Biology of the Reptilia: Index E

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Ear 2:193–275; 6:374–375, 378, 381; 11:4–5, 9, 40, 71, 73, 86, 91, 95, 101, 104, 108, 114, 126, 136, 164, 169, 180, 205, 220, 223, 228; 20:6, 80, 92, 112, 186, 241, 263–264, 278

development 14:135–137, 173, 305, 404–405, 428, 515

eardrum 20:100

Earthground 5:84

Earthworms or small invertebrates 20:370, 396, 564, 579, 590

Eating (see also Feeding) 19:512, 524

Ebenavia 20:118, 126, 295; 21:397

eye 2:30

inunguis 17:8

Eccritic temperature 5:5–6; 12:19–20, 38

Ecdysis (see also Molting) 5:100, 316

ECG 5:83, 86–87, 89–93, 286

analysis 5:91

human 5:91

reptilian 5:91, 93

Echidna 19:69

Echinanthera 19:226

melanostigma 19:204

undulata 19:204

Echinoderms, regeneration 15:303

Echinosaura 7:490; 16:54, 125, 142; 20:186, 188–191, 193, 301

Echinosaura horrida 20:189–190, 308

Echinosaura panamensis 20:308

Echiopsis 8:20; 15:654; 16:149; 19:222; 20:535

curta (not Brachyaspis) 8:20; 19:197; 20:627

Echis 5:3, 133; 7:505; 8:31, 95–96, 99, 103, 130, 170, 174, 176, 186–188, 192, 247–248, 250, 262, 294, 296, 309, 314, 318, 324–326, 328, 330, 333, 338–340, 345–346, 353–354, 357, 359, 366, 370, 376, 444, 464, 479, 489, 491, 493–494, 496, 499–501, 509–511, 518–519, 528, 563–565, 568, 574–575, 577–578, 581, 664; 10:204; 12:133; 15:656, 661–662, 671, 675; 16:44–45, 48, 56, 58, 121, 123, 125, 151, 191–193, 196–198, 200, 252, 538; 19:219; 20:499, 506, 508, 516, 520

axial muscles 11:357

carinatus 8:31, 99, 103, 130, 170, 174, 176, 186–188, 192, 247–248, 250, 262, 294, 296, 314, 318, 324–326, 328, 333, 338–340, 345–346, 354, 357, 359, 366, 370, 444, 464, 491, 493–494, 496–497, 500, 507, 518–519, 528, 563–565, 568, 574–575, 577–578, 581, 664; 18:123; 19:132, 154, 192; 20:618

coloratus 8:31, 98, 250, 262, 296, 318, 324, 328, 330, 333, 339, 445, 479–480, 489, 491, 493–494, 496, 499–501, 507, 510–511; 19:164; 20:618

ear 2:229, 270, 272

internal relief of gut 6:193–194, 197, 200, 207, 211

jaw muscles 4:482

leucogaster 8:31

ocellatus 19:192

pit organs 2:295

Echocardiography 19:441

Ecological

diversity 5:156

energy budgets 13:234, 244–249

features 5:20

physiology 5:2

view 8:7

Ecology (see also Thermal ecology) 5:14, 161, 210; 12:25–91

of mechanisma 18:3

Economy 11:306, 309, 314, 335

Ecosystem 8:666

Ecpleopus

affinis 20:190, 193, 308

gaudichaudi 20:308

Ectepicondylar crest 21:101–102, 106–111

foramen 4:16–18; 21:10, 16, 101–102, 106–112, 214, 288–289

Ectepicondyle 21:101–103, 106–111, 283, 286–286, 289

Ectochoanal cartilage 4:251; 11:15, 17–19, 46, 48, 54, 66, 68, 72–73, 76–77, 79, 83–84, 87–89, 94, 96, 98, 103–104, 106, 110, 117, 119–120, 122, 129, 140, 142, 157, 160, 163, 166–167, 169–170, 173, 176–177, 181–182, 192, 197, 202, 208–209, 211, 225, 241; 20:384; 21:547–548

Ectoderm 1:125; 2:4, 100–101; 3:159; 6:18, 108; 11:5; 21:24

amniochorionic 14:160, 503

chorionic 14:551–552, 565; 15:541–543, 546–549, 551–552, 554–556, 560

cloacal membrane 15:189–190

formation 14:502

head fold 14:168

integumentary 14:528, 588

lens 14:132

of area pellucida 14:115

protein synthesis 14:527

transplants 14:640

Ectoischium 21:140

Ectomenix 9:18–20, 22–24, 35

Ectomesenchyme (see Mesectoderm)

Ectopic pregnancy 19:148

Ectoplastic layer 6:232

Ectopterygo-pterygoid joint 20:486

Ectopterygoid 1:177, 190, 193; 4:147, 204–205, 209–210, 213–214, 216–218, 220–221, 223, 235–236, 251, 254, 256, 305, 318, 335–336, 343, 383, 391, 395, 421; 11:10, 17, 24, 60, 62, 81, 84–85, 106, 119, 129, 142, 152–153, 163, 184, 187, 218, 243–244; 20:15, 18–19, 25, 42, 54, 56–57, 65, 68–70, 75, 78, 88, 97, 100–101, 104, 110, 112, 115, 120–121, 124, 128, 134, 137, 146, 154, 156, 158, 160, 163, 166, 171, 173, 175, 182, 185–186, 188, 192, 195, 204, 215, 217, 219, 221–222, 225, 228, 230–231, 234, 238, 240, 244–246, 248, 264, 267–268, 276, 282, 356–357, 371, 376, 379, 383, 393, 397, 399–400, 402, 405, 409–412, 415, 418, 421–422, 425, 427, 429, 431–432, 434–435, 439–442, 444–447, 451–453, 455, 457, 459, 463–465, 467–469, 472–474, 479–483, 486, 493, 497, 499, 501–507, 509, 511–518, 523, 527–528, 530, 532–533, 538–541, 543, 545–548, 559, 562, 564, 566–567, 569, 571–572, 574–575, 577–578, 589, 593; 21:551, 558, 561–567, 569–570, 588, 613

articulation 20:494

bone 2:9, 48, 73

joint 20:417, 514, 518

length 20:492

linkage 20:516, 573–574, 592

-maxilla attachment 20:528

-maxillary joint 20:384, 478, 518, 545, 570, 574

process of maxilla 20:442, 472, 482, 562, 573, 576–577

process of pterygoid 20:411, 415, 421–422, 453, 463–465, 468

Ectopubis 21:140

Ectostriatum 10:315, 330

ventrale 17:647

Ectotherm(s) 10:325; 14:13, 19, 21, 32, 589, 638–639, 645, 654; 15:37, 349

Ectothermia 19:305, 341, 373, 486, 507, 511

Ectothermic 8:102, 378, 590

vertebrates 5:168, 338, 351

Ectotherms 5:74, 191, 335, 339–341, 344, 352, 356, 358–359, 370

Ectothermy 3:1; 5:14; 11:298; 12:4–6, 8–10, 20, 170, 203, 232, 280, 385, 495; 13:1

Ectrodactyly 15:136

Ecuador 2:322

Edaphosauria 9:298

dentition 1:193

origin and evolution 1:14, 35

Edaphosaurus 9:125, 127, 298, 300

bone 1:72, 74

dentition 1:127, 193

origin and evolution 1:14

Edema 5:38, 59, 276; 8:482–483, 500, 504, 506, 524; 19:346, 348–349, 352, 468

Edentulous 20:415

Ediculus(i) 19:6–7, 9–11, 14–15, 18, 21–22, 25, 28, 33–34, 38, 44, 59–60, 63–64, 68, 75–76, 96, 108–109, 111, 126, 162, 131, 145, 147, 162

Edmontosaurus 9:101–102, 104, 304

Edopoidea, origin and evolution 1:36

EDTA 5:60

EEG 5:53, 94, 104

Eels 13:3

Effect, law of 7:560

Efferent

adrenal vein 3:274

cochlear bundle 10:224

cranial roots 19:313

duct (see Vas efferens)

renal vein 3:269, 274–275; 6:30–31

Efficiency 11:306, 308–309, 314, 335

Effluent air 5:73, 103

Egernia 5:30, 130, 141–143, 162, 168, 178, 181, 183, 199, 204; 7:51, 58, 166, 263, 286–288, 316; 8:635, 687; 12:62, 111–112, 251; 13:34, 72, 74, 81, 90, 95, 103, 161, 165–166; 14:650–651; 15:323, 325, 537, 543, 548, 550, 638, 671; 16:256, 516; 19:409, 417; 20:138, 297; 21:7, 89, 96, 223, 271, 397

axial skeleton 1:256, 270

blood cell morphology 3:77, 81

blood chemistry 3:45–46

dorsalis 20:307

ear 2:271

histology of gut 6:255

internal relief of gut 6:177, 182

pituitary 3:139, 175

urinogenital system 6:98, 100

Egg(s) (see also Crocodilians; Lizards; Nests;

Snakes; Parental care; Turtles) 5:365–366; 8:590, 594, 656; 12:287, 303–307; 13:236– 237, 241, 144, 246–248, 250–251, 253, 255, 265, 274, 283; 16:525; 18:189–190; 19:148

abnormal 14:82

albumin 16:527–532

and body weight 14:178, 180–181

caruncle 1:147–149; 11:123, 193, 218, 244, 246

chamber 14:272, 274, 316

chemical composition 14:314–316, 374–376

clutch size (see Life history methods; Life

history traits)

contact with air 16:536, 638

contact with substrate 16:532–535, 538–539, 564–565

deposition (see also Oviposition, egg laying) 14:215

dessication 14:359

detection 14:217, 219

double yolked 14:363, 452

eating 20:549, 571, 587

-eating habits 1:181, 183, 299

-eating snakes 16:44, 155, 161, 191–196

effects of temperature (see Nest temperature)

emergence from 5:175

energy content 15:347; 16:397

fungal attack 15:608, 678

gas exchange (conductance) 14:86, 169, 236–240, 274, 354, 373–375

-guarding, egg-brooding (see Parental care)

heat balance (see Thermal balance)

hydration of 14:88, 91, 229–230, 367

incubation 5:190

infected 14:231, 366, 379

infertile 14:367, 375, 379; 16:362

inversion 14:223, 226–227, 357–358

laying 16:390

laying sites 15:611

lipids 16:250, 253, 264, 397

mass 15:347

maternal care 15:612, 651–652, 658, 665

maturation 14:218–219, 221

mechanical disturbance 14:223

membranes 5:12–13

metabolic heating 14:91, 221, 227

microlecithal 15:533, 564, 594

mimics 16:163

mortality (see also survivorship) 15:592, 616–617, 621

number 14:102–107, 186–187, 214, 344, 350–351; 15:39

orientation 14:358

oviductal 16:354–355, 360–362

ovulation 16:359

predation of 15:608, 610, 616–617, 666, 678

production 1:313; 14:213–214, 218

resorption 14:342, 352

retention 5:12; 14:13, 18, 110, 184, 187, 190, 279, 348–349, 358; 15:47, 530–531, 563, 588, 607–614, 616–619, 621–625, 638, 645, 651, 658, 678–679; 16:359–360, 528, 531

rotation in vivo 15:4–5

shape 15:4

shell(s) 1:37, 147; 5:12; 11:8, 26; 12:287

air spaces 14:89–91; 16:563

banding 14:358, 366–367, 378, 394

calcareous layer 14:79, 81, 229, 497

calcification 14:84, 86, 113, 218–219, 221, 275, 278; 15:3

calcium 14:81, 200, 275, 315, 358, 374–375, 460

chalking 14:78, 95, 118–121, 186–187, 191, 199–200, 223, 225, 227, 240

chemical composition 14:315

crystallization 14:81–83

decalcification 14:232, 315, 375

degradation 14:373

development 14:79–90, 275

fibrous layer 14:79, 87–89, 497

flexible versus rigid 16:526–527, 529–530, 556, 559, 562–563, 565–569, 574

honeycomb layer 14:367–369, 371

loss 15:614

mammillary layer 14:367–368, 371–372

mechanical characteristics 14:79–81, 179, 217–220, 222, 229, 231, 233–235, 275, 359, 497–498

membrane 14:15–16, 18, 79, 82, 86, 88–90, 117–119, 121, 170–171, 199, 230, 275–276, 278, 350, 357, 359, 361–368, 372–373, 377–380, 397–398; 16:525–526, 528–530, 562, 574

mineral layer 14:79–88, 90–91, 118, 217, 230–231

mucus layer 14:81, 217, 276

pigmentation 14:77

pores 14:367–368, 371–374; 16:525–526, 528, 530, 574

proteins 14:315, 375

structure 14:77, 79, 332

thickness 15:4, 562, 612, 614, 644–645

types and morphology 16:525–532

unit 14:79, 82–87, 229, 231

variation 16:529

size (see also Life history traits) 14:178–182, 204, 206–207, 225–226, 237–239, 276, 344–345, 351, 394, 497–498

sources 14:217–221, 356–357

survivorship 16:282, 298–300, 362, 403–404, 416, 418, 500

temperature (see also Thermal balance; Nest

temperature) 12:95, 140, 199–201

tooth 1:137, 147–149, 161–162, 173; 11:59, 82, 123, 135, 143, 151, 168–169, 193, 218; 14:308, 431, 451; 15:614; 21:579

turning 14:223–227

vapor pressure 16:538, 554–556

water exchange (conductance, hydration,

loss, and uptake) (see also Embryos) 14:88, 91, 229–236, 274, 276, 359–360, 367, 373, 375

weight 15:568

yolk 16:527–532, 546–547, 582

coagulation, inhibition of 8:187–188

content 14:17, 498

yolkless (see also Ovarian follicles; Ovum) 14:275–276

Egretta 16:204

EGTA 11:315

Egypt 2:324

Eichstaettisaurus 20:262, 282–283, 287; 21:81, 97

schroederi 20:291

Eigentliche Nasenhöhle (see Cavum nasi

proprium)

Eimer organ 9:431

Eimeriina, blood cell morphology 3:88

Einführungsgang (see Vestibulum)

Einführungspalte (see Naris)

Einthoven triangle 5:293

Eirenis 8:74; 16:145; 19:230

collaris 19:204

coronelloides 19:204

decemlineata 19:204; 20:638

lineomaculata 19:204

meda 19:204

modesta 19:204

persica 19:204

punctatolineata 19:204

rothi 19:204

Eischwicle (see Egg caruncle)

EKG 5:86

Elachistodon 8:591, 692; 19:231

axial skeleton 1:299

dentition 1:181

pit organs 2:297

westermanni 19:204; 20:638

Elapechis guentheri 20:624

Elaphe 5:39, 371, 386; 7:206, 213, 215–218, 220, 224–225, 227, 388–389, 393, 395, 399, 500, 587, 594, 598–599, 607–608,614, 617, 625; 8:151, 377, 379, 591, 594, 610, 655, 663, 692; 9:158, 368, 433; 10:26, 96, 98, 204; 12:128, 131, 414, 416–417, 419, 424, 456, 464; 13:97, 104–105, 108, 111, 120; 14:542, 545, 549, 605–606, 608, 610–611, 619–621, 624–625, 632, 636, 638, 653, 661; 15:27, 562, 592, 648–650, 671, 675–676; 16:119, 123, 145, 231–232, 286, 295, 297–298, 301, 307, 482–484, 519; 17:414, 466, 469, 605; 18:131, 161–162, 164, 460, 476–477, 486; 19:99–100, 164, 205, 230, 232, 453; 20:556; 21:504, 533, 569, 588, 595

adrenal 3:281, 283

alleghaniensis 20:567

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:297, 299

bairdi 19:204

bimaculata 19:204

blood cell morphology 3:78, 84–85

blood cell numbers 3:97, 99, 102

blood chemistry 3:5, 29, 35, 44, 51

cantoris 19:204

carinata 19:204; 20:638

caudaelineatus 20:636

chondrocranium 11:136, 145, 161

climacophora 18:47, 155, 323; 19:112, 115, 147, 163, 166, 204, 547, 554–556, 579; 20:638

conspicillata 18:47; 19:115, 163, 204

davidi 20:638

dentition 1:181

dione 19:204; 20:638

ear 2:269, 271

erythrura(us) 19:141, 204; 20:638

eye 2:56, 60, 63

flavirufa 19:145, 204

flavolineata(us) 19:153, 204; 20:638

frenata (see also Gonyosoma) 19:204

grabowskyi 19:205

guttata 18:131, 162–163, 461–462, 476–477, 484, 492, 496; 19:127, 144–145, 163, 205

helena 19:127, 153, 205

hodgsonii 19:136, 205, 236

hohenackeri 19:205

internal relief of gut 6:193, 196, 212

jansenii (see also Gonyosoma) 19:205

japonica 19:205

jaw muscles 4:441, 482

leopardina 19:205

longissima 19:205; 20:638

lymphatics 6:316, 355, 366, 373, 386, 399, 404, 415, 420, 423, 426, 434, 441–442, 444, 446, 454–455, 458

mandarina 19:205; 20:639

melanura 19:205

moellendorffi 19:166, 205

muscle tissue 11:327, 330, 336

nose 2:121

obsoleta 18:162, 460–461, 476, 484; 19:105–106, 108, 112, 116–117, 121, 123, 145, 147, 149, 159, 205, 356, 453, 475, 515, 525; 20:555–556, 639; 21:485, 530, 532, 557, 564, 572, 579, 592–593, 602, 611

obsoleta lindheimeri 18:153

obsoleta obsoleta 18:154, 161, 164, 484

obsoleta quadrivittata 18:438, 484

obsoleta rossalleni 18:442

pancreas 3:326, 333, 335

pit organs 2:295

pituitary 3:147, 153

porphyracea 19:163, 205; 20:639

prasina 19:205

quadrivittata 18:155; 21:602

quadrivirgata(us) 18:47, 155; 19:112, 115–116, 127, 147, 163, 166, 205, 538, 547, 554, 579; 20:639

quatuorlineata(us) 19:205; 20:639

radiata 19:127, 205; 20:639

rufodorsata 19:205; 20:639

scalaris 19:147, 205, 506, 525; 20:639

schrenckii 19:205

situla 19:205; 20:639

subradiata 19:127, 205

taeniura 19:127, 205; 20:639

thymus 3:117

thyroid 3:209–210, 227

urinogenital system 6:25, 27, 29, 32, 45, 65, 92, 118

viridiflavus 20:636

vulpina 18:484; 19:205

Elaphis aesculapii 20:638

Elapid(s) 20:532, 549, 552; 21:571, 592

Elapid fang 20:534, 546

Elapidae 5:150, 192; 7:9, 388, 391, 394, 397–399, 503–505; 8:3, 8, 17–26, 94, 104–106, 113, 117, 120, 124, 142, 149–151, 343, 353, 441, 694; 9:163, 427; 12:126, 131–132; 14:31, 653, 666; 15:45, 533, 652–654, 663–664, 666–667, 671; 16:38, 41–42, 121, 124, 149–150, 164–165, 167, 181, 202–203, 212, 287, 296, 307, 454–455, 483, 485–487, 493, 520; 19:100, 103, 116, 127–128, 131, 133, 142, 146, 149, 151–152, 164, 170, 195, 221, 236, 399, 416; 20:353–354, 492, 518, 522, 524, 531, 534, 536, 539–540, 544–545, 547–548, 550, 558, 560–561, 573, 621; 21:524, 554, 567, 577, 579

adrenal 3:281

axial muscles 11:357, 397, 403, 411, 413, 421, 431–432

axial skeleton 1:286, 290, 299

blood cell morphology 3:78–79, 82

blood chemistry 3:28, 31, 51

chondrocranium 11:162–164, 202

dentition 1:133, 173, 175–176, 182–183

ear 2:227, 253, 269, 272

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:106

eye 2:61, 92

internal relief of gut 6:193–194

jaw muscles 4:423, 440–441, 447–457, 460, 482–483

nose 2:121

origin and evolution 1:6

parathyroid 3:247–248

pituitary 3:136, 139, 141, 145–146, 149–154, 157, 185–186, 193–195

Elapinae 8:46, 105, 151; 19:221; 20:518, 534, 536–537, 540, 542, 544–545, 552, 621

internal relief of gut 6:193–194

jaw muscles (see also Elapidae) 4:450–451, 455

Elapini 19:221

Elapognathus 8:20; 19:222

minor 8:20; 19:197

Elapoides (“Elapoidis”) 19:228

fuscus 19:205; 20:639

sieboldii 20:651

Elapomorphini 19:133, 227

Elapomorphus (“Elapomorphis”) (see also Aparallactus) 7:500; 8:40; 16:145, 190, 231; 19:227

bilineatus 20:653

blumii 20:653

lemniscatus 8:40; 20:653

lepidus 19:205; 20:653

quinquelineatus 19:153, 205; 20:653

tricolor 20:653

Elapops 19:104, 220

Elapotinus 19:131, 220

picteti 19:195

Elaps 7:504; 8:70; 16:234

corallinus 20:621

dorsalis 8:20

ear 2:272

eye 2:62

jaw muscles 4:482

lacteus 8:20

lemniscatus 20:622

marcgravii 20:622

Elapsoidea 7:503; 8:20, 443; 16:149, 233–234; 19:221

guentheri 8:20; 20:624

jaw muscles 4:482–483

laticincta 8:20; 19:196

loveridgei 8:20; 19:196; 20:624

nigra 8:20; 19:196

semiannulata 8:20; 19:196; 20:624

sundevalli(i) 8:20, 443; 19:196; 20:624

Elasmobranch 5:344, 413–414, 439; 10:11

eggs 14:18

immune system 14:624

“Nierenrandkanal” 15:171

pronephros 15:179

Elasmobranchii 19:316, 537, 562

eye 2:19

urinogenital system 6:4, 22, 117

Elastase 8:324, 613, 615–616

Elastic

connective tissue 19:14, 16, 126

energy storage 21:52

fibers 2:159; 6:57, 236, 269, 280, 450.; 19:108, 540, 547, 557, 569

forces 19:306, 308

Elasticity 11:300, 311

Elasticomyal tissue 19:42

Elastin 11:323; 12:412; 19:109

fibers 20:558, 579, 588

Elbow 4:8–9, 11, 23, 27, 34, 93; 21:20, 39, 50, 58, 105, 111, 113–114, 116, 124–125, 135–136, 215, 243–244, 253, 261, 264, 281–284, 292–293, 302

Electric eel (see Electrophorus)

Electrical activity

of brain 5:93

heart 5:86, 292–293

muscles 5:233

stimulation 8:653

Electrical coupling 17:88, 142–143

diffusion potentials 5:389

field 5:87

potential differences 5:384, 398

stimulation 5:176–178, 185, 310; 10:290, 298

Electroanesthesia 5:52

unit 5:52

Electrocardiogram(s) 5:91, 93, 95, 286, 294; 8:439, 480

human 5:92

reptilian 5:292–293

Electrocardiographic changes 5:51

characteristics 5:39

instruments 5:89

methodology 5:87

signals 5:93

terminology 5:87

Electrocardiography 5:83–84, 86, 293

clinical 5:87

mammalian 5:90

Electrocardiology, human 5:91

reptilian 5:93

Electrodialysis 8:186

Electrode creams 5:88

jellies 5:88

paste 5:88

placement 5:91

positions 5:93

studies 5:325

Electrodes 5:37, 67, 84–89, 92–95, 98, 126

anterior 5:93

bipolar 5:86, 293

electroencephalographic 5:99

internal 5:88

limb 5:93

penetrating 5:89

polarity of 5:87

skin 5:88–89

surface 5:52, 87–89

Electroencephalogram 8:476–477; 10:250, 293, 321–323, 325–327; 18:203

Electroencephalographic alterations 5:51

Electroencephalography 5:51, 84, 93–94

Electrograms 5:86

Electrolysis 5:72, 78

cell 5:77

Electrolyte

balance 5:11, 61, 101, 404, 406

composition 5:225

excretion 5:451

Electrolytes 3:3–19, 29, 45–46; 5:10, 98, 382, 390, 394, 396, 400–401, 404, 408, 413–414, 420–422, 437, 458; 8:645–646; 12:326, 333, 354, 356–357, 370, 424, 486

Electrolytic

compound 5:54

distribution 5:60

imbalance 8:483–484

Electromagnetic radiation 5:7

Electromechanical coupling 11:315

Electromyography 4:4, 21; 5:84–86, 89, 229, 231, 233; 18:203; 19:338; 21:200, 207, 216, 227, 229, 236, 256

Electron

dense 8:110

lucid 8:110

microscope 5:414

microscopy 1:77; 19:13, 21, 25, 36, 44–45, 47, 51, 109, 496, 501, 517, 549

probe microanalysis 1:77

transport 8:289, 515–516

transport system 5:199

Electronic sensors 5:288

Electro-olfactogram (EOG) 18:451, 454

Electrophoresis 3:17–33, 37, 41, 46–47, 49, 50–52; 8:1, 113, 124, 186–189

agar 8:190

agar gel 8:192

cellulose acetate 8:187

“disc” gel 8:189–192, 300

free boundary 8:186

immuno- 8:83, 192, 351–352

paper 8:186

starch gel 8:187–191, 300

Electrophoretic

analysis 15:438–439, 490, 493–496, 628

test 8:579

Electrophorus 8:301, 463, 471

Electrophysiological

recording 5:95

study 5:86

Electrophysiology 5:84; 10:287; 18:124, 450–458

Electroretinogram (ERG) 9:379–380; 18:245, 328

Eledoisin 17:638, 641

Element X 11:131

Element “x” 21:165

Element “Y” 21:165

Elephant 8:633

trunk snake (see Acrochordus)

Elgaria 12:69, 117, 178, 256, 461; 13:103, 161, 166, 183; 15:44; 16:15, 36, 53–54, 58, 115, 127, 130, 137, 266, 279, 283, 300, 304; 20:58, 198, 200, 202, 204–206, 208, 253, 265; 21:76, 90, 275

coerulea 20:198, 204, 302, 308; 21:153

coerulea coerulea 18:427

kingii 21:61

multicarinata 20:203–208, 302, 308

Ellipsoid 2:34–36, 44–48, 54, 56–58, 60, 62, 77, 85–86; 9:315, 347, 361; 17:15–16, 18–22, 27, 101

El Salvador 2:321

Elseya 14:80, 102, 119, 184, 203; 16:393, 439

Embolomeri

dentition 1:120

origin and evolution 1:11, 23, 27, 32–33, 35–37, 39

Emboly 14:115–116

Embryo(s) (see also Nest temperature) 5:166, 175; 9:173; 13:105, 274–275; 16:525

abnormalities of (see Abnormalities)

acid/base balance (see Acid-base balance)

allantoic sac 16:531

and temperature 15:5, 25–27, 30, 48–50, 612–613, 617–618, 677–679

calcium metabolism 15:612

calcium sources 16:527, 529, 532

chorioallantois 16:550

constant temperature studies 16:545, 547

culture (see also In vitro, culture of embryos or

blastocytes) 14:15, 19, 22, 92, 115, 123, 223, 275, 375, 381, 417, 422, 456, 461–462

deformity 16:580

development 19:18, 37–38, 114, 158, 354, 473

duration 15:5, 24–27, 37, 41–46, 48–51, 618

(growth) rates 16:546–547, 567–569

distributional limits 16:563

incubation 16:531, 546–547, 567–569, 577, 580–585

kidneys 16:550

limits of tolerance 16:544–546, 565–566, 583

lipid sources 16:527

metabolism (see also Metabolism) 15:569

mortality (see also survivorship) 15:594–595

nutrient reserves 16:582–583

nutrient sources 16:527, 529, 532

orientation 15:4–5

oxygen consumption (see also Explants) 14:236–240

oxygen requirement 15:594

parental care (see Parental care)

protein sources 16:527

resorption 15:582–584, 594

sexual differentiation 16:551–553, 572–573, 583–585

size of hatchlings 16:546–547, 567–569, 577, 579–583

stage of oviposition 15:3, 47, 62; 16:310–311, 527–528, 530–531

survivorship 16:282, 288, 298, 525, 532, 535, 544–546, 565–566, 570, 577, 580, 583–585

symmetry 15:4–5

temperature (see Thermal balance)

effects (see Temperature effects)

water (see also Water balance of eggs and

embryos) 16:527–528, 531–532, 562–563, 565–573

Embryology 5:63, 416; 8:141–144; 19:34, 68, 103, 116, 134, 137, 146, 408, 473, 488, 504, 544, 560

of gonads and ducts 6:48–56

of muscles 4:3, 21–22, 35, 63, 73–74, 76, 462

of snake lung 19:112–115

of spleen 19:559–561

techniques 11:1–2, 7–8

Embryonic

axis 14:112, 226, 379

body size 14:93–94

circulation 19:436

development 8:148

disk 14:78, 101, 282, 285, 357

excretion 14:377, 380

fissure (of eye) 2:3–6, 70, 75

layers, formation 15:19–24

length 14:93

malformations (see also Developmental abnormalities) 14:350–352, 358, 366

membranes (see Fetal membrane)

metabolism 14:237, 239, 352, 376

mortality 14:212, 223, 225–228, 232, 240, 272, 353–354, 357–360, 362, 444, 498

motility 14:237

orientation 14:77–79, 199–200, 226, 366, 379, 456

reflexes 14:404, 435

respiration 14:121, 199, 221, 236–240, 315, 380

shield(s) 1:319; 14:27, 101, 112–113, 115–116, 160, 186, 191, 285, 381; 15:9–10, 12, 20–21, 23

stage(s) (see also Stages of development) 9:173

tortion 14:138, 390, 398–400, 502, 508–509

EMG 5:85, 231

Emiocytosis 3:327, 338

Emissivity (see Thermal balance)

Emmochiliophis 19:101

Emoia 7:84–85, 166, 175–176, 179, 492; 13:308, 311; 14:117, 283, 464–465, 516; 21:397

aneityumensis 20:307

atrocostata 20:307

ear 2:271

nose 2:120

urinogenital system 6:58, 62, 97

Empagusia 19:32

Empathic learning (see also Learning) 8:5

Emsleyan mimic 8:5

Emulsification 8:622

Emydidae (see also Emydinae; Testudinidae) 5:416, 420; 7:570; 8:670–672; 9:251, 306–307; 12:136–139, 358; 13:7, 209; 14:26, 80, 92, 101, 104, 112, 127, 130, 158, 165, 171, 191, 195, 210, 215, 219, 221, 229, 240, 444–445, 665, 712; 15:201, 264, 268, 271–273; 16:112, 135, 296, 354, 391–392, 399, 402, 409–410, 412–414, 436–437, 525–526, 551–553; 19:404, 513

axial muscles 11:356

chondrocranium 11:205–220

Emydinae 19:18–19

adrenal 3:275

axial skeleton 1:215, 224–225

blood cell morphology 3:76

blood chemistry 3:26, 31, 50

eye 2:67–68

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104, 153

internal relief of gut 6:160, 167

limbs 4:1–2, 17, 20, 34, 53, 55, 60, 90–91, 95, 100

nose 2:108–111, 113–114

parathyroid 3:237

pituitary 3:136, 158, 189, 192

shell 1:329–330, 334

Emydocephalus 8:26–27, 610, 695; 13:7, 27, 34; 19:223

annulatus 8:27; 19:107, 132, 198; 20:549, 627

dentition 1:183

ijimae 8:27; 19:198; 20:627

Emydoidea 5:201; 7:350, 461; 8:597, 671; 14:81, 89, 91, 105, 109, 120, 165, 184, 218, 220– 221, 229–231, 639, 645; 15:264; 16:356, 391, 397, 400, 403–404, 437, 552, 566, 568; 17:16, 137, 457, 485–486

axial skeleton 1:224

blandingii 18:249, 251

blood cell numbers 3:95, 102

blood chemistry 3:4

ear 2:265, 270

eye 2:72

internal relief of gut 6:160, 162, 167, 175

limbs 4:3–4, 6, 11, 58, 100

nose 2:104–105, 109–110

shell 1:329

urinogenital system 6:49, 58, 83, 91, 97–98

Emydops 9:299

Emydura 14:80, 177, 197, 239, 512; 16:393, 439, 538, 568, 576

eye 2:68–69

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104– 105, 108, 110, 154, 163, 178, 180–181

krefftii 19:351, 355

pancreas 3:321

signata 19:377, 417

Emys 5:135, 153, 173, 199, 347; 461, 464, 579–580, 582, 584–584, 592, 611–612, 617, 642–643, 647, 649–650; 8:611–612, 619, 621, 627, 629, 637, 660, 671–672; 9:3–4, 16, 22, 33, 164, 251, 263, 306, 434; 10:41, 118, 289–291, 293–294, 313–314, 318, 325; 12:138, 223, 244; 13:37; 14:48, 77, 79, 87, 89, 91–92, 95–96, 101, 108–109, 111–114, 117, 121–122, 124, 126–130, 134–137, 139–144, 148–154, 156, 158–162, 164, 166–167, 209, 221–222, 240, 278, 312, 604–605, 608, 613, 617, 625, 638, 645, 655, 684–685, 687, 712; 15:83, 88, 91–92, 94, 133–134, 152, 160, 234, 240, 245–246, 249–250, 253, 260, 264–268, 270–277, 282, 284, 286–287; 16:391, 437, 552–553; 17:18, 45, 49, 71, 186, 189, 199, 204–205, 477, 486, 516, 548, 561; 19:5, 379

adrenal 3:265, 269, 296, 298

axial muscles 11:356

blood cell morphology 3:76, 84–85

blood cell numbers 3:95, 98–99, 101–102, 104–107

blood chemistry 3:4, 8, 20–21, 45

caspica 19:545

chondrocranium 11:205, 207–216, 218

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:89

europea 19:545, 578

eye 2:68–72

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104– 105, 107–108, 112, 123, 126, 153, 155–156, 163, 168, 176–181

histology of gut 6:244, 265, 268–269, 274, 278–280, 287, 291

internal relief of gut 6:160, 162–163, 169

limbs 4:2–3, 23–24, 34, 41, 45, 49–50, 79, 100

lymphatics 6:316–317, 322, 324, 332, 335, 343, 349, 354, 374–375, 388, 393, 404, 410–412, 416–417, 421, 424, 430, 435–437, 445, 447–448, 452

muscle tissue 11:274–275, 279, 282, 284, 286, 289, 291, 295, 297, 309, 317, 323, 327, 332, 336

nose 2:104, 106, 109–110, 156–158, 160, 167, 169, 177–178, 181–182, 184

orbicularis 18:315, 327, 467; 19:19, 77, 399, 417, 545

pancreas 3:329

parathyroid 3:237–238

shell 1:329

thymus 3:115

thyroid 3:203, 207–208

urinogenital system 6:23, 28–29, 32, 58, 69, 74–75, 107, 119, 133

En grappe 11:268, 270–271, 275–279, 282, 284, 286, 294–295, 297, 325–328

En plaque 11:268, 270–271, 275–279, 284, 286, 294–295, 325–328

Enamel 1:118, 125–126, 142, 144, 146–148, 179, 189; 14:431

matrix 1:146

organ 1:142, 144, 146

Encephalitis 5:27

virus 14:648, 650, 664

Encephalization 10:331

indices 20:458

quotient 9:60, 136, 150

Encephalocoele 14:452

End plate (see En plaque)

End-diastole 19:446, 451

End-systolic volume 19:398

Endangered species 14:10

Endocardium 19:376, 381, 394, 407, 409–410

Endocast 9:40–43, 47, 52, 303

Endochondral 20:357, 404, 406

“basisphenoid” 21:531

bone 1:84–85, 92, 97, 100–101, 103, 105–107; 15:315

metaplasia 1:90

Endocranial casts 11:246

Endocranium 9:19; 11:10, 246

Endocrine

cells 6:256, 277–279, 283–284, 302

factors in growth 11:8

glands 3:93, 107

pancreas (see Pancreatic islets)

regulation of salt exchanges 5:391

relations 6:2, 65, 74, 80, 101, 103, 105, 114–119

secretion 8:111, 667

system 5:35; 13:92–94

Endocrinology 5:210

Endocytosis (see also Pathology) 19:594–495

Endoderm 3:118, 127; 6:107–110

allantoic 14:160; 15:546–547

amniochorionic 14:503

and chordamesodermal canal 14:115

and pituitary hormones 14:710

cell migration 15:24

cloacal membrane 15:189–190

extra embryonic 14:386, 501; 15:18, 21–22

formation 14:501–502; 15:22, 24

omphalochorionic 15:538

origin 15:3, 19–20, 22, 24

pharyngeal 14:416, 420

presumptive 14:116

yolk sac 14:160, 311

Endodermal 19:112

Endoduplication 15:478–480, 490–491, 498, 513–514

Endogenous

annual rhythms 18:232

catecholamines 5:38

factors 18:259

factors affecting growth rate

genetic 13:302–304

life history 13:281, 301–303

sex 13:299–301

factors in reproductive cycles 13:213–216

endocrine and neural mechanisms 13:216– 222

endogenous rhythms 13:213–216, 220–221

refractory period 13:208, 213–214, 220–221

thermal dependence 13:218

pyrogen 12:229

rhythm(s) 13:61, 63, 65–66, 213–216, 220–221; 18:229, 231, 275, 277, 279

Endolymph (see Otic fluid)

Endolymphatic

duct (see also Otic duct) 9:46, 58; 11:26, 28, 117, 121, 138, 140, 214; 14:136; 20:31, 192

fluid 11:100

foramen 11:15, 26, 52, 93, 160, 166, 173, 209, 217, 231; 20:72

sac (see also Otic sac) 9:20, 31, 42, 104; 11:26, 56; 14:136; 20:11

Endomenix 9:18, 23–24, 35

Endomitosis 15:472

Endonuclease 8:165, 242–243, 502, 613, 616

Endoparasites 5:27

Endopeptidase 8:321, 615

Endoplasmic reticulum 2:33; 3:121–122, 124, 127–128, 210, 239–240, 242, 244, 318, 326– 328; 5:415, 422, 433, 437; 6:42, 75–76, 79, 111, 241, 263, 284; 8:44, 125; 19:494–499, 501, 503–504, 511, 514

apical ridge cell 15:64–65

corpora luteal cell 15:580

follicle cell 14:57, 62

limb mesoderm 15:66

myoid cell 14:622

oocyte 14:51, 56

oogonium 14:51

plasma cell 14:624

rete cell 15:156

ribosomal crystallization 14:66–67

somitic cell 15:67

testicular cell 15:157

thecal cell 14:56

Endorachis 9:18–19, 22–23

Endorphin 17:616–622, 688

Endosteal

bone 1:48, 51–53, 64, 68, 71, 73–74, 76–77

cortex 1:53

osteone 1:52

Endosteum 9:17, 19, 34

Endothelium 2:68, 70, 75; 3:341–342; 6:45–46, 75, 447, 450, 453–455, 457; 8:504–505; 19:16–17, 346–347, 376, 387, 493–494, 501, 507–508, 514, 542, 547, 549–550, 559, 561–562

Endotherm(s) 5:7, 335, 341, 353; 14:530; 15:151; 19:511

Endothermic insects 5:6

moths 5:2

Endothermy 3:1, 25; 5:14, 128, 191; 9:156; 11:298; 12:4, 7, 21, 170, 228, 495, 497; 13:12

Endplate (see Neuromuscular junction)

zone potential 8:456, 459–460, 465

Endurance 12:30, 43

Energetic(s) (see also Energy) 11:298–314

advantage 19:49

cost(s) of locomotion 13:2–6, 168–176, 235; 21:206

Energy 11:296, 310, 314; 12:6–7, 9, 34, 41–42, 50–52, 145, 170, 175, 202–203, 227; 19:306, 310, 469, 486, 497, 512

balance equation (see Thermal balance)

budget(s) 12:278–286, 307; 13:235–244, 261–262

calculation 13:244–249, 261–262

Chrysemys picta 13:252–255

components 13:235–238, 255–261

ecological energy budgets 13:234, 244–249

maintenance budgets 13:238

measurements 13:235–240, 261–262

population energy budgets 13:234, 261–262

Sceloporus graciosus 13:251

Sceloporus jarrovi 13:249–251

Sceloporus merriami 13:251–252

total maintenance energy 13:246–247, 255–261

total production energy 13:247–249

Urosaurus ornatus 13:252

conservation in mitochondria 2:311, 313

consumption of lizards 5:171

content of body tissues 13:236–237, 246–247, 265

content of eggs 13:236–237, 244, 248, 265

exchange 12:276–279, 307

expenditure (see also Energy) 5:170

flow 13:234

sources 5:81

storage 12:284–285

turnover 5:70

England 2:322

Enhydrina 8:28, 99, 181, 192, 197–199, 201, 204–207, 209, 221, 223, 295–296, 326, 334, 356–358, 368–370, 372, 442, 448, 455–456, 467, 474, 477, 479, 507, 511, 514, 664; 13:312; 15:46, 533–534, 546, 553–554, 560, 564; 19:223; 20:544

ear 2:272

eye 2:62

schistosa 8:27, 99, 181, 192, 197–198, 201, 204, 206–207, 218, 221, 223, 295–296, 326, 334, 356–358, 368–370, 442, 448, 455–456, 467, 474, 477–479, 507–508, 511, 514, 664, 692; 16:149, 521; 18:30; 19:130, 132, 151, 167, 198; 20:549, 627

urinogenital system 6:59, 89, 97–100

valakadyn 8:27

Enhydris 7:506; 8:40, 663, 692; 15:45, 533–534, 547–548, 554, 560; 16:145, 232; 19:148, 228; 21:521, 534

albomaculata 19:205

alternans 19:151, 205; 20:630

bennettii 19:205

bocourti 19:205

chinensis 19:205; 20:630

doriae 19:205

dussumieri 20:630

ear 2:272

enhydris 8:40, 663, 692; 19:132, 205; 20:555, 630

eye 2:54, 62

histology of gut 6:242

jagorii 19:205

jaw muscles 4:481

maculosa 19:205

nose (see also Lapemis) 2:121, 130

pakistanica 19:205

plumbea 19:151, 206; 20:630

polylepis 19:206; 20:630

sieboldi 19:206; 20:630

smithi 19:206

Enicognathus

elegans 20:651

geminatus 20:643

ornatus 20:643

Enkephalin 17:65, 103, 159, 532, 614, 622–623, 625–626, 629–630, 632–634, 688, 690

containing neurons 18:446

Enlargement

branchial 10:114

cervical 10:60, 63, 75, 91

lumbar 10:60, 63, 65, 75, 114

Enolase 5:200

Entamoeba invadens 19:521

Entechinus

herminae 20:637

major 20:637

semicarinatus 20:637

Entepicondylar

channel 21:111

crest 21:276

foramen 1:23; 21:31, 101, 111

Entepicodyle 21:101–103, 106–111, 283, 293, 296, 298–301

Enteric neuron 10:24

Enterochromaffin cells 6:255–256, 275, 277, 279, 283, 301–302

type II cells 3:332

Enterocytes 8:627

Enteromorpha 5:392

Enthalpy 11:307, 309–310; 19:342

Entoblast 6:108, 111

Entoglossal cartilage 6:409–410

Entoglossum (see Hypoglossum; Processus

lingualis)

Entohyal (see Cornu branchiale II)

Entoischium 21:140

Entoplastron 1:320, 323, 327–328, 330, 334; 4:12–13, 25, 90

bone 14:151, 157–158, 313

Entopubis 21:140

Entrainment 18:230–231, 239, 242–244, 251, 258, 269, 271–272, 274–275, 277, 279–280

biological clock 18:230, 248, 250

intraocular clock 18:245

model 18:252

stimuli 18:240–241

Entwicklungsmechanik 14:3–5

Enuliophis 19:167, 229

sclateri 19:206

Enulius 19:206, 229

flavitorques 19:153, 206

unicolor 20:650

Envenomation 8:94, 375; 20:494, 500, 534–535

experimental 8:441–529

treatment 8:375

Environment 5:164, 190–191, 266, 365–366, 370, 374, 380, 382, 385, 388, 404, 413, 422, 451–454, 456–457, 466–467, 475, 487, 480; 12:275, 282, 308, 457–467

Environmental

challenges 19:461–462

changes 5:52

conditions 5:25–26, 375

constraints 18:84

cues 5:34

cycles 5:27, 35

factors 5:70; 18:29, 31

factors affecting growth

food 13:295–297

social environment 13:298–299

tail loss 13:299

temperature 13:297–298

water 13:295–297

factors in reproductive cycles 13:207–213

food 13:211–212

photoperiod 13:207, 209–210, 212–213, 215–216, 220

social environment 13:212

temperature 13:207–209, 212–213, 215–216, 218–219

water 13:210–211

oxygen availability 5:255

polluntants 19:517

range 5:395

sex determination (see also Sex determination,

differentiation) 18:76, 80, 84, 86

temperature 5:198, 378; 12:219, 235

Enyalioides 7:477; 16:257, 261; 20:79, 82, 84, 292

heterolepis 20:305

Enyaliosaurus 7:477; 15:300

Enyalius 15:329; 16:257; 20:86

axial skeleton 1:269

Enygrus (see also Candoia) 20:606

axial skeleton 1:287, 290

ear 2:271

Enzymapheresis 8:657

Enzymatic

adaptation 5:209

analysis 5:82

assays 5:199

bases of metabolism 5:129, 199

catalysis 5:209

methods 5:60

reduction 5:255

test kits 5:67

treatment 5:67

Enzyme(s) 5:159, 199–206, 423, 489; 6:74, 230–231, 249, 295, 302; 8:7, 43, 237, 571; 19:498, 499, 515–516, 521

acid hydrolase 19:499

acid phosphatase 19:499

activity 5:35, 168, 206, 358

aerobic 5:159, 206, 208

alkaline phosphatase 19:515

amylolytic 8:610–613, 627

aspartate aminotransferase 19:515

biliverdin reductase 19:515

carbamyl phosphate synthetase 19:498

gamma glutamyl transferase 19:515

glucose-6-phosphatase 19:499, 511

glucuronyl transferase 19:516

glutamine synthetase 19:498

isolation 8:292

leucine aminopeptidase 19:515

lipolytic 8:611, 615–616, 621–622

metabolic 5:161, 207–208

mitochondrial 5:159, 183, 206–208 5ʹ-nucleotidase 19:495, 515

ornithine transcarbamylase 19:498

proteolytic 8:610–611, 613–615; 19:521

succinie dehydrogenase 19:498

superoxide disutase 19:524

system 5:440

thiamin pyrophosphatase 19:501

truiphosphatase 19:495

urea-cycle 3:26

uridyl diphosphate glucuronyl transferase 19:516

Enzymology 5:210

Eocene 20:594

Eolacerta 20:167, 173–174

robusta 20:300

Eolacertilia 15:340

origin and evolution 1:5

Eosin 3:83, 148, 237, 239, 245, 253, 329; 5:432; 6:226, 233, 235, 243–244, 246, 266, 271

Eosinophilia 14:614

Eosinophilic

granules 6:268

granulocytes (see Eosinophils)

leucocytes 6:90, 268, 279

tubules 5:432

Eosinophils 3:74, 82–85, 89, 102–103, 106–107, 120, 127, 209; 14:565, 602–605, 607, 609, 612, 614; 15:352

Eosinophily 3:83, 120, 127, 207, 289, 298, 301, 303–304, 327, 329; 6:43

Eosuchia 7:6; 9:66, 75, 196; 15:338–340

axial skeleton 1:234, 243

dentition 1:127, 151–152

eye 2:80

nose 2:152

origin and evolution 1:2–3, 5, 7–8, 10–12, 14–15, 31, 39

Eothyris 9:298, 300

Eotomistoma, skull 4:280

Epaxial

musculature 1:202–203, 208, 224, 232; 4:361; 11:355–356, 358, 360, 362–378, 380–384, 386–388, 394–408, 417–421, 423–425, 428–429, 431

muscles 14:435

nerve 11:359, 367, 384, 390, 394, 405, 408

Ependyma 2:4–5, 53; 3:138–139, 141–142; 9:179– 182, 184–185, 187, 192, 196, 200, 216, 218, 220, 255–256, 308, 320; 10:260; 14:130

and cartilage tube 15:363–364, 372, 391

and caudal regeneration 15:351, 356, 360–365, 369, 373

grafts 15:364, 370

implantation 15:363, 389–392

regeneration of 15:361

ultrastructure 15:362

Ependymal

organ 10:258

tube 15:353–355, 358–360, 362–363, 372, 375, 383

Ephalophiinae(i) 19:223

Ephalophis 8:26–27; 19:223; 20:542, 544

greyi 8:26–27; 19:152, 198; 20:627

jaw muscles 4:483

mertoni 8:26–27; 20:543, 545, 552, 627

Epiblast 14:48, 112, 501–502, 505–506, 512

cell migration 15:23

formation 15:19–23

Epibody 14:115

Epibranchial 11:28, 46, 57–58, 71, 79, 83, 85, 110, 133–134, 211, 215, 240

Epibranchiale I 4:156–157, 161, 184

Epibranchiale II 4:158, 161

Epicardium 19:376, 379, 406

Epichoroidal lymph space 2:5

Epicondyles of humerus 1:101, 106

Epicoracoid 4:12–14, 22, 25, 31–33; 21:13–14, 16, 29, 71, 73–74, 78, 83–84, 234, 234, 237, 248, 250, 259, 270–271

cartilages 21:85

Epicrates 5:133, 148–149; 7:393, 498; 8:662, 690; 16:17, 143; 19:188, 235; 20:451; 21:529

angulifer 19:188; 20:607; 21:502, 529

axial muscles 11:357

blood chemistry 3:10

cenchria(is) 20:607; 21:502, 529

chrysogaster 19:188

ear 2:271

exsul 19:188

eye 2:51, 53, 56

fordii 19:188

gracilis 19:160–161, 165, 188, 235; 20:607; 21:501–502, 576

inornatus 19:100, 127, 188; 20:607

jaw muscles 4:480

monensis 19:152, 188

nose 2:121

pit organs 2:302

striatus 19:188; 20:445, 461, 607; 21:502

subflavus 19:105, 188; 20:607

Epicuticular lipids (see also Skin) 18:154

Epidermal

generation 14:532, 534–535, 542, 554–558, 562–565, 588–589

melanophore (see also Skin) 18:305, 308, 310–311, 321

shields 1:312, 314–320, 323–328, 330–331, 337

Epidermis (see also Skin) 1:312, 328; 2:9, 14, 166–167, 278–280, 282, 289, 291, 305–308, 310; 3:220; 12:399, 401, 404–405, 431, 433–434; 18:122, 134, 151, 153–154, 166, 173, 192, 199

cell layers 14:531, 533–535, 538–540, 542–546, 549–552, 554–556, 562, 564, 568, 574

cornification 14:527, 550

differentiation 14:527–528, 538, 550, 555, 564, 580–581

glands of 14:571–588

in caudal regeneration 15:352–353, 356, 358–359

keratin 14:527–529, 539, 551, 557

proliferation 14:551, 555, 570

protein synthesis 14:527–528, 539, 555–556, 578

ultrastructure 14:539, 548–549

Epidermus 9:408–409, 414

Epididymal

secretion 6:69

tubule 6:62, 64–68

Epididymides 16:355, 357

Epididymis 3:270; 6:13, 24–25, 49–52, 58, 62, 64–69, 77–79, 83, 106, 116, 442–443; 14:340, 441; 15:171, 250

Epigastric

artery 6:373

vein 6:31, 358

Epiglottal keel 19:132, 205

Epiglottis 4:177, 191; 14:414, 423, 427; 19:116

Epihyal 2:233; 11:34, 79, 98, 118, 133–134, 233, 239, 243

Epihyale 4:251

Epinephrine 3:16, 22; 5:38, 188, 198–199, 236, 307, 309; 10:15, 24, 37, 40, 44, 249; 12:238, 243; 15:591; 18:236–238, 273, 309, 317–320, 339, 344–345; 19:447–448, 452–454, 471–472, 516

barometric pressure effects 18:320

Epioptic membrane 2:7

Epiotic 4:252; 11:59, 151, 242

bones (epiotics) 20:30, 389

Epioticum 9:8

Epiphyseal

cartilage 1:53, 84, 87, 92, 94, 100, 106–107

lobe 1:98–99, 102, 111

plate 1:81, 83

tuberosity 21:138

Epiphyses 13:279; 20:101, 104, 147, 192, 215, 222; 21:27, 29

ossification 15:80–81

Epiphysis (see also Pineal) 1:59, 81–107, 111–112, 234, 236, 250, 256–258; 4:156; 9:112, 114, 118, 176, 178, 222, 225, 272, 274–275, 281, 285, 308–310, 326–329, 334, 369; 11:34, 36, 131; 14:128, 172, 433–434, 514

cells 9:246, 281, 308, 315–319, 324, 349, 352– 354, 356–357, 359, 369–370, 374, 389

Epiplastron 1:320, 327, 330; 4:12–13, 25, 90; 14:151, 155

Epipodium 21:59

Epipterygoid 4:202, 278, 290–292, 302–303, 305–307, 320, 324–328, 335–336, 349–352, 355, 358–359, 362, 374–376, 378–379, 382–384, 391–396, 405–407, 413, 416; 11:11, 15, 23–24, 30–32, 56, 58, 60, 62, 66, 68, 70, 81, 85, 98, 100, 103, 105–106, 117, 119, 123–127, 129–131, 145, 150, 185–186, 188, 190–191, 193, 195, 197, 199–200, 203, 206, 211–212, 216, 218–220, 225–226, 238, 242; 20:12, 23, 25, 42, 48–51, 54–55, 67–70, 74–76, 86–87, 97, 100, 110, 112, 115, 122, 128, 133, 144, 149, 152, 154, 162–163, 166, 170, 180, 191, 203, 212, 214, 217, 220–221, 225, 229, 231, 236, 238, 244, 248, 262–263, 266, 276, 278, 283, 286–288, 364–365; 21:478–479, 516, 522

joint 20:52

process 4:138; 20:142, 168, 177, 189, 200, 257

Epipubis 4:52, 54–55, 65, 70, 74, 78; 14:156; 21:136, 138, 140–141

Episome 1:201–202; 11:356, 366

Episternocleidomastoideus 21:212

Episternohyoideus 21:212, 231

Episternum 4:191; 21:69, 85

Epistropheus (see Atlas-axis complex)

Epithalamus 9:221–222, 233–241; 10:282, 318

Epithecal

nuchal bone 1:329

ossicles 1:325, 328–329

shell 1:328–329

Epithelial

cells of parathyroid 3:254

cells of thymus 3:118–126

cells of thyroid 3:201, 207–209, 213, 216–218, 220–224

columns 2:161–162, 164, 172

cysts 14:620–622

membranes 5:489

-mesenchymal interaction 14:8, 426, 432, 532, 588

of digestive tract (see Mucosa of digestive

tract)

transport 5:414

Epithelium (see also Cells) 5:424, 439, 472, 490; 18:166; 19:14, 17, 44, 46–47, 69, 149, 352–353, 497, 504, 506

ciliated 19:12, 15, 47, 146, 149

clearance 19:9, 13–14, 20, 44, 50

columnar 19:116

mucous 19:116

nonsensory respiratory 18:427–431

nuclei 18:428

olfactory 18:426, 431, 433; 19:322

electrophysiology 18:454

embryonic 18:448

pseudostratified 19:115

respiratory 18:427; 19:24, 28, 116, 147

sensory 18:427–431; 19:116

tracheal 19:20

vomeronasal 18:426, 431, 493

electrophysiology 18:454

embryonic 18:448

Epithelkörper (see Parathyroid)

Epitrochleoanconeus 21:213

Epizygapophysial spine 1:285

Epomorphorus wahlbergi 19:54–55, 57

Eponyms 5:54

Epoöphoron 6:52, 107

Epoxy 5:99

Epsilon cell (see X cell)

EPSP 10:307–308, 323

Epstein-Barr virus 19:523

Eptatretus 17:213

Equatorial region 17:455

Equilibration 2:193, 204, 206, 208

Equilibrium

coefficient 19:327

temperature 5:377

Equivalent body temperature (see Operative

temperature)

Erabutoxin (see also Laticauda laticaudata) 8:207, 225, 354–355, 458, 464

Erectable ribs 1:299

Erectile tissue 2:108, 112, 129–130, 145–146, 154, 159, 181

Erection 10:40–41

Eremias 5:130; 7:7, 51, 70, 166, 188, 262–263, 282–284, 307, 491; 8:684–685; 9:292–293, 341; 12:109–110, 472; 14:29, 639, 650, 664; 15:307, 635, 660, 669, 674; 16:17, 23, 117, 140; 17:99; 20:58, 167–168, 170; 21:7

arguta 20:300

dentition 1:167

ear 2:221, 245, 267, 271

eye 2:14, 32

guttulata 20:300

histology of gut 6:270

jaw muscles 4:478

lugubris 18:324, 394

myscle tissue 11:281, 336

rubropunctata 20:300

Eremiascincus 15:639; 21:207

fasciolatus 20:297

Eretmochelys 8:607, 670; 9:22; 10:7; 12:140, 195; 13:307, 310; 14:95, 114, 124, 126–128, 130, 133–136, 152, 156, 166, 271–272, 276–278, 281, 287, 289, 291, 295, 297–303, 305, 309–310, 312, 316, 529; 15:394; 16:8, 112, 198, 367, 391, 436, 552

axial skeleton 1:212, 217

chondrocranium 11:223

eye 2:68–70

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104, 119, 154, 180

histology of gut 6:269

internal relief of gut 6:160, 163, 170

limbs 4:2–4, 11, 29, 36, 39, 41, 45, 47–48, 57, 66, 100

nose 2:104, 108, 111, 165–166, 175, 181

Ergastoplasm 3:289; 6:257–259, 289, 292–293

Eridiphas 19:229

slevini 19:206

Eristicophis 8:32, 664; 16:152; 18:489; 19:219; 20:499, 516

ear 2:272

eye 2:53, 55

macmahoni(i) 8:32, 664; 19:192; 20:506–507, 515, 521, 618

Eroticoscincus 21:400

Erpeton 8:692; 19:228

ear 2:272

tentaculatus(um) 19:206; 20:630

Erycinae 19:145, 235; 20:445, 452, 454, 456–460, 464, 468, 470, 476, 478, 608

axial skeleton 1:296–297

chondrocranium 11:175

pituitary 3:192

Erycini 19:161

Eryops 19:68

origin and evolution 1:23

Eryphanis 16:173

Erythroblast 3:74

Erythrocyte(s) 3:2, 19, 33, 35, 38–46, 49, 52–53, 73–85, 88–89, 94–100, 202, 209; 5:53, 60– 61, 65, 68; 8:257, 372, 380–381, 486–490; 6:46, 456; 12:333, 342–343, 346, 351; 13:29, 90–91; 14:161–162, 186, 603, 612, 636, 645, 660, 662

fetal 15:562

longevity 3:38–39

maternal 15:550, 562

numbers 3:38–39, 93–100

synthesis 3:38–39

Erythrocytic count (see Erythrocytes, numbers)

Erythrolamprus 7:500; 16:129, 145, 185–186, 230–231; 19:227; 20:573

aesculapii 19:126, 135, 206; 20:653

bizona 19:206

jaw muscles 4:481

mimus 19:206

Erythrophily 3:145–146, 148–152, 154, 158, 161, 166, 168–174, 176, 179, 181–188, 190–191, 194; 6:244, 298–299

Erythrophore 18:305–306, 316, 322, 343

Erythropoesis 14:614, 636; 19:488, 567–568

Erythropoiesis 3:38, 74–7; 5:195, 255; 12:251

Erythrosin 3:146, 148–149, 151, 177, 179, 186

Erythrosuchus 9:57, 78, 297

Eryx 5:150, 231, 373, 491; 7:206, 498; 8:73–74, 662, 690; 12:127, 464; 16:54, 123, 143; 18:437; 19:160, 165, 189, 235, 507; 20:439, 452, 454, 456–459, 461, 464, 468; 21:479, 574, 576, 578

adrenal 3:281

axial muscles 11:357, 399

axial skeleton 1:296

blood cell morphology 3:77

blood chemistry 3:10

chondrocranium 11:169–174, 177–178, 182, 202–203, 222, 238

colubrinus 19:188, 525; 20:458, 608

conicus (see also Gongylophis) 19:99, 166, 188; 20:452, 456, 458–459, 608

ear 2:269, 271

elegans 20:608

eye 2:51

jaculus 19:156, 188, 505, 525; 20:452, 454, 459, 608

jaw muscles 4:480–481

jayakari 19:188; 20:458, 608

johnii 19:188, 414, 418; 20:452, 454–458, 461, 608

miliaris 19:189; 20:458–459, 608

muelleri 20:458–459, 609

nose 2:120, 125, 179

pancreas 3:323–324

pit organs 2:301

pituitary 3:184

somalicus 20:609

tataricus 19:189; 20:609

thebaicus 20:608

urinogenital system 6:30

Eserine 5:237; 8:295; 10:41

Esophageal

collectors 6:386, 411, 413–414, 433

glands 6:236, 238

papillae 6:161–163, 218, 235–236, 411

region of stomach 6:410

Esophagus 1:199; 3:116, 321–322; 5:24; 6:159, 161–163, 166, 178–182, 190–191, 193–197, 199–200, 212–214, 218–221, 227–231, 234–241, 243, 264, 270–271, 301, 322, 327, 331, 354–357, 386, 397, 410–412, 414, 429, 433, 458; 8:2, 590–592; 10:8, 24; 14:141–142, 311, 436, 439; 19:27, 40, 112–114, 125, 132–133, 135, 148, 158, 169; 20:392, 549

Esterase (see also Phosphoesterase) 3:29, 48, 51, 305; 6:44, 230, 237–238, 241, 247, 249–250, 252, 268–269, 276, 280–281, 284, 288–290, 292–293, 297, 300; 8:166, 189, 309, 311, 315, 320, 329, 499, 502; 11:292; 13:72

activities 8:316

arginine ester 8:320, 323

arginine ester inhibitors 8:314

molecular weight 8:313

β-naphthyl acetate hydrolyzing 8:359

non-specific 8:111–112

T-BOC-L-alanine-P-nitrophenyl 8:324

uterine epithelium 15:564

Esterases 14:608–610

Esters 18:203

Estesius 20:595

Estivation 1:312; 18:139

Estradiol (see also Estrogen, estradiol) 3:36–37; 15:240, 254–259, 261–263, 276–277, 575, 580–581, 589–591, 594

and thecal blood vessels 14:64

and vitellogenin 14:342

-17 Beta 3:36; 13:217

plasma levels 14:341–342

Estrogen (see also Oestrogen) 3:36, 38; 13:219; 14:342; 18:33–35, 37–39, 41–43, 45, 48, 54–55, 79, 81, 85–86, 90–92, 98, 102, 147–149, 186, 366, 368, 370, 374–375

binding (see also Brain study, autoradiography) 18:33, 36–37, 41–43, 54

concentrating neurons 18:33, 36–37, 41–43, 54, 446

effect on sexual development 15:151, 245, 247, 253–264, 276–277

estradiol 18:173, 178, 184, 365–370, 373–376, 399, 471, 480

mortality 18:367

receptors 19:503

Estrone (see also Estrogen; Oestrone) 3:36; 15:263, 277, 579–580, 589; 18:166–167

Estrus (see also Oestrous) 3:1, 13, 30, 36–38, 53

Estuarine

conditions 5:4, 397, 431

terrapins 5:415

turtles 5:396

Eteirodipsas biscutatus 20:645

Ethanol 18:154, 203

Ethanolamine 11:292; 19:501

Ether 5:49, 51, 280

Etheridgeum 19:233

pulchrum 19:206

Ethmoid

capsule (see Nasal capsule)

fissure 21:581

Ethmoidal

branch of opthalmic nerve 11:18–19, 22, 31, 87–88, 94, 96–97, 122, 142, 179, 181, 200, 202

ganglion 2:177

nerve 2:176–177

region 20:360

Ethmosphenoidal plate 9:3, 34

Ethmoturbinal (see also Postconcha) 2:103, 177

Ethyl

carbamate 5:46

chloride 5:53

ether 18:154

Ethylene diamide condensation 10:247–248

Ethylenediamine tetraacetate 8:321, 504, 507

tetraacetic acid 3:2; 5:60

Etomopterus spinax 19:562

Etorphine hydrochloride 5:44, 47

Eubaenidae, shell 1:336

Eublepharidae 20:59, 117–122, 124, 127–128, 254, 267, 306; 21:13, 66, 96, 110, 132, 141, 396, 398

thyroid (see also Gekkonidae) 3:205

Eublepharinae (see also Gekkonidae) 19:25–26

axial skeleton 1:245

chondrocranium 11:83

eye 2:20, 26, 29, 42, 88–89

Eublepharis 5:491; 12:121–122; 15:27, 279, 281, 364; 16:138, 260; 18:170; 20:121–123; 21:66, 89, 95, 141, 396

ear 2:266, 271

eye 2:14, 21, 29

hardwicki 20:306

macularius 18:15–16, 84–85, 170–171, 473; 20:295, 306; 21:50, 80

Eublepharoidea 19:21

Eugongylus 15:639; 21:397

albofasciolatus 20:307

Eulamprus 21:397

quoyii 21:57

Euleptes 21:132

Eumeces 5:130, 141–143, 160–162, 198, 201–205, 299; 7:51, 54, 100–101, 104, 113–114, 174, 176, 179–180, 183, 187, 263, 286–289, 307, 318, 365–366, 373, 493, 593, 613; 8:611–612, 687; 9:157, 332, 336, 341; 12:69, 112, 114, 184, 377; 13:65, 81, 102–103, 166, 181, 183, 187–188, 203, 210, 311; 14:605–606, 608, 610–611; 15:44, 81, 115, 306, 342, 344, 365–366, 374, 379–380, 382, 634, 636–638, 670, 674; 16:9, 11, 51, 56, 117, 127, 141, 250–252, 254–255, 261, 265, 283–284, 291, 294, 300–301, 303–304, 310, 315, 461, 464–465, 474, 516–517, 545; 17:606; 18:181–182, 185, 189–190, 323, 332–333, 352–354, 398, 470–471; 19:543; 20:45, 58, 138, 140, 142, 144, 146, 148–149, 267, 298; 21:155, 271, 397, 505

adrenal 3:280, 285, 291, 294–295, 297, 300

algeriensis 19:511

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:257, 270

blood cell morphology 3:77, 81

blood chemistry 3:5, 22–23, 28, 43

bone 1:68

chondrocranium 11:7, 65, 67

dentition 1:165

ear 2:244, 267, 271

egregius 18:30, 182

elegans 20:297

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:96

eye 2:27

fasciatus 18:37, 182–190, 352–354, 468, 471–473

gilberti 20:297

inexpectatus 18:37, 182, 185–189, 352–354, 468, 471–472

internal relief of gut 6:177–179, 181–183, 185, 188

jaw muscles 4:478

kishinouyei 19:547, 550, 552, 554, 579

laticeps 18:36–37, 89–90, 166, 182–190, 334, 352–354, 375, 469–471

latiscutatus 19:550, 579; 20:297

muscle tissue 11:283, 294, 336

nose 2:120, 132, 139

obsoletus 18:182, 190, 323

okadae 18:47

pituitary 3:150

quinquilineatus 20:298

schneideri 19:525; 20:140, 142, 298, 307; 21:7

skiltonianus 20:142, 147, 298, 307

thymus 3:121, 124

thyroid 3:209, 220, 227

urinogenital system 6:24, 27, 32–33, 37, 56–57, 59, 61–62, 68, 72, 78, 81, 89, 116

Eumecia anchietae 20:298, 307

Eumomota 16:188

Eunectes 5:45, 133, 148; 7:393, 498; 8:655, 662, 690; 13:10; 16:10, 119; 17:504; 19:5, 146, 189, 235; 20:448, 450–451; 21:571, 580

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:297

chondrocranium 11:169, 171–172, 175–177, 182, 185–186, 188

dentition 1:177

deschauenseei 20:607

ear 2:271

histology of gut 6:278

internal relief of gut 6:193, 204, 209, 221

jaw muscles 4:481

murinus 19:112, 148, 166, 189, 414–415, 418; 20:449, 457, 607

pit organs 2:293, 295296, 301

urinogenital system 6:29

Eunotosaurus, origin and evolution 1:10

Euoplocephalus 9:67, 111–113

Euparkeria 19:72–74

origin and evolution 1:4, 8

Eupodophis descouensi 20:595

Eupnea 5:8

Europe 2:322

Euryapsid(a) 9:67, 119, 124, 138, 297–298, 304

dentition 1:190–192

origin and evolution 1:2–3

Euryplacenta (see Placenta, chorio-allantoic)

Eurysternidae, shell 1:334

Eurythermy 12:21, 46, 55, 68

Eusauropleura, origin and evolution 1:32–33, 35

Euspondylus 7:490; 20:186, 188–190, 193

acutirostris 20:189, 301

brevifrontalis 20:308

?simonsii 20:308

Eustachian

foramen 4:204, 209–211, 213–214, 216–218, 221, 225, 255, 278

tube (see also Auditory tube) 4:116, 201, 216–217, 224–225, 252, 256–257, 265, 278; 11:28, 214, 236–238, 240, 242, 245; 14:136, 173, 428; 21:475, 526

Eusthenopteron

dentition 1:120

origin and evolution 1:22

Eusuchia 9:85, 304

chondrocranium 11:228–245

eye 2:73, 92

origin and evolution 1:2, 7

skull 4:212, 263–268, 270–274, 276–280

Eutheria, adrenal 3:263–264

Eutherian mammals 5:158–159

Eutretauranosuchus, skull 4:272–273

Eutropis 21:223

carinata 21:7

Evan’s Blue 12:340

Blue dye 5:69

Evaporation 5:365, 370–371, 378, 395, 406

Evaporative cooling (see also Temperature

regulation) 5:4, 9, 73, 370, 375

water loss 5:102, 371–372, 374, 377, 380–381, 399, 401–403, 407, 429; 12:30, 252, 294, 348, 353, 430, 457–469

Euviviparity, definition 15:531

Evoked potential 10:291, 319, 321, 328

Evolution (see also Antipredator mechanisms;

Caudal autotomy; Life history traits;

Mimicry; Parental care) 5:13–14, 277; 8:2, 144–150, 213, 222–224; 12:32, 47, 145, 203, 216, 227, 250, 307, 468–472; 13:1, 10; 18:71–72, 75, 78, 80; 19:2, 24, 33, 46, 49, 58, 63, 67–75, 94, 114, 136–137, 140, 143, 169, 316, 348, 387, 426, 486, 513–514, 524, 534, 537; 20:250–252, 275, 285

and development 14:6, 15–16, 21, 586; 15:30

constraints on 14:16, 376

exaptation (“exaption”) 18:116

life history 13:241, 257, 305

natural selection 18:28

of bone 1:69–77

of copulatory organs 15:263

of crocodiles 14:331

of eggs 14:275

of hibernation 13:134–136

of homeothermy 5:208

of immunoglobulins 14:655, 660

of integument 14:525–526

of limb buds 15:127–131

of parental care 14:355, 358

of placenta 15:594

of reptiles 1:1–44

of salt glands 5:436, 438

of shell 1:331–336

of vertebrates 14:4–5

pattern 18:5

reptilian 5:210, 226

selection 18:156

advantage 18:149, 156, 163

pressure 18:141

sexual 18:28, 299, 340, 342, 355–356, 377, 392–393

Evolutionary

development 5:206, 424

implications 5:288

stages 5:275

theory 10:288

Exaeretodon 9:133

Exallodontophis albignaci 20:572, 639

Excessive construction 18:17

Excitability 8:449, 469

Excitation 5:198

-contraction coupling 11:296, 313–314

potential 11:265

Excitatory

amino acid 17:155–156

responses 5:308

Excitement 5:27, 37–38, 51, 62–63, 82, 236, 294, 296

Excreta 5:26, 488

Excretion 5:9, 383, 387, 396, 413, 430, 438, 447, 458, 467–468, 478, 481, 483, 489; 12:325

rate 5:488

Excretory products 18:129

Excretory system, development 14:440, 515

Exencephaly 14:452, 456

Exercise (see also Activity) 5:360; 12:241; 13:96; 19:48, 107, 156, 302, 328, 330, 333, 335, 337–338, 340, 460, 471–472, 524

Exhaled air 5:429

Exiliboa 16:151; 19:219; 20:353, 445, 460, 466–467, 470–471, 474; 21:565, 610

pit organs 2:301

placata 19:189; 20:460, 462, 465, 471, 609

Exoccipital(s) 1:204; 2:227; 4:205, 211, 214, 217, 219, 221, 224–228, 251–252, 254–257, 408; 11:22, 29, 38, 59–60, 81, 99, 112, 124, 150–151, 153, 156, 185, 213, 224, 237, 242; 20:11, 15, 25, 28, 33, 43, 70, 72–73, 75, 112, 114–115, 124, 126, 128, 147, 156, 163–164, 172–173, 183, 193, 196, 217, 231–232, 246, 248, 270, 276, 278, 355, 357, 363, 365, 369, 371, 373–375, 379, 381–382, 387–391, 398–400, 403–405, 408–409, 411, 415, 418, 421, 425, 427–428, 431–432, 434, 438–439, 442, 445, 447, 451, 453, 455, 463, 465, 467, 472, 475, 478–479, 497, 501–502, 505–507, 509, 511, 513, 519, 523, 525–527, 529–531, 533, 538–541, 543, 562, 564, 566, 568, 571, 587, 589; 21:219–220, 472, 492, 541, 543

articular surface with supraoccipital 20:451

atlantal process 20:470

-prootic joint 20:376

tubercle 20:472, 475, 477–479

Exocrine gland 8:43, 141, 149; 18:117, 180

pancreas 3:319, 324–330, 338–339

Exocytosis 19:494

Exogenous organic aids 5:496

w-Exonuclease 8:91, 111–112, 124–125, 127, 129, 139–140, 144, 147, 165–166, 177–178, 188, 238–243, 300, 362, 528

activity 8:340

commercial preparation 8:241

specificity 8:239–242

Exophthalmia 14:453, 456

Exophthalmus 8:440

Exoskeleton 14:526, 586

Exostinus 20:209–210, 216

lancensis 20:302

serratus 20:302

Exostosis 1:77

Expanded facial portion of the maxilla 21:562

Expaxial musculature 21:219

Experimental

animals 5:3

technique 11:8

Experimentation with model lizards 18:355, 389, 391

Expiration 5:229, 231, 234–236; 19:41

Expired air 5:371, 375, 377

Explants

branchial arch 14:417, 424

ectodermal 14:527

embryonic 14:222–223, 460

limb buds 14:447;5:87

Müllerian canal 15:246,251–253

skin 14:570

Exploitative competition

definition 7:38–39

evidence for 7:39–40

interspecific 7:58–96

intraspecific 7:96–115

Expohthalmia 3:223

Exsanguination 5:68

Extension of the forelimb 4:5, 11, 38–39, 42

Extension of the hindlimb 4:58, 67, 82, 84–85, 96

Extensor

carpi radialis 21:212

carpi ulnaris 21:212

digitores longus 21:206, 212, 324

Extensores digitores breves 21:213, 324

External

acoustic meatus 2:195, 222

auditory meatus 4:352, 419; 6:382, 385; 11:103–104, 243; 14:403, 407, 416

carotoid artery 3:203, 245

ear 2:193, 195–201, 220–234,261–262; 4:203, 233,244, 277, 350; 11:79

fertilization 6:56

gas exchange 5:245

genitalia 6:77

glomerulus 6:11–12

iliac fossa 21:138, 143

jugular system 21:579

jugular trunk (see Superficial jugular trunk)

jugular vein 6:375

lamina of the oral mucosa 4:105

limiting membrane (see also Outer limiting

membrane) 3:141

mandibular fenestra 4:202, 204, 210–211, 213, 215–219, 221, 240, 254, 279

mental foramen 21:600

nares 19:115

naris 2:100, 105–108, 112, 116–117, 121–130, 135, 144–147, 152–153, 166, 168, 170–172, 182, 280; 4:202, 209–210, 212–213, 222, 229–231, 244, 248, 256, 258, 265, 272, 274, 276; 20:14, 18, 24, 44, 46, 69, 75, 84, 106–108, 110, 115, 132, 163, 170, 218, 225, 229, 233, 236–237, 240, 243, 248, 372, 386; 21:575

nasal aperature 2:146

nasal gland 2:101–102, 108, 111, 117, 124, 129, 131–135, 146, 154, 163, 169–172, 175–182

nostril 11:16–17, 50, 108, 111, 120, 122, 218, 235, 240, 244

paravertebral vessel 6:400–402

pelvis fossa 21:147

pressure 3:17

rectus muscle (see Posterior rectus muscle)

tendon of M. adductor mandibulae 4:104– 108, 110, 124–127, 135

Externus position (see M. adductor mandibulae

externus)

Extinct reptiles 16:60, 67

Extra-embryonic

circulation 14:145

coelom 14:160, 378–379, 503

relation to fetal membranes 15:536, 540–544, 546–549, 560

hypoblast 6:107, 110

layers, formation 15:19–24

membranes 14:4, 16, 18, 90, 99, 108, 117, 145, 160–171, 176, 225–226, 240, 281–282, 299, 357, 361–362, 367, 377, 386, 399–400, 402–403, 503, 516; 15:530, 594

Extracellular

fluid (ECF) 3:16, 18–20, 25; 5:351, 413; 12:336–342

fluid volume 5:66, 69, 451, 473

space 5:400, 439; 11:316

Extracerebral tissues 5:59

Extracloacal loss 5:422–423

salt excretion 5:430

Extracolumella (see also Extrastapes) 4:250, 408; 11:31, 33–36, 54, 59, 67, 73, 79–80, 82, 91, 95, 98–100, 103–104, 106–107, 112–114, 118–119, 124, 129, 132–134, 149, 195–196, 198, 200, 204, 207, 214–215, 226–227, 239; 21:482

ligament (see Extrastapedial ligament)

Extracolumellar

ligament 11:33–34, 80

muscle 11:80, 83, 239

Extraconchal

recess (see also Lateral recess of nasal sac) 2:145–147, 149–151, 173–174

space 2:118, 123, 125–126, 131, 133–137, 166, 168, 170–171

Extraction of venom (see Venom, extraction of)

Extrafusal fibers 11:266, 317–318, 320, 323, 325–326, 328

muscle fiber 17:455–456, 467, 472, 480–482

Extraocular muscle 10:45, 172, 186, 193, 226, 238

Extraoptic photoreception 12:221–223, 235

Extrapineal oscillators 18:248

Extrapulmonary

airways 19:14, 25, 75

bronchi 19:8, 36, 144

gas exchanges 5:226

oxygen 5:249, 319

respiration 5:318

shunts 19:332

structures 19:8

trachia 19:8, 125

Extrapyramidal system 10:250

Extrarenal

electrolyte excretion 5:413

route 5:496, 498

salt excretion 3:15; 5:10, 408, 436, 438

sites 5:447

water loss 5:385

Extraretinal photoreception

in entrainment 18:242–246, 248

in photoperiodism 18:272–273

Extrasplenic vasculature 19:536–537

Extrastapedial

ligament (see also Extracolumellar ligament) 2:199–201, 224, 230, 233

muscle 2:229

Extrastapes (see also Extracolumella) 2:195, 197–199, 201, 223–225, 229–231, 233, 262; 20:12, 34, 73, 114

Extrauterine development (see also In vitro,

culture) 15:25

Extravasation 8:501, 503–506

Extravascular fluid 3:1, 18

Extrinsic

factors affecting growth rate 13:295–299

food 13:295–297

social environment 13:298–299

tail loss 13:299

temperature 13:297–298

water 13:295–297

Extrinsic muscle of eye (see Muscles of eye)

Eye 2:1–97, 280, 288; 5:202, 316, 415–416; 10:6, 43; 11:5–6, 8, 17, 43, 50, 94–96, 105, 110–111, 127–128, 132, 157, 181–182, 197, 201, 205, 212, 228; 20:6, 255, 361–362, 379, 382–383, 456, 482, 485–486, 492, 517, 563, 568, 570, 590

accesory structure 10:43

clock 18:245, 247–248

defects (see Developmental abnormalities)

development 14:131–133, 173, 294, 305, 401– 402, 404, 406–407, 428, 430, 508–511

embryology 2:3–6

muscle(s) (see also Musculus) 9:9, 56, 191, 194; 14:121, 429–430

orbits 5:101

photoreceptor 18:243–244, 246–247, 329–330

terminology 2:1–2

Eyeball 2:7–12, 14–32, 41, 50–53, 63–65, 67–72, 74–76, 81; 4:292, 306, 313, 320–321, 328, 341, 354, 362, 371, 386, 395, 407, 413–414, 421–422, 434

Eyelid(s) 4:104, 274, 354, 413–414, 421; 6:374, 381–382, 385; 11:106–107, 201, 244

 

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