 497

amniochlorion 14:18–19

and crocodiles 14:313, 372, 417, 447, 714

calcium mobilization 14:376

caruncle 14:450

dermis 14:536

desquamation 14:537

development 14:7, 15, 17–20, 50, 115, 348, 379, 395, 501

developmental arrest 14:199

eggs 14:88–89, 178, 231–233, 235–236, 239, 275, 315, 354, 359–360, 368, 372, 374–375, 460

embryos

chondrogenesis 15:74

cleavage 15:3

effect of temperature on sex 15:281

gastrulation 15:3, 9

limb buds 15:61, 66

limb development 15:84, 88

primitive streak 15:3

epidermis 14:531, 539

expression of H-Y antigen 15:275

glottal plug 14:142

heart 14:437

immune system 14:446, 601, 614, 624, 631–632, 648, 660

incubation period 14:177

induced oviposition 14:220

integument 14:526, 530, 585, 587–588

malformed embryos 14:352

neural crest 14:417

orientation of embryo 14:79, 200

ovarian follicles 14:62

ovariectomy 15:278

palate development 14:421, 424

parental care 14:355

pipping 14:362

pituitary development 14:711, 713–715

pre-hatching vocalization 14:355

primordial germ cells 14:43, 46, 48–50

regeneration capacity 15:387

scales 14:526, 536, 586, 589

stomach 14:143

thymus 14:617

tongue development 14:427

Birefringence 3:293

Birthing rookeries 18:135

Bisexual

gonads 15:164, 249, 269, 276

state 15:159, 170

Bisexuality (see also Pseudohermaphroditism) 14:441

Biscuspidate teeth 1:164, 167

Bismuth 8:174

Bite 8:120

identification 8:358

Bithynia tentaculata 13:260

Bitia 16:233; 19:228; 20:576

hydroides 19:200; 20:581, 630

Bitis 7:390, 505; 8:9, 30–31, 99, 125, 169–170, 173–174, 182, 185–186, 193–194, 203, 238, 242–244, 248, 250, 262, 272–284, 296, 306–307, 314, 318–320, 324–330, 338, 340, 345–347, 349–350, 357, 364, 366, 371–372, 377–378, 444, 474, 476, 481, 484, 491, 511, 515, 664; 12:360; 14:666; 15:660, 671; 16:6, 8–9, 12, 21, 122, 151–152, 191–192; 18:489; 19:118, 135, 146, 157, 190, 219; 20:505–506, 508, 512, 516–517, 619–520

arietans 8:30, 99, 125, 169–170, 173–174, 182, 185–186, 193, 238, 242–243, 248, 250, 262, 272, 274–284, 296, 306–307, 314, 318–320, 322, 324–326, 328, 340, 345–347, 357, 366, 372, 444, 476, 484, 511, 515, 664; 19:119, 122, 127, 143–144, 190, 525; 20:498, 500, 506, 508, 617

aspis 8:32, 58, 95, 235, 242, 247–251, 253, 296–297, 306, 324, 339–340, 344, 346–347, 352, 366, 371–372, 376–378, 445, 492, 498, 510–511, 696

atropoides 8:30

atropos 8:30, 444; 20:617

axial muscles 11:357

caudalis (see also Calechidna) 8:30, 338, 444; 19:127; 20:617

cornuta 8:30, 169, 338, 444; 20:617

dentition 1:184

ear 2:270, 272

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:105–106

eye 2:62

gabonica 8:31, 173, 193–194, 235, 242–244, 248, 250, 262, 272, 274–284, 296, 306–307, 318, 326, 328–330, 338, 340, 345–347, 377–378, 444, 474, 481, 664; 19:190; 20:498, 500, 617

heraldica 8:31

inornatus 8:31

internal relief of gut 6:193–194, 196, 199–200, 206–207, 210

jaw muscles 4:458, 461, 482

lachesis 8:30, 338

nasicornis 8:31, 248, 250, 262, 296, 306, 318, 324, 326–328, 338, 444, 664; 19:190; 20:5–1, 503, 521, 617

peringueyi (see also Calechidna) 8:31; 19:152

pit organs 2:280, 289–293, 297

schneideri 8:31; 20:617

worthingtoni 8:31, 664; 19:134, 190, 219; 20:508, 617

xeropaga 8:31; 20:618

Bitocholic acid 19:513–514

Biuret 18:168

Blackbody 12:294

Bladder 5:58, 447–448, 458, 465, 468, 477, 479–481, 483, 489, 496, 498; 10:8, 39–41; 12:326, 343, 349–350, 352, 358, 361, 364, 366, 374, 385–386; 13:88

epithelium 5:383

reabsorption 5:450

urine 5:489

Blaesodactylus, eye 2:26

Blanidae 21:624

Blanus 8:58, 71, 689; 12:125, 459; 16:37, 114, 131, 136; 19:557; 21:65, 623–625, 627, 630, 633–635, 637, 642, 688, 695, 712

adrenal 3:281, 306

aporus 21:638, 641–642, 731

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:272–273, 276, 278

blood cell morphology 3:77, 82

chondrocranium 11:126, 134

cinereus 19:33, 81, 412, 418; 21:338, 626, 636–637, 640, 642–643, 731

ear 2:250, 268, 271

eye 2:24

histology of gut 6:278

internal relief of gut 6:190, 192

jaw muscles 4:480

mettetali 21:642, 731

pituitary 3:180–182

strauchi 19:33, 81; 21:637–638, 642, 731

tingitanus 21:642

urinogenital system 6:38, 59, 72, 79

Blastema

formation 15:351–355, 381, 383–384

source of cells 15:358–360

tissue differentiation 15:356, 376

transplantation of 15:364, 373

transplantation 14:15

Blastocoel 14:112

Blastocyst (reptilian) 15:534, 538–541, 543–544, 546–547, 549–552, 555–556, 560, 564, 567, 569–570, 575, 585–586

blood vessels 15:575

protein content 15:565, 571

Blastoderm 14:12, 29, 116–117, 121, 397–398, 501, 503, 505–506

regulation of 15:28

Blastodisk 14:17, 112, 116, 160, 192

Blastoporal

canal 14:390; 15:20–22, 24

plate 15:10, 20–21

plug (see also Chordamesodermal canal) 14:48

Blastopore 14:48, 96, 113–117, 281–282, 285 386, 398, 438, 500–502, 505; 15:3, 9–10, 12–13, 20, 23

Blastula 14:112–113, 199, 202, 348

Blaue Linie (see Blue line)

Blauschwarze Grenzlinie (see Blue line)

Bloch’s law 17:163

Blood (see also Hematology) 2:279; 3:127, 215; 5:7, 34, 52–53, 59, 61–62, 65–66, 82, 100, 172, 174, 183, 195–196, 198, 225–226, 238–239, 248, 250, 252–253, 256–258, 260–261, 263–266, 278, 280, 284–286, 289, 292, 301, 309, 314–315, 320, 322–323, 339–340, 343–345, 350, 353, 357–360, 380, 384, 392, 394, 423, 447, 455, 460, 473–475, 477, 486, 489; 12:237, 239, 241, 486; 13:72, 89, 95; 16:549; 19:58, 304, 462

acid-base values 5:336–337

ammonia 5:60

analyses 5:65

arterial 5:62, 263

avian 5:256

-brain barrier 8:477, 479–480, 516

buffers 13:33–35

cells 14:161, 602–614

counts (see numbers)

morphology 3:73–91

numbers 3:3:93–109

centrifuged 5:60

chemistry 3:1–72; 5:61

circulation 5:99

clotting (see also Coagulation) 5:60; 13:91–92, 96

coagulation 8:332

components 5:66

containers 5:62

defibrinated 5:61

dissociation curve 19:332

embryogenesis 19:488

flow (see also Cardiac shunting; Shunting) 12:285–286, 296, 299; 19:300, 317, 327– 328, 330–332, 335, 346, 377, 385, 387–390, 396–399, 428, 430–439, 441, 444, 449–450, 453–474

intracardiac 19:434–435, 446

pulmonary 19:323, 333, 449

systemic 19:340, 376

three-vessel model of 19:434–436

two-vessel model of 19:435

gas(ses) (see also Partial pressure) 5:65–66, 238, 241, 143–244, 247, 250, 257, 261, 305, 321; 19:312, 318, 325–327, 335, 340, 447–449, 467

arterial 19:301, 305, 316–317, 332, 337–338, 460

barrier 19:53, 55, 77, 323

composition 19:335

diffusion limitation 19:327–328, 331

regulation 19:301

stratification 19:327–328, 331

glucose 5:35, 199; 8:518

pressure 8:519, 526, 529

serum 8:95

sugar 8:518

venom effects on 8:485–500

vessels 8:501–506

groups 3:48

islands 14:101–107, 145, 161, 176, 186, 188, 191–192, 196, 198, 225, 227, 288, 290, 505, 635

formation 15:13

lactic acid 5:320

-liver exchange 19:491, 493

mixing 19:326, 388–390, 426, 436, 445–446, 451, 462, 471

organic constituents 3:8–12, 19–26

oxygen 19:316, 329, 435, 457, 465

affinity 14:162; 19:304, 467

capacity 19:334–335, 463

content 5:319; 19:317, 431–435

distribution pattern 19:433

levels 19:431, 458, 460

pH 5:11, 239, 245, 259, 261–262, 335, 338, 341, 349, 351, 354, 481; 12:240–241; 19:342, 467, 512

phosphate 14:162

plasma 3:1, 3–38, 45–46, 50–53; 5:206, 415, 438; 19:58

variability of constituents 3:3

pressure 5:28, 38, 310, 316, 464; 6:35; 10:36; 12:242, 246–247, 250; 13:10–11, 20; 19:65, 347, 377, 388, 397, 399, 438–439, 442, 449–450, 458, 462, 468

cephalic 19:378

pulmonary 19:442, 453

systemic 19:454

proteins 12:251

pulmonary arterial 19:446

pulmonary venous 19:300, 385

respiratory properties 13:28–35

samples 5:61–62, 66, 275, 338

sampling 3:2–3, 93–94

sinus (see Vascular sinus)

smears 3:75, 83, 85–89

stores 19:464, 466, 544, 566, 570

sugar 3:19, 21–23, 53; 19:511–512

supply 19:7, 488–489

urea 5:60

venous 5:62, 257, 263

vessels 1:201; 5:61, 63, 65

of digestive tract 6:269–270, 280

viscosity 12:247–250, 252; 19:347, 353

volume 5:66, 68; 12:251; 13:29; 19:76–77, 334–335, 463

Blue line 1:92, 110

B-lymphocytes (B-cells) 14:601–602, 627–628, 643–644, 648, 660–661

Blythia 16:144; 19:233; 21:497

reticulata 19:200

Boa (Boas) 5:45, 133, 148–149, 157, 160, 169–170, 173, 249–250, 263–265, 337, 349–350, 367, 491; 7:393, 498; 8:593, 598, 602–604, 625, 646, 662, 690; 9:158, 407, 412, 418, 420–421, 427–428, 432–433; 10:167, 186, 204, 206–207, 210, 230; 12:41, 127, 339, 408, 428–429, 464; 13:34, 36–37; 14:549, 556, 665; 15:646, 662; 16:17, 40, 119, 143; 17:324, 369, 372, 375, 377, 379, 381–382, 385, 392, 397, 399, 407, 432, 436, 530; 19:5, 188, 235; 20:430; 21:501, 522, 529, 549, 565, 597

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:283, 291, 293

blood chemistry 3:10, 30

chondrocranium 11:169

constrictor 18:324, 442–443, 460; 19:99, 106, 114, 118, 120–121, 146–147, 160, 187, 299, 414–415, 418, 428, 475, 519, 522–523, 525; 20:457, 461, 606; 21:519, 565, 606

dumerili 20:

ear 2:269

eye 2:51, 56

internal relief of gut 6:193, 196, 204, 209, 221

jaw muscles 4:424–425, 443, 469, 480

lymphatics 6:423

manditra 20:606

muscle tissue 11:273, 278, 320, 325, 336

pancreas 3:323

pit organs 2:295, 301

thymus 3:113

urinogenital system (see also Constrictor; Corallus) 6:29, 32

Boaedon 7:227; 8:151, 691

dentition 1:177

eye 2:55, 62

fuliginosus 20:632

lineatus 20:572, 632

olivaceous 20:632

Bodenaponeurose (see Basal aponeurosis; External

tendon of M. adductor mandibulae)

Body

-bridging (see Social behavior and aggression)

cavity (see also Cavity; Coelom) 3:320, 322; 19:27, 38, 63, 71, 75, 96, 148, 157, 348, 487, 560

cells of fundic glands (see Serous cells)

fat 19:486

fluid volume 5:66, 367, 369, 401, 405

fluids 3:15, 35, 236, 243, 257, 259; 5:54, 58, 68, 366, 370, 375, 380, 387, 400–402, 413, 447; 12:326–353, 487

heat 5:33

length 9:154

mass (=weight) 19:36, 52, 54, 56, 67, 106, 300, 376, 486, 537

of stomach (see Corpus of stomach)

of vertebra (see Centrum)

plethysmography 5:96

shape 19:376

size (see also Antipredator mechanisms; Life

history traits) 5:38, 128, 137, 174, 179, 182, 209, 255, 260, 299–300, 370; 12:6–7, 9, 27, 174, 194–195, 197, 281, 307, 454–457, 466; 13:4, 31, 36–37, 115, 117, 122, 135, 159, 162, 169, 179–180, 186, 274–282, 303–304, 307–310

adult size 13:277–280, 307–312

Boidae 16:38, 40, 119, 123, 143, 181–182, 206, 285–286, 294, 307, 309, 315

fecundity 13:236, 241, 251–253

home range size 7:269

maximum size 13:277–280, 307–310

mimicry 16:166–156, 206, 209–210

neonate size 13:280–282, 307–312

number of competitors 7:95

parental care 16:307, 309, 315

surface area 5:147

temperature 2:279, 286, 292, 297; 5:5–7, 14, 28, 32–33, 127–128, 142, 145, 154, 157–159, 161, 165–166, 172, 176–178, 180, 182, 187–191, 198, 209–210, 230, 238–241, 245, 256, 259, 261, 297301, 310, 316–317, 335, 338, 344, 348–349, 352, 354, 370, 375–378, 380, 399, 429, 459; 10:325; 12:3, 19–20, 93, 96–98, 218, 224, 231, 233, 257, 291–292, 294–295, 299, 302, 307; 13:62–63, 65, 76, 298; 19:298, 300, 305–306, 433–434, 461, 507

ventilation 5:80

volume changes 5:96

wall 19:308

water 5:66, 69, 366

weight 5:43–46, 137, 139–140, 146–147, 150–152, 154, 156–158, 161, 177, 228, 230, 253, 259–260, 300, 366, 370–371, 385, 396, 398, 402, 407, 416, 435–436, 456; 18:43

Boella tenella 19:100

Bogertia, eye 2:26, 30

Bogertophis 19:232

rosaliae 19:200

subocularis 19:152, 200

Bohr effect 3:42–44; 5:183, 258–260, 262–263; 13:30, 32–33, 96; 19:316, 466

factor 5:259, 264–265

Boidae (Boid) 5:192; 7:206, 382, 393–395, 399, 498–499; 8:46, 58, 73–74, 147, 625, 662, 690–691; 9:161, 163, 166, 368, 414, 427; 10:169, 226; 12:126–127, 456; 14:652, 665; 15:25, 29, 100, 114, 646, 663–664, 666–667, 671; 19:33, 100, 116, 127–128, 151–152, 187, 235, 399, 413–415, 514; 20:354, 420, 424, 426, 430, 435–436, 442, 445, 457, 459, 466, 474, 477, 480, 493, 548, 595, 606; 21:479, 483, 493, 496–497, 502, 516, 519, 534, 550, 555, 565, 570–571, 578, 582, 606

adrenal 3:281

axial muscles 11:357, 395, 397–398, 403, 407, 411, 414, 430–431

axial skeleton 1:283–284, 286–287, 290–291, 293, 296–297, 299

blood cell morphology 3:77, 79

blood chemistry 3:28, 31, 50–51

chondrocranium 11:169–176, 188, 203

dentition 1:173, 179

ear 2:253, 264, 269, 271

eye 2:48–49, 54, 84–85, 90

histology of gut 6:287, 299

incerta sedis 20:353–564, 445, 468

internal relief of gut 6:193, 196, 221

jaw muscles 4:430, 440, 467–468, 480–481

nose 2:120

origin and evolution 1:6

pancreas 3:323–324, 329

pit organs 2:278–279, 286, 294–297, 301–304

pituitary 3:136, 143, 145–146, 148, 151, 154, 156, 182–185, 193, 195

taxonomic literature 2:320

urinogenital system 6:29, 32

Boiga 5:491; 7:499; 8:39, 663; 12:128; 15:652; 16:119, 143, 196–197, 203, 232–233; 19:145–146, 148, 229

angulata 19:200; 20:635

blandingi 8:39, 663; 20:635

ceylonensis 19:138, 200; 20:635

cyanea 19:127, 147, 200; 20:635

cynodon 19:132–133, 161–162, 200; 20:500, 635

dendrophila 8:39, 663; 19:127, 200; 20:635

dentition 1:180–181

dightoni 19:200

drapiezii 19:200; 20:635

ear 2:271

forsteni 19:200; 20:635

fuscal 20:635

gokool 19:200; 20:635

irregularis 18:152; 19:200; 20:635

jaspidea 19:200; 20:635

jaw muscles 4:481

kraepelini 19:200; 20:635

lymphatics 6:356

multifasciata 19:162, 200

multimaculata 19:200

nigriceps 19:201; 20:635

nuchalis 19:201

ocellata 20:635

ochracea 19:201

philippina 19:201

pulverulenta 20:578, 635

schultzei 19:201

trigonata 19:127, 201; 20:635

urinogenital system 6:94

Boiginae

axial skeleton 1:290

dentition 1:180–181

eye 2:91

Boigini 19:229

Boinae 19:235; 20:445–446, 448, 450–452, 456–460, 464, 468–469, 472, 476, 478, 435, 606

axial skeleton 1:283–291

blood chemistry 3:51

chondrocranium 11:175

dentition 1:179

internal relief of gut 6:193

jaw muscles 4:440

taxonomic literature (see also Boidae) 2:320

Bojanusscher Knorpel 19:428

Bolosaurus

eye 2:80

origin and evolution 1:12, 22

Bolyeria 19:218; 20:476–478, 480; 21:556, 587

dentition 1:177, 179

jaw muscles 4:430

multocarinata 16:143; 19:189; 20:475, 477, 479, 481, 610

pit organs 2:301

Bolyeriidae 16:143; 19:189, 218; 20:354, 444, 469– 479, 482, 547, 559, 610; 21:570, 606, 610

axial skeleton 1:283, 290–291

taxonomic literature 2:320

Bolyerioidea 21:543, 556–557, 578, 584, 587–588

Bomb calorimetry 13:236, 247

Bombesin(e) 17:680–682; 19:454

Bombina 8:327

variegata 19:568

Bombyx 16:172

parthenogenesis in 15:493, 496

Bone 1:45–80, 125–126, 153; 5:88, 95, 191, 483; 12:336, 340

alisphenoid 9:9, 34

basioccipital 9:8, 21–22, 103

basisphenoid 9:8–9, 18, 22, 122, 130, 303

cortical stratification 1:65–69

dentary 9:22

digestion 8:593–594

early history 1:46

epipterygoid 9:3, 6, 9, 11–12, 133–135, 302

evolution 1:69–77

exoccipital 9:9, 94, 96, 292, 300, 302

frontal 9:9, 94, 96, 292, 300, 302

in modern reptiles 1:51–65

laterosphenoid 9:8, 48, 51, 55, 58, 96, 118

marrow 1:84–85, 88, 90, 101–103, 109, 142, 145; 3:74, 127, 224; 6:458; 14:162, 601, 607, 614–616, 624, 635–636, 648; 19:544, 568, 571

of attachment 1:142, 145–146, 173

opisthotic 9:8

orbitosphenoid 9:8–9, 76–77, 132–133, 135, 305

parasphenoid 9:22

parietal 9:9, 12, 18, 22, 57, 77, 118, 130, 292, 300, 302–303, 305

pleurosphenoid 9:9, 12

premaxillary 9:101

prootic 9:8, 12–13, 48–49, 68, 70, 118

pterygoid 9:9, 15

quadrate 9:15, 302

resorption 15:388

rings (see Age)

sphenethemoid 9:70, 119, 121, 125–127, 130

supraoccipital 9:3, 18, 22, 34, 42, 51, 57, 77–80, 95, 97, 104, 107, 109, 114, 130, 133–134, 303, 305

types of tissue 1:47–51

Bones and diet 14:211

Bony armor (see Dermal armor)

callouses 1:323–324

nuptial shield (see Nuchal bone)

Boodon (see Boaedon)

Boodontinae 20:551, 555–556, 561, 563, 565, 574, 576, 632

Booid(s) 16:40; 21:524, 557, 602–603

snakes 21:523

Booida, histology of gut 6:244

Booidea 19:103, 110, 125–127, 131, 139–140, 143– 145, 160–161, 165–167, 169–170; 20:392, 395, 436, 450, 467–468, 471–474, 555, 570, 573, 587, 591–592, 595, 604; 21:519, 543, 555, 566, 575, 584, 586, 610

axial skeleton 1:286–287, 290, 293

dentition 1:178–179, 181

incerta sedis 20:609

pituitary (see also Henophidia) 3:136, 195

Boremys, shell 1:333

Bos, pit organs 2:311

Bothremys 9:74–75

Bothriechis 19:200; 20:510

aurifer 20:510, 520, 612

bicolor 19:190; 20:612

lateralis 19:190; 20:508, 612

marchi 20:612

nigroviridis 20:508, 520, 612

rowleyi 18:310; 20:612

schlegelii 18:310; 19:190; 20:508, 612

Bothriolepis 19:67

Bothriopsis 19:220

bilineata(us) 18:324; 19:190; 20:612

peruvianus 19:190

Bothrochilus 19:234; 20:438, 443

boa 19:186; 20:604

pit organs 2:302

Bothrocophias hyoprora 20:612

Bothrolycus 19:225; 20:574

ater 19:201; 20:632

dentition 1:177

Bothrophthalmus 19:224; 21:532

lineatus 19:201; 20:632; 21:493

Bothrops 7:506; 8:33–35, 99, 138, 167–170, 176–177, 179, 181, 184–187, 189, 193– 196, 228, 235–237, 241–248, 250–251, 253, 257, 260, 262–263, 270, 273, 288, 290, 297, 307, 309, 311–313, 315, 317, 326, 328–331, 333, 336–337, 346–347, 349–351, 358, 360, 362, 365–366, 372, 445–446, 450, 471, 478–479, 484, 493– 495, 497–499, 501–505, 507, 511, 516, 523–525, 527, 594–596, 664, 696; 10:204; 15:582, 657–658; 16:44, 47, 50, 56, 122, 128, 132, 152, 173, 186, 199, 201, 212, 292; 18:159; 19:191, 220; 20:496, 510

adrenal 3:304

albocarinatus 8:33

alternatus 8:33, 167–168, 194, 242, 247, 250, 262, 290, 297, 315, 317, 328, 336, 358, 365–366, 445, 478, 499, 664; 19:166, 190; 20:511, 515, 521, 612

alticolus 8:33

ammodytoides 8:33; 19:191; 20:612

andianus 8:33

asper 8:33, 445; 18:324; 19:191; 20:612

atrox 8:33, 99, 168, 176, 188–189, 193–194, 235, 237, 241–242, 244–246, 250, 253, 257, 260, 265, 273, 288, 297, 307, 309, 312, 315, 317, 326, 328, 333, 336, 340, 347, 349–351, 362, 372, 445, 479, 493–495, 498, 504, 511; 18:324; 19:152, 191; 20:612

aurifer 20:612

axial muscles 11:357

barbouri 8:33

barnetti 8:33

bicolor 8:33; 20:612

bilineata(us) 8:33; 20:612

blood chemistry 3:3, 11, 20, 33, 39

brazili 8:33

caribbaeus 8:33

castelnaudi 8:33

cotiara 8:33, 168, 187, 194, 250, 262, 297, 311, 315, 317, 328, 331, 336, 350–351, 366, 445; 20:612

dunni 8:33

erythromelas 8:33

erythrurus 19:191

eye 2:55, 61

fonsecai 8:33; 19:191

godmani 8:33, 445; 20:613

hesperus 8:34

hyoprorus 8:34

iglesiasi 8:34

insularis 8:34, 250, 263, 297, 315, 317, 328, 336, 350–351, 445

itapetiningae 8:25, 34, 297, 336, 445; 19:191

jararaca 8:34, 139, 168, 177, 179, 181, 184–187, 194–196, 235–236, 243, 247, 250, 263, 265, 273, 297, 307, 309, 311–313, 315, 317, 326, 328–331, 333, 336, 346–347, 360, 366, 372, 445, 471, 484, 493–494, 498, 505, 507, 523–525, 527; 19:99, 191; 20:612

jararacussu 8:34, 186–187, 194, 228, 250, 263, 265, 273, 290, 297, 315, 317, 328, 366, 372, 445, 594, 696; 19:191; 20:613

jaw muscles 4:459–460, 482

lanceolatus 8:34, 257; 19:123, 191; 20:612

lansbergii 8:34, 445

lateralis 8:34, 445; 20:612

lichenosus 8:33

lojanus 8:34

maranoensis 8:34

marchi 20:612

medusa 8:34

magaera 8:34

maelanurus 8:34

microphthalmus 8:34

moojeni 8:34, 328

nasutus 8:34, 326, 445; 20:616

neglectus 8:34–35

neuwiedi 8:34, 169, 181, 187, 189, 194, 251, 263, 265, 270, 273, 290, 297, 315, 317, 328, 336, 350–351, 358, 366, 372, 446, 499, 516; 19:168, 191; 20:613

nigroviridis 8:34, 446; 20:612

nummifer 8:34, 169–170, 189, 250–251, 263, 297, 317, 326, 328, 337, 446; 20:612

oligolepis 8:35

ophryomegas 8:35, 445

peruvianus 8:35

picadoi 8:35, 169, 251, 263, 297, 317, 326, 328, 446; 19:191; 20:612

pictus 8:35; 19:191

pifanoi 8:35

pirajai 8:34–35

pradoi 8:35; 19:191

pulcher 8:35

punctatus 8:36

roedingeri 8:35

rowleyi 8:35; 20:612

santacrucis 8:35

schlegelii 8:35, 326, 446; 20:612

sphenophrys 8:35

supraciliaris 8:35

terrificus (see also Crotalus durissus) 8:247–248

undulatus 8:35

urinogenital system 6:76, 83, 97, 102, 107

venezuelensis 8:35, 169, 511

xanthogrammus 8:35

yucatanicus 8:35

Bottom-walking 4:6, 10, 34, 66–67, 91, 95

Botulinus toxin 8:466

Bouin’s fixative 16:357

Bouin’s fluid 2:2, 56; 3:238, 277, 279, 283, 285, 290–291, 295, 297, 299–301; 6:43, 226

Boulengerina 7:503; 8:17, 442; 16:41, 149; 19:146, 166, 221; 20:518, 535; 21:524

annulata 8:17, 442; 19:167, 195; 20:537

christyi 8:17; 19:147, 164, 195

Boundary

layer 12:288, 290, 445–446, 455

line 1:90

Bouyancy 13:6–9

Bowman’s

capsule 3:267; 5:450; 6:12, 33–34, 45–46, 50–53; 15:153–155, 165, 171–172

gland(s) 2:104, 108, 110, 112, 114, 155–157, 159–162, 174–176; 11:103; 18:428, 431, 433–435

layer (of cornea) 2:15, 50, 68, 75

space 6:46

Box turtle (see Terrapene)

Brachauchenius 9:297, 298

Brachial

fascia 4:32–33, 93

patella 21:116

plexus 1:255; 4:22; 21:199

Brachialis 21:31, 212

Brachiopterygii 19:563

Brachiosaurus 9:61, 63, 98, 100–101

bone 1:74

dentition 1:187

eye 2:80

nose 2:152

Brachium 21:19–20, 59, 100, 103, 105, 278, 304, 319

conjunctivum 10:141, 143, 145, 149, 151, 157, 164, 180, 192, 233; 17:507, 536, 545–546, 548, 551–552, 567–568

Brachyaspis curta 20:627

Brachycephaly 4:243–244

Brachydactyly 15:136

Brachylophus 7:475–476; 8:682; 13:308; 15:330, 374; 16:283,300; 20:79, 81, 291; 21:223

axial skeleton 1:265, 269

dentition 1:156

ear 2:270

fasciatus 19:22, 78; 20:304

jaw muscles 4:324, 477

Brachymeles 7:166; 15:636–637, 671

bicolor 21:401

ear 2:271

gracilis 21:401

schadenbergi 21:401

Brachyophidium 19:218; 20:403

rhodogaster 19:186; 20:402, 601

Brachyophis 19:131, 220

krameri 19:123, 194

revoili 19:194; 20:620

Brachyorrhos 19:228

albus 19:201

Brachyphalangy 21:135

Brachypodion 15:532, 573, 581, 583, 585, 628–629

Brachyrhyton plumbeum 20:650

Brachyurophis

ear 2:272

jaw muscles 4:482

Brackish water 3:15

Bradycardia 3:18; 5:8, 37, 303, 305, 321–325; 8:481; 12:239; 13:19, 25; 19:452, 455, 458

Bradykinase 8:331

Bradykinin 3:23; 8:329–330, 484, 523–525, 571; 17:684

hydrolysis 8:331

releasing enzyme (Bradykinogen, Potentiating

factor) 8:166, 185, 194–196, 527

Bradymetabolism 12:20

Bradypodion 14:28; 16:115; 20:105–106, 108, 110, 112–114; 21:66–67, 69, 94, 227–228, 260, 269, 275–276, 279

pumilis(um) 18:319–320, 350–351; 20:111–115, 294, 306; 21:84

Bradypodium 13:219, 311

chondrocranium 11:95–101

Bradysaurus 9:296

Brain 2:165, 167, 196, 209, 219, 228, 279; 3:116, 220; 5:30, 40, 57, 126, 193, 198, 200, 201, 203, 205–206, 208, 306, 310, 316; 11:6–7, 16, 22, 27, 39, 50, 59, 84, 106, 110, 131, 134, 146, 148, 170, 188, 190, 221, 229; 12:214, 219, 221, 225–226, 229, 231, 233–236, 247, 253; 13:90, 94–96; 19:537

-body relation 9:27

development 14:126–131, 172, 309, 398, 400, 411, 508, 514

formation of 15:13

fourth ventricle 19:314–315

histogenesis 14:130

isolated stems (see also Decerebrated animals) 19:302

medullary region 19:316

medullary respiratory neurons 19:312

size 9:59, 61–62,64–65, 135–136

stem 19:312–314

study

autoradiography 18:98, 102, 459

electrical recording 18:73

electrical stimulation 18:73, 99

electroencephalogram 18:203

electrmyography 18:203

electro-olfactogram (EOG) 18:451, 454

electrophysiology 18:124, 450–458

electroretinogram (ERG) 18:245, 328

hormone implants 18:71, 91, 93, 102

lesions 18:73, 99, 102, 132

main olfactory system 18:450–454

vomeronasal system 18:454–458

weight 19:537

Braincase 2:11, 13, 40, 48–50, 66, 74; 4:202, 224, 228, 232, 235–237, 259, 271–272, 274, 285, 290, 292, 303, 315–317, 321, 324, 326–328, 350, 354, 362, 367, 372, 375, 377, 382, 385, 391, 394–395, 407–409, 420–421, 436, 439, 467, 471; 6:226; 9:1–5, 8–9; 11:4, 8, 22, 40, 58, 73, 90, 104, 108, 111, 114, 124, 126–132, 151, 159, 161, 184–185, 191–192, 227, 242–243, 245; 20:6, 10, 15, 23, 25, 27–29, 32, 42, 47–49, 51, 55, 67, 70–71, 74–76, 81, 100–103, 108, 111, 115, 119, 126, 128–131, 134, 139–140, 146–147, 149, 155, 160, 163, 165, 173, 175, 183, 185, 188–189, 192–194, 206–207, 210, 212, 215, 217, 222, 226, 229, 231, 233, 238, 241–242, 246–247, 255–256, 262–263, 269, 272, 275–276, 280, 284–286, 288, 352, 355–356, 370, 374, 377–378, 380–381, 386, 390, 397–399, 404–406, 411–412, 414–416, 320, 424, 426–427, 437–438, 456–459, 462, 464, 466, 468, 470–471, 475, 477–478, 480, 484, 489–490, 492, 499–500, 502, 504–505, 518–520, 522, 524–525, 529–531, 540, 542, 548–549, 561–565, 568, 578, 582, 586–588, 592, 596

floor 20:387, 391, 407, 416, 450, 590

wall 20:364, 366, 401, 414, 422, 429, 478

Brainstem (see also Medulla) 10:77, 88, 101, 119, 122, 172, 177, 183–184, 192, 206, 251, 253, 259, 263, 265, 269–270, 272, 274–276

Brancasaurus 9:121

Branchial

arch 11:30, 36, 58, 71, 83, 91, 95, 100, 111, 123, 150, 192, 196, 198

cleft(s) 14:398, 400–403, 416, 419, 436; 15:14

horn 11:42, 239; 14:309, 395, 397–404, 416–419, 427, 436

groove 14:400–401, 419

placode 3:118

plexus

development 15:82–84

reduction 15:122

pouch (see also Pharyngeal pouch) 14:416– 417, 446

sinus (see also Pharyngeal) 14:398, 400–403, 417

vessels 5:276

Brachiostoma 17:675

Branchnecta 13:260

Branchiomeric musculature 21:217, 241

Branding (see Marking methods)

Brazil 2:322

Breast-shoulder apparatus 21:59–62, 72, 75, 93, 97, 99, 135, 267, 281

Breath hold 19:61, 302–304, 328–329, 389, 464–467

holding 5:241, 243–244, 247, 258, 262, 265, 375

-holding period 19:156

Breathing (see also Ventilation) 5:47, 51, 228–229, 240, 375; 19:305, 317, 335–336

burst 19:312

cycle(s) 5:85, 242; 19:303–304

depth 5:95

episodic 19:42, 49, 302

frequency 5:229–230, 236; 19:48–49, 59, 301, 304, 308–310, 322–323, 337–338, 340

intermittent 19:50, 346, 426, 455, 458, 466

masks 5:71–72, 74, 83, 100

mechanics 19:2, 38–49

in first amniotes 19:46–47

in Recent reptiles 19:48–49

movements 5:231

panting 19:157, 306

pattern(s) 5:247–248, 250, 258, 304–305; 19:115, 156, 338

rate 5:39, 95–96, 241

regulation of 19:316

work of 19:17, 48–49, 61, 65, 76–77

Breeding (see also Mating) 19:155

and social order 14:340

in captivity (see also Captive breeding) 15:28–29

laboratory 14:9, 191

season 14:219, 343, 347; 18:119–120, 124–125, 129–131, 135, 138–143, 147–148, 155, 166–167, 175–177, 182, 184, 186–188, 192, 202–203

territory 18:175

Bretylium 5:237, 307; 10:14–15, 21, 23, 29–31, 37; 19:452–453

Bruer-Hering reflex 19:320

Bridge 1:312, 320, 330

of shell 4:17, 30

Bridging callus 1:77

Brillar space (see Brille)

Brille 4:421–422; 8:3; 17:216

British Guiana 2:322

Brodie’s fluid 5:75, 78

Bromine 12:427 5-bromoindoxylacetate 6:293

N-bromosuccinide 8:225, 321

Bromphenol blue 3:31

Bronchial

cartilage 19:102, 144

entry 19:22

foramina 19:175

length 19:102

orifice 19:5–6, 9, 24

ring 19:102, 145, 165–167, 170

Bronchioles 19:51

Bronchoalveolar lung 19:4, 69, 74

Bronchocoela, epiphyses and sesamoids 1:101

Bronchogenic carcinoma 3:332

Bronchus(i) 3:203; 6:428–429, 431, 433; 14:141, 436; 19:6, 8, 21, 27–28, 30–33, 37, 66, 69–73, 96, 102, 104–115, 122, 130, 132–133, 135, 141, 143, 159–162, 164–170, 180, 348

right 19:30, 96, 102, 104–105, 143–145, 159, 170–171, 175

Bronia 21:635, 644, 661–662

axial skeleton 1:272

bedai 21:731

brasiliana 19:412, 418; 21:626, 662, 665, 731

Brontosaurus 7:7; 9:67

Brooding (see Reproduction, behavior)

Brookesia 7:297, 470; 8:56, 65; 9:331; 15:416, 428, 514; 16:29, 137; 18:433; 19:23–24, 38–39, 78; 20:46, 105–108, 110–114, 295; 21:275, 400

axial skeleton 1:242, 267

ear 2:223, 271

minima 20:105

stumpffi 20:46, 109–110, 114, 294

superciliaris 18:351; 20:46, 107, 114, 294, 306

Broomia 21:166

Brown fat 6:428

Brucella 14:645, 655–656

Bruch’s membrane 2:33

Brücke’s muscle 2:16, 18, 21–22

Brumation (see also Hibernation) 5:168

Brush border 6:13, 33, 36, 45–46, 48

cells 2:38

Brygophis 19:101

Buccal

cavity 18:124; 19:115, 118

epithelial flaps 19:117

novements 19:306

mucosa 5:249

pump 19:46

region 19:148

secretion 8:7

(surface of tooth) 1:118–119

Buccopharyngeal

membrane 14:137, 174, 420

oxygen uptake 5:250

region 5:197, 249

respiration 3:17

Buffering 3:27, 30, 40–41, 47, 52

capacities 19:467

Buffers 5:54–55, 58, 240, 250, 344, 350–351, 357–358, 481; 13:33–35

Bufo 5:342, 344–345, 354; 8:2; 13:127, 180; 16:9; 17:640; 19:314, 316–317, 568

effect of temperature on sex 15:281

marinus 19:305, 317, 319, 468

muscle tissue 11:301, 305, 310, 314

pancreas 3:341

paracnemis 19:319

Bufoniceps 20:100, 293

Bufotenine 8:194

Buhoma 19:101, 225

Bulbospiral muscle 19:383

Bulbus cordis 5:276; 10:20; 19:379, 396

Bulbuslamelle 5:279; 19:392, 411, 428–429

Bulgaria 2:322

Bulk fluid flow 19:331, 347

Bullfrog 10:93

Bungarinae 19:221, 236; 20:543, 536–537, 539–540, 542, 544–545, 548, 552, 623

Bungarini 19:221, 236

Bungarotoxin (see Bungarus)

α-Bungarotoxin 8:202, 449, 451, 453, 455, 458–464

β-Bungarotoxin 8:196, 449, 451, 453, 455, 458–459, 461, 465–467

μ-Bungarotoxin 8:458, 461

Bungarus (see also Bungarotoxin) 7:389, 503; 8:18, 99, 106–107, 170, 173–174, 176, 180–181, 187–189, 191, 193, 198–201, 214–216, 219–220, 224, 238, 242, 244, 248, 250, 262, 290, 294–296, 299–302, 304–305, 307, 309–310, 316, 325–328, 334, 340, 346–347, 356–357, 360, 362, 368–370, 442, 448–449, 454–455, 457–458, 463, 465–468, 477, 479, 481, 483, 490, 515, 519, 528, 613, 663, 694; 10:204; 16:16, 39, 121, 149, 181, 203, 232–233, 287, 297, 299–300; 19:196, 221; 20:534–535, 542, 561

adrenal 3:281

axial skeleton 1:298–299

blood cell morphology 3:78

bungaroides 8:17, 193

caeruleus 8:17, 99, 107, 174, 188, 191, 248, 250, 295–296, 300, 309, 334, 346, 360, 368–370, 442, 479, 483, 519; 19:127, 195

candidus 8:18, 288; 19:151, 195; 20:537

ceylonicus 8:18; 19:195

chondrocranium 11:164

ear 2:269, 272

fasciatus 8:18, 170, 173–174, 181, 188, 198, 200–201, 218–219, 238, 242, 244, 250, 262, 294–296, 299, 301–302, 305, 307, 310, 316, 334, 340, 346–347,357, 360, 362, 368–371, 442, 468, 479, 481, 515, 613, 663, 694; 20:535

flaviceps 8:18; 19:196; 20:537

internal relief of gut 6:193–195, 197, 201, 207–208

javanicus 8:18

jaw muscles 4:450, 452–453, 482

lividus 8:18

magnimaculatus 8:18

multicinctus 8:18, 180–181, 187–188, 193, 198, 213–215, 218–219, 223–224, 227, 244, 262, 300–301, 304–305, 310, 316, 325–327, 334, 340, 356, 368–370, 442, 448–449, 451, 455, 457–458, 463, 465, 477, 490, 528, 663; 19:124, 196

niger 8:18

urinogenital system 6:71, 94, 96

walli 8:18

Bunopus 12:121–122; 16:138; 20:124, 126, 306; 21:166, 396

tuberculatus 21:89, 122, 124

Buoyancy 4:11; 5:245, 326, 383; 19:136–137, 155, 298, 335

changes 5:96

control 5:227

neutral 5:227–228, 327

Burrowing (see also Fossorial adaptations) 5:24; 18:119; 19:123, 137–138, 140, 169, 302, 323; 20:379, 385–386, 390, 406, 414, 420, 454, 528, 554, 563–565, 570, 578, 583; 21:57

animals 8:150

habits 1:206, 296–297; 2:23, 41, 46, 49, 81, 83–84, 87, 89–90, 221–224, 226–228, 235–236, 243–244, 246, 252–253, 262, 277; 4:56, 422

modification for habits 3:17, 144–145, 157, 176, 184–185, 188, 192, 194–195

Burrows (see also Burrowing) 5:245, 371, 374, 397, 399

Bursa 21:70

dependant cells 19:540, 569

of Fabricius 14:446, 601, 629, 631

Bursalis muscle 2:7–12, 14, 49, 82

Bürstenbesatz (see Proximal segment of uriniferous

tubule)

Butanoates 18:203

Buteo 7:572; 16:6

Butorides 16:204

Butterflies (see Invertebrates)

Buttressing 20:381, 403, 454, 492, 324

Butyl esters 18:203

Butylcholinesterase 6:43

Butyrate 8:189

Butyrylcholinesterase 3:305

Buzzard 8:378

Bypass 19:375, 390–391, 397, 430, 435, 465

BZL blue 3:292, 297, 302
Go to Main Index

 Share with colleaguesShare on FacebookTweet about this on TwitterShare on Google+Email this to someone