Biology of the Reptilia: Index G

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G(γ)-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (see Gamma

aminobutyric acid)

GABA (see Gamma aminobutyric acid)

GABAergic 18:453

Gaits 4:2, 6–7; 21:43, 51–52

Galactosamine 18:123

Galactose 8:641

Galapagos 2:322

lava lizard (see Tropidurus)

tortoise 5:44

Galechirus, eye 2:80

Galictis 16:10

Gall bladder 3:88, 321–325; 6:48, 356, 413, 421, 424, 426–427; 10:26; 14:143; 17:661; 19:39–40, 96, 139, 150, 169, 488, 505–506, 522, 545

Gallamine 5:53, 126

Gallocyanin 6:229, 248, 291, 294

Gallotia 15:306–307; 21:76, 96; 20:42, 44, 46, 166–167, 170–171, 255–256, 300

atlantica 20:307; 21:398

caesaris 21:398

galloti 18:446; 20:39, 42–44, 300, 307; 21:49, 398

galloti galloti 18:254

simonyi 20:300; 21:398

stehlini(i) 18:444; 19:27, 79; 20:167, 300; 21:398

Gallstones 19:522

Gallus 9:156; 10:215; 17:509, 558; 19:568

blood chemistry 3:34, 40

chondocranium 11:26, 39, 43, 199

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:84, 89–90

limbs 4:74

muscle tissue 11:273–275, 285–287, 289–292, 300–301, 306–307, 314

pancreas 3:335, 338

thymus 3:118, 121

thyroid 3:225

urinogenital system 6:4, 11–13, 22, 52, 120

Galvanometer recorders 5:84, 89

Gambelia 12:65, 69, 101; 13:237, 296, 308, 311; 16:9, 18, 21, 29, 33, 52–53, 55, 116, 126, 139, 242, 257, 514; 18:382; 20:45, 79; 21:68

silus 18:362; 20:304

wislizeni 18:361–362, 365, 377–378; 20:81, 292, 304

Gambusia affinis 18:485–486

Gametes (see Germ cells)

Gametogensis (see also Spermatogenesis) 18:75

Gamma (γ)

aminobutyric acid 12:256; 13:95; 17:65, 72, 156, 159, 288, 589, 637, 646–647; 18:454

axons (see Fusimotor system)

cell 6:115

cells of pituitary (see Gonadotrophic LH cells)

-globulin 3:27, 31, 35, 52, 126

-phenylaranoic acid 18:198

system 11:325

Ganglia 20:567

adrenal 3:284, 286

lateral sympathetic 3:274

paravertebral 3:266, 274

Ganglion

autonomic 10:11

cell 2:4, 33–34, 39–40, 54–56, 62–63, 72, 77, 162, 164; 9:183, 323, 361, 379

cell layer 2:16, 40–42, 54, 56, 72, 76

cells 3:274; 6:269, 280

ciliary 10:6, 44, 238

dorsal root 10:24

Gasseri (see Ganglion trigemini)

geniculate 10:215

impar 10:9

infraorbital 10:7, 9–10

mandibular 10:7, 9–10

maxillomandibular 17:374–375

nodose 10:8

opthalmic 17:374–375

palatine 10:7, 9–10

paravertebral 10:2–3

prevertebral 10:2–3

sphenoethmoidal 10:7, 9–10

statoacoustic 10:215

sympathetic 10:8, 11, 31, 36; 17:608, 652

trigemini 4:119–122, 130, 340–341, 367, 375, 425

vestibular 17:524

Ganglionic

block 8:474

transmission 8:474–475

Gap junction(s) 14:555; 17:38, 87–88, 145; 19:493–494

junctions, in apical ridge 15:64–66, 70, 93, 107, 132

Gape size 20:395–396, 412, 586, 588

Gaping (see Temperature regulation, evaporative

cooling)

Garthia 20:118, 295

Gärtner’s duct 6:49

Gas

bladder 19:298

chromatography (GC) 5:70, 79; 18:122–123, 154, 168–169, 194

diffusion 19:156–157

exchange (see also Respiratory gases and

embryos) 5:73–74, 172, 225–226, 247, 249–250, 265, 266, 276, 303; 13:8–9; 19:13–15, 17, 30, 33, 42, 49–65, 68–69, 75–76, 136, 144, 151, 154, 297–341, 354, 468, 473–474

cloacal 13:38–39

convection-oriented 19:59, 63

cross current 19:72

cutaneous 19:298–300

epithelium 19:14, 42, 44

pharyngeal 13:38–39

pulmonary 13:8–9; 19:298–300

ratio 19:466

strategies 19:58–59

surface 19:2, 59, 61, 68, 70, 76

tissue 19:4, 10, 72

/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) 18:154–155, 171, 199, 203

-mixing 19:333

storage 19:61, 64

tensions 5:241

transfer 19:56

transport 5:195, 265–266, 275; 19:346

volume 5:327

Gasping 8:439, 449

Gastralia 1:237, 254, 311, 327; 11:378–379; 14:158, 435, 495, 514; 19:46

Gastric

acidity 5:28, 81

anlage 19:560

artery 6:411, 413

brooding 16:293

collectors 6:346, 349, 354, 412–415, 427, 431, 446

contractions 8:627, 647–649, 654

digestion rate 8:592–597

effect of food on 8:649–653

glands 8:599

-inhibitory polypeptide 17:670, 682

intubation 5:47

juice 3:17; 8:597–606, 618, 627, 666, 668

enzymes 8:603–605

pH 8:601

regulation of rate 8:605–606

secretion rate 8:597–600

lymphatics 6:322, 411–415

mucosa 10:25

phase 10:25

secretion 10:26

pits 6:244, 246–249, 265, 267–268, 270–271

reflux 8:591

secretion 6:263–265

temperature effects on 8:649

tonus 8:654

vein 6:413

Gastrin 3:332; 8:605–606; 10:25; 17:662, 580, 689

cells 6:256; 8:605

Gastrocnemius 1:109; 21:335, 373

Gastroduodenal trunk 6:349

Gastroendoscopy 8:592

Gastroesophageal junction 6:165, 180, 197

Gastroesophageal sphincter 6:165

Gastrohepatic artery 6:413

Gastrohepatoduodenal trunk 6:321, 330–331, 353, 356–357, 361, 402, 411, 415, 428, 434

motility (see also Gastric contractions) 8:590, 597, 654, 666, 668

tract 5:47, 62; 8:451; 10:21

Gastrointestinal hormone 8:668

Gastrointestinal tract 14:211

hormone 17:660

Gastrointestinal infection 14:211

Gastroliths 8:592, 606–610, 667

hydrostatic function 8:608–609

reducing function 8:606–608

Gastropholis 20:168, 170

Gastropholis echinata 20:307

Gastropulmonary collector 6:319

Gastropyxis 19:104, 231

smaragdina 20:639

Gastrosteges 14:535

Gastrula 14:26–28, 30, 46, 78, 95–96, 110, 112–114, 116, 172, 183, 185, 192, 199, 202, 278, 348

Gastrulation 14:10, 13–14, 17–18, 46, 50, 95–96, 101, 112–117, 199, 219, 278–279, 283, 386, 499, 501–503, 516; 15:6–12, 20, 23, 50

Gaumenblatt (see Choanal fold)

Gaumenfalte (see Choanal fold)

Gaumenfortsatz (see Choanal fold)

Gaumenmembran (see Palatal membrane)

Gaumenmittelfeld (see Vomerine cushion)

Gaumenrohr (see Nasopharyngeal duct)

Gaupp’s bone 21:480, 522

Gause principle 7:67

Gavialidae 16:296

pituitary 3:195

skull 4:202, 222, 249, 264, 272, 274

Gavialinae

axial skeleton 1:226–227

dentition 1:185

Gavialis 7:239; 8:661, 676; 9:85, 304; 13:307; 14:332, 334, 355, 419–420, 442, 462; 16:281, 300, 533

axial skeleton 1:230, 232–233

chondrocranium 11:228, 244

gangeticus 19:34, 36, 82

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:184, 188

nose 2:144

skull 4:201, 203, 216–217, 222–223, 226–227, 229–232, 234, 236–143, 245, 252, 259, 267–268, 274, 280

Geagras 19:232; 20:560

redimitus 19:153, 206; 20:639

Gecarcinus 5:342

Gecko(s) 10:6; 20:15, 20, 38, 48, 121–122, 128, 251, 255, 258; 21:64, 67, 87, 89, 132, 141– 142, 144, 153, 165, 172, 176, 181, 187, 208, 222–223, 240, 250, 265–266, 271, 278–279, 288–289, 306–308, 313, 330, 375

tails 20:571

“Gecko aegypticus” 19:24

Geckolepis 15:328; 16:138

anomala 20:306

eye 2:13, 26, 30

Geckonia 15:328; 16:260

eye 2:26

Geese 5:439

Gehyra 5:379; 7:51, 55, 57, 197–198, 292–294, 311, 316, 466; 8:680; 9:251; 12:120–122, 124, 460, 474; 13:308; 14:631–632; 15:41, 322, 328, 350, 428, 434–435; 16:51, 115, 138, 238, 261–262, 464–465, 474, 513, 558; 20:117, 126, 295; 21:181, 189, 397

adrenal 3:279

blood cell morphology 3:76

dentition 1:161

ear 2:266, 271

eye 2:26, 28–30, 46

jaw muscles 4:478

nose 2:119

oceanica 21:129, 132, 188

variegata 18:254; 19:408, 417; 20:306

Gekko 5:201–203, 205; 7:466; 8:680–681; 9:15, 28, 157, 331, 380, 423, 427–430; 10:203, 228, 293; 12:228, 410, 412; 13:542–543, 545–546, 548–549, 552–553, 556–557, 563–564, 568, 572–573, 575–584, 604–605, 608–610, 617, 626, 629, 664; 15:323, 326; 16:115, 138, 551; 17:6, 8, 10, 12, 21, 26, 97, 184, 188, 193, 208, 276, 279, 596, 599–600, 606; 18:444; 19:24, 43, 56; 20:52, 58, 63, 117, 122, 124, 126; 21:131–133, 141, 155, 172, 187, 220, 222–223, 228–230, 235, 250, 252, 259, 268, 275–276, 278, 281, 285, 287–289, 291, 294–298, 300, 307–308, 312–313, 316–317, 337, 339, 345, 237, 350, 352, 356–357, 361, 368–370, 375, 378–379, 382–385, 388–389, 391–394, 397

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:244, 262, 270

blood chemistry 3:4, 9, 28

chondrocranium 11:73, 80

ear 2:215, 222, 266, 271

eye 2:26, 30–31, 46–47, 89

gecko 18:47, 167, 427, 441, 443–445, 447, 453–454; 19:43, 48–55, 57–58, 64, 79, 306, 355; 20:59, 295, 306; 21:7, 50, 187, 208, 265–266

histology of gut 6:271

internal relief of gut 6:177, 182

japonicus 19:501, 525

jaw muscles 4:313, 315, 318, 349–350, 352, 402, 407, 417, 419, 466, 478

lymphatics 6:338, 340, 367, 371, 382, 390–391, 404, 407, 415, 419, 423–424, 428

muscle tissue 11:283, 336

nose 2:119, 137, 157

parathyroid 3:255–256

pituitary 3:142

smithi 20:306

thymus 3:113

thyroid 3:209, 213, 221, 227

urinogenital system 6:26–27, 116

verticillatus 19:408, 417

vittatus 18:167

Gekkonidae 5:145, 192, 389, 423, 454, 467–468, 475; 7:9, 51, 72, 291–295, 318, 320, 365–366, 370–372, 377, 420, 465–469; 8:46, 55, 680–681; 9:7, 27, 31, 161, 163, 251, 331, 336, 338–340; 10:293–294; 12:99, 120–125, 144, 146, 287, 306, 379, 406, 431, 472; 13:212; 14:28, 48, 532, 543, 555, 565, 571–573, 632, 695, 712; 15:4, 7, 41, 84, 311–313, 315, 319, 321, 326–329, 333, 340–342, 344–350, 352, 358, 366–369, 374, 376, 380, 384, 415–416, 418, 532, 645, 663–664, 667–669, 674; 16:10, 31–34, 69, 115–116, 123, 128, 138–139, 259–260, 282, 294, 450, 454–455, 465, 473, 486, 492, 513, 543, 566; 19:11, 27, 36–37, 41, 66, 70, 308, 379, 387, 408–409, 506; 20:116–117, 120, 123, 125, 127, 157, 253–254, 266, 271–273, 306; 21:9, 12–13, 79, 89, 107, 110, 134, 259, 396, 398–401

adrenal 3:279, 283

axial muscles 11:357, 384

axial skeleton 1:205–206, 226, 241–243, 245–246, 253, 255, 259–261

blood cell morphology 3:76, 78

blood chemistry 3:28, 31, 37, 50

chondrocranium 11:8, 26, 35, 38, 73–83, 85–87, 91–92, 118, 132, 197–198, 239

dentition 1:148–149, 161–162

ear 2:222, 239–244, 266, 271

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:101

eye 2:3, 13–14, 20–22, 25, 29–30, 32, 35, 42, 45, 64, 83–86, 88–89

histology of gut 6:227–229, 232, 296, 298

internal relief of gut 6:177

jaw muscles 4:289, 315–317, 349–351, 355, 370, 374, 392, 413, 416, 418–420, 478

lymphatics 6:316, 338, 367

nose 2:119–120, 127, 131–132, 139–140, 143, 178

parathyroid 3:255

pituitary 3:136, 141, 145–146, 149, 151–152, 154, 163, 166–168, 192–194

taxonomic literature 2:320, 322, 324

thymus 3:113

thyroid 3:205

urinogenital system 6:32, 63, 71, 95

Gekkoninae (see Gekkonidae)

axial skeleton 1:244

eye 2:22–23, 26, 29–30, 46, 85, 88–89

Gekkonine(s) 19:26; 20:118–120, 126–127, 253

Gekkonini 19:25

Gekkonoidea 19:21

Gekkota 8:66, 151; 9:336, 338, 409; 19:21, 24–27; 20:23, 31, 40, 45, 52, 56–57, 59, 75, 90, 116–117, 126, 134, 144, 147–148, 156, 158–159, 162–164, 190, 228, 241, 247, 253–261, 264, 266–267, 269–270, 272–274, 283–285; 21:9, 12–13, 16–18, 66, 80, 88, 95, 112–113, 132, 141

adrenal 3:283–284

axial muscles 11:385

axial skeleton 1:241–242, 246, 257, 259, 261

blood cell morphology 3:89–81, 83

chondrocranium 11:73–85, 102

eye 2:85

internal relief of gut 6:177

jaw muscles 4:310, 318

pituitary 3:136, 147, 167, 194

thyroid 3:205

Gekkotan lizards (see also Gekkonidae; Pygopodidae) 21:582

Gel electrophoresis 18:123, 169–170

Gene

activity, limb development 15:92, 94–95, 126, 131

expression 14:199

flow 15:483

General anesthesia 5:43, 47, 51, 53, 94

Generalized colubrids 20:491

Generator potential 2:283, 287–288; 17:368; 18:451

Genes 3:48

and rate of development 14:203

Genetic

drift 7:445

effects 5:255

exchange 13:131–132

recombination 15:432

variation 15:415

Genetics

antipredator mechanisms 16:16–19, 66, 68

gene flow 16:416, 419

life history (see Life history traits)

mimicry 16:157

quantitative 16:389–390

Geniculate (facial) ganglion 21:495

ganglion 2:197; 9:12

Genioglossi 21:597

Geniomyoideus 21:595–597

Geniotrachealis 21:595, 597

Genital

artery 3:273

bed 6:82

crest (see also Germinal ridge) 3:266

development, physiological aspects 15:241– 246

duct (see Gonoduct)

ducts (see also Müllerian duct; Wolffian duct) 18:116

epithelium 14:150

gland 15:155, 240, 258

in vitro culture 14:462

papilla 14:145, 174

ridge (see also Germinal ridge) 14:50, 150, 175

ridge (crest) 15:152, 154–155

tubercle (phallic anlage) 15:197, 242, 245, 247

Genitalia 6:332, 352

development of 15:15, 151, 220–241, 248, 263

external 14:394, 400, 404, 406–407, 411, 442–443

Genotypic sex determination 18:76, 84

Gentian violet 6:69

Geocalamus 21:624, 636, 661, 668, 670

acutus 21:626–627, 669, 731

axial skeleton 1:272

chondrocranium 11:126

Geochelone 5:135, 153–154, 173; 7:340, 343–344, 349–350, 408, 410–411, 416, 419, 448, 461–462, 464–465, 633, 642–643, 651; 8:49, 55, 607, 655, 660, 673; 9:306; 10:203, 260; 12:34, 55, 137, 190–191, 193, 294, 350, 362, 379, 429, 459, 473; 13:17–18, 34, 37, 260, 292, 300, 307, 309–310; 14:27, 79, 81, 84, 154, 157–158, 177–178, 185, 191–192, 201, 212, 215, 218, 222, 227, 231, 233; 16:6, 113, 135, 341, 347, 354, 390, 392, 396–401, 403, 405, 419–420, 438, 526; 18:9

adrenal 3:269, 275

axial muscles 11:356

blood cell numbers 3:103

carbonaria 18:195–196, 331; 19:501, 525

denticulata 18:192, 195–196; 19:404, 417

elephantopus 18:327

eye 2:68–69

gigantea 18:327

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104, 113, 118, 154, 156–157, 165, 173–174, 180–181

internal relief of gut 6:160, 162–163, 167, 169, 175

limbs 4:2–5, 40–42, 47, 50, 73, 77, 84, 100

lymphatics 6:447

nose 2:104, 178

parathyroid 3:237

pardalis 19:442, 474

radiata 18:467

sulcata 18:250

thymus 3:114

Geoclemmys reevesii 19:354

Geoclemys 16:17; 17:100, 606

Geococcyx 16:10, 212

Geodipsas 7:501; 21:605

depressiceps 19:206; 20:632

procterae 19:206

vauerocegae 19:206

Geoemyda 7:462, 465

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104, 153, 156, 173, 180–181

limbs 4:2, 100

nose 2:114

pancreas 3:329–330

Geographic(al)

distribution 5:365

oviparous species 15:627, 630, 632, 634, 637, 640, 642, 649–650, 656, 659

parthenogenetic species 15:421–427, 429, 441–451

viviparous species 15:616, 620, 627, 630, 632, 637, 640, 642, 649–650, 656, 659, 661, 678

limits 12:293

range 5:395, 398

sources 5:3

variation (see also Interpopulational variation) 19:151

Geometric similarity 21:52

Geomyersia 21:397; 20:146

glabra 20:298

Geophagy 8:606

Geophiini 19:133, 228

Geophis 20:558, 563, 570, 576

bicolor 20:650

blanchardi 19:206; 20:559, 650

brachycephalus 19:206; 20:650

carinosus 19:206

chalybeus 20:651

dubius 20:651

ear 2:269, 271; 19:206, 229

godmani 20:651

hoffmanni 19:206; 20:558–560, 570, 577, 651

incomptus 20:651

jaw muscles 4:442, 481

latifrontalis 19:206

mutitorques 19:206; 20:651

nasalis 19:206; 20:559

rhodogaster 19:206

semidoliatus 19:206; 20:559, 651

Geosaurus, eye 2:75

Geoscincus 21:397

Geotrypetes 13:180

Gephyrostegidae 19:74

origin and evolution 1:11, 36–37

Gephyrosaurus 15:325, 338, 340; 20:64–65, 67, 69, 250, 252–254, 256–259, 263–264, 268, 272–275, 277, 279, 285, 287

bridensis 20:291

Gephyrostegus

dentition 1:150

eye 2:80

origin and evolution 1:25, 27, 32–35

Geranospiza 16:13

Gerarda 19:228

prevostiana 19:132–133, 164, 206; 20:554, 631

GERL (see also Golgi apparatus) 19:501

Germ cell(s) (see also Ovum; Sperm; Primordial

germ cells) 6:107–113, 121; 14:60, 151, 175; 15:153, 156, 158–159, 162–166, 168, 170, 254, 257, 259, 261, 265–268, 270

determinate 14:46

line (see also Primordial germ cells) 14:43, 60

Germ layer 6:18; 15:19–24

formation 14:500–502, 516

Germinal

bed 14:52–53, 60

cell (see Primary germ cells)

epithelium 6:50–51, 76, 79–80; 14:47, 50, 151, 441, 565, 580; 15:154–156, 158–159, 161–162, 164–168, 170, 242, 254–255, 258, 260–261, 265–266, 269, 276

layer of epidermis 14:531, 534–535, 538–539, 545–546, 554, 556, 559, 584

ridge (or crest) 6:51, 53, 109; 14:44, 46–49; 15:153

vesicle 14:52

Germinative layer 2:284

Gerrhonotids 19:41

Gerrhonotinae 20:197–204, 208, 308

dentition 1:168

Gerrhonotus (see also Barisia; Elgaria) 5:130, 141–144, 160–162, 204, 209; 7:70, 187, 300, 373, 495; 8:679; 10:203, 230; 15:122, 344, 349, 365–366, 374, 376, 379, 614, 627–628, 669, 674; 16:115, 128, 137, 283, 301, 304, 463–465, 512; 20:58, 200, 206, 208–209; 21:155, 278, 398

adrenal 3:273, 280, 289–291, 296–297, 301

axial skeleton 1:242, 261, 268

blood cell morphology 3:77

blood chemistry 3:5, 10, 43

bone 1:68

dentition 1:168–169

ear 2:247, 267, 271

eye 2:41

histology of gut 6:255

imbricata 20:302

jaw muscles 4:479

liocephalus 18:189; 20:302

multicarinata 20:302

nose 2:120, 125, 127, 130, 133, 178–180

urinogenital system 624, 26–27, 59, 81, 89, 106

Gerrhosauridae 5:172; 9:161, 163, 332; 12:472; 19:28; 21:96; 20:137, 148, 150–157, 307

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:242, 247, 251–253, 255–257, 259–260, 262–264, 267, 269–270; 8:46, 634

eye 2:29, 31

jaw muscles 4:316, 418

Gerrhosaurinae

pituitary 3:136, 145–146, 151, 154, 174

taxonomic literature 2:320

Gerrhosaurine cordylids 21:153

Gerrhosaurus 7:495; 8:680; 9:14, 273, 332, 336–337, 373; 10:203, 228; 12:108; 15:325; 16:35, 115, 138; 18:437; 20:150, 153–156, 307; 21:399

albigularis 20:151, 299

axial skeleton 1:264, 267

chondrocranium 11:70

dentition 1:167–168

ear 2:245, 271

eye 2:27

flavigularis 20:299, 307

jaw muscles 4:368–370, 418, 479

major 19:28, 79; 20:157, 299, 307

nigrolineatus 20:299

nose 2:120

Gestation 3:218–219, 311; 6:96, 99–103; 18:126

and ovarian hormones 15:579–586

and oxytocin 15:591

and temperature 15:25

duration of 15:25

effect of luteectomy 15:582–584, 590

effect of ovariectomy 15:582–584, 590

endocrine control 15:530, 579–581, 595

period 5:175; 15:41–46, 50

Gestational epithelium 6:89

Ghana 2:324

Gharial (see Gavialis)

Gigantism 4:280–281; 8:635; 21:53

Gigantophis garstini 20:596

Gila monster (see also Heloderma suspectum) 15:333, 346–347

Gill clefts 11:30

ventilation 8:2

Gilled larval stages 1:20

Gills 5:276, 413; 19:298

Gilmorea attenuatus 21:683

Gingival margin 1:126

Ginglymostoma 16:183

Ginglymes 1:213, 219

Ginglymoidy 1:213, 300

Gizzard 6:269; 14:439

Glacial acetic acid 18:123

Gland(s) 5:10, 98; 8:43; 10:7; 18:116–120, 122–123, 144, 165–167, 169, 173, 186–187, 191–195, 197–203, 205; 19:130, 491

accessory (see Venom gland)

adrenal 18:339, 345, 370; 19:487

anal 18:117, 121

axillary 18:191, 195, 197

Bowman’s 18:428, 431, 433–435

chin 18:117, 194–195, 200–202, 204, 426, 467

cloacal 18:426, 467

development 8:148

dorsal 18:166, 188

endocrine 10:41, 45

exocrine 10:45; 18:117, 180

femoral 18:167–169, 172, 178, 184, 205, 472

secretion 18:167–170

of Gabe (see Mandibular gland of Gabe)

gastric 10:24–25

gular 18:203, 205, 344

pumping 18:204, 467–468

secretion 18:203

Harderian 10:7, 45; 18:223, 433

hemipenile 18:118, 166

inframarginal 18:195

inguinal 18:191, 195

lacrimal 10:7, 10, 45

lingual 10:7

mandibular (see also Mandibular gland of

Gabe) 18:202, 204, 467–468

mental 18:192, 194–195, 205

mixed 8:47

monostomatic 8:44

mucus 19:506

musk 18:197–199, 202, 426

anterior 18:198

nasal 10:7

nuchodorsal 18:122

paracloacal 18:200, 203

secretions 18:163

pineal 18:48, 318

pituitary (hypophysis) 18:48, 98, 316, 318, 345

polystomatic 8:44

posterior (anguli oris) 8:50, 74–76, 85

precloacal 18:166

primordium 8:142–143

salivary 19:156

scent 18:479, 482

secretion 18:163, 203

sebaceous 18:122

secretions 18:116–117, 119, 122–123, 163–164, 194, 198, 203

seromucous 8:87

serous 8:87

sphenopterygoid 8:48

sublingual 19:119

supralabial 19:157

temporal anterior 8:74

temporomandibular 8:71, 73

throat 18:202

thymus 19:540, 568

thyroid 19:515

tubules 5:415

unicellular 8:43

urodaeal 18:165–166, 186–188, 471

breeding season 18:471

tongue flick rates 18:472

venom (see Venom gland)

ventral 18:166

Glandula nasalis interna (see Medial nasal gland)

Glandulae olfactoriae (see Bowman’s glands)

Glandular crypts 2:154, 158–159

field 8:144

Glaphyromorphus

antoniorum 21:399

cracens 12:397

crassicaudus 12:398

darwiniensis 21:397

douglasi 21:397

emigrans 12:398

fuscicaudis 12:397

gracilipes 21:397

mjobergi 21:399

nigricaudis 21:397

pardalis 21:397

pumilus 21:398–399

punctatus 21:399

punctulatus 21:399

timorensis 21:397

Glenohumeral joint 21:72, 98, 100, 103, 105, 243–244, 246–247, 249, 252, 254, 256–257, 259, 261–262, 266, 268–270, 272–278, 280–282

Glenoid 21:19–20, 32, 41, 44, 71, 75, 82, 84, 93, 97, 100, 103–104, 135, 241, 253–254, 266–270

cavity (see also Cotyle) 21:30, 58, 73, 78

cavity of pectoral girdle 4:12–15, 24, 27

cavity of the mandible 4:124

fossa 14:155; 21:73–74

Glia (see also Ependyma; Müller cells) 3:139

Glial cell, regeneration 15:360

Gliding 16:29; 21:59

habits 1:248

Glisson’s capsule 19:487, 504

Globidens, dentition 1:171–172

Globin 3:39–40, 50–51

Globose swellings 2:291

Globulin 6:101; 8:567

Globus pallidus 10:185, 330; 17:627, 635, 646, 660

Glochinodontoides 9:299

Glomerular arterioles 5:459

border 6:11–12

capillaries 5:461; 6:29–31, 43, 46

capillary basement membrane 5:460

capsules 5:450

effects 5:451

filtrate 5:413, 472

filtration 6:117–118

filtration rate 5:98, 385, 450–451, 455–459, 461–465, 470, 474, 476–477, 482–483, 497–498

infiltration 5:69

shutdown 5:398

tubule 6:69

Glomerulus(i) 3:267; 5:1, 447, 450, 459, 474, 491; 6:2–3, 8–9, 11–12, 15, 17, 20, 22–23, 29, 31–32, 35, 45, 117, 120; 14:174, 311, 441; 17:206, 515; 18:441, 447

Glomus 6:2–3, 8, 11–12

bodies 5:306

Glossohyale (see Hypoglossum; Processus

lingualis)

Glossopharyngeal 21:493, 500

foramen(ina) 2:226, 230, 256; 20:135, 270, 442

ganglion 11:28, 145

musculature 4:166–168, 183, 188

nerve 2:196–197, 220, 226, 228–231, 234, 237, 239, 247–248, 251, 255–256, 259, 261; 4:101, 162, 166, 188, 226–227, 285, 394; 11:3, 12, 15, 26–29, 45, 57, 67, 69, 98–99, 105–106, 124, 137–140, 145–146, 159, 163, 168, 173–174, 194, 197, 206–207, 209, 211, 213–214, 217, 222, 224, 226, 233, 238, 364; 18:344

Glottal plug 14:174

tube 19:115–121, 175

Glottis 4:181–182; 5:52, 229, 231, 236, 431–432; 14:139, 141–142; 19:8, 26, 42, 113–118, 128, 134

Gloxylic acid 10:249, 281–282

Gloydius 19:219; 20:510, 517

blomhoffii 19:112, 114, 192; 20:510, 615

brevicaudus 20:615

halys 19:192; 20:615

himalayanus 20:615

intermedius 20:615

saxatilis 20:615

shedaoensis 20:615

strauchi 20:615

ussuriensis 20:615

Glucagon 3:22, 329; 10:42; 13:94; 17:65, 159, 670, 682–683

Gluconeogenesis 5:199, 206; 13:13, 178; 19:512, 524

Glucosamine 18:123

Glucose 3:8–12, 19–23, 25, 45–46, 51, 53; 5:61, 67, 183, 199, 320; 8:640–643, 666; 12:233; 13:16; 19:489, 499, 511–512

fermentation 8:514

in development 14:314

oxidase 3:19

oxidase method 5:67

-6-phosphatase 6:43

-6-phosphate 5:201

-6-phosphate cycle 3:46

-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 3:46; 5:200; 6:37, 74, 231, 238,247, 249–252, 268–269, 282, 284, 289, 291, 293, 295, 302

phosphate isomerase 5:201; 15:509

tolerance 3:20

Glucosides, in yolk 14:65

Glucostat 5:67

Glucuronic acid 19:516

β-Glucuronidase 6:92

Glucuronidation 19:499

Glucuronide 19:515

Glutamate 17:59, 65, 155, 158, 589

dehydrogenase 5:201; 6:231, 249, 269

Glutamic acid 3:23, 25, 40, 42, 45

decarboxylase (GAD) 17:65

Glutamine 3:23–25; 5:486

Glutaraldehyde 3:238–239, 242, 244, 333; 6:48, 226

Glutathione 8:321

in development 14:314

reductase 8:488

Glycemia 3:311

Glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase 5:201

-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 8:513

Glyceride 18:199

Glycerin-1-phosphatoxidase 5:201

Glycerol 8:176; 18:119, 203

extraction 11:289, 313

-saline 8:565

Glycerophosphatase 8:244

α-Glycerophosphate dehydrogenase 5:201; 6:231, 249, 254, 292–293, 295–296

Glycerylphosphorylcholine 6:44

Glycine 3:23–25, 40, 42, 45; 5:486; 17:65, 156, 159

Glycocalyx 6:261; 8:627

Glycoconjugates 19:506

Glycogen 2:35; 3:18, 21, 125, 237, 247, 251, 291– 292, 304–305, 312; 5:183, 193, 199, 418, 433; 6:36, 79–80, 92, 271, 279; 8:641–642; 9:347, 415, 417, 422, 436; 11 :267–268, 280, 282, 293, 315; 12:233; 13:16, 72–75, 79–80, 82, 177–178, 185, 236; 17:22; 19:486, 493, 495–496, 499, 504, 506, 511–512, 524

and follicle cells 14:62–63

apical ridge cell 15:64–65, 91

caudal muscle 15:321

depletion 5:38

in perivitelline space 14:64

limb bud 15:91

mobilization 5:81

oocyte 14:56

phosphorylase 5:201

primordial germ cell(s) 14:46, 62; 15:170

testicular cell 15:157

Glycogenin 17:23

Glycogenolysis 5:320; 19:497, 511

Glycolipid(s) 6:43; 14:552

Glycolysis (see also Anaerobic metabolism) 2:288; 3:16, 18, 20, 46; 5:7, 66, 187, 192–193, 196, 198–199, 206; 8:513, 641; 11:267, 281–282, 284, 292, 321, 335; 13:16; 19:512

Glycolytic

activity 5:193, 208

enzymes 5:206; 13:16, 71–72

pathway(s) 5:206; 19:512

Glycoprotein(s) 2:154, 158–159, 162, 164, 175, 180, 182, 201; 3:202, 209; 5:491; 6:43, 296; 8:44, 180, 190; 14:346, 709–710; 18:192; 19:494

Glycosaminoglycans 14:368, 372, 422–423, 453

Glyphodon (see also Furina) 8:20; 15:654; 20:542, 550

barnardi (see also Furina) 8:20; 19:152

dentition 1:177

dummalli 8:20

jaw muscles 4:483

tristis 8:20; 20:538, 627

Glyphodontini 19:222

Glypholycus bicolor 20:633; 21:525

Glyptochelone, shell 1:324

Glyptops, shell 1:333

Goat 7:600; 8:359, 374, 605

Gobias 13:260

Gobiderma 20:218, 220–222, 224–225

pulchrum 20:302

Goblet cell(s) 3:128; 6:29, 85, 232–233, 235, 240–241–242, 275–277, 281, 293, 285–287, 289–291, 293, 297, 301–302; 8:43, 122; 12:371, 372–373

Goitre 3:213

Goitrogenic drugs 3:213–214, 222

Goitrogens (see Goitrogenic drugs)

Gold 8:174

chloride 11:277

Goldfish 10:119

Golgi 18:443

apparatus (or reticulum) 3:75, 121–122, 210, 289, 292, 301, 318, 327, 340; 5:422, 434; 6:42, 48, 75, 79–80, 111, 241, 244, 259–261, 264, 276, 284, 289, 291–293; 8:44, 133, 144; 19:494, 497, 501

apical ridge cell 15:64–65, 72

follicle cell 14:57, 61–62

limb mesoderm 15:66

oocyte 14:51–52, 56

plasma cell 14:624

primordial germ cell 14:44; 15:170

rete cells 15:156, 158

somitic cell 15:68

testicular cell 15:157

thymocyte 14:619

area (see Golgi zone)

-Mazzoni corpuscle 9:433

membranes 5:433

system 2:35, 38, 57–58, 61, 77

tendon organs 11:316

zone 8:111, 130; 19:496–497

Gomesophis 16:145

brasiliensis 20:653

Gomphodonty (see Thecodonty)

Gomphognathus 9:299

Gonad(s) (see also Ovary; Testis) 3:210, 217–218, 222, 266, 269–271, 273, 278, 284, 312; 6:48–105, 107–108, 110–111, 116–117, 121; 13:211, 221; 19:40, 155

anlage (or primordium) 15:154, 161, 165–166, 171, 254

bisexual state 15:159, 164, 249

development 14:149–151, 175, 274, 395, 440–441; 15:151–170, 172, 247, 286, 279

in vitro culture 15:151

regression 14:340

secretory activity of embryonic 15:241–242, 260

sexual differentiation 15:162, 219, 241, 247, 254

undifferentiated 15:155, 165, 168, 170

Gonadal

activity 5:36

cycles (see Reproduction)

steroid hormone (see also Androgen; Estrogen;

Progesterone) 18:55, 192, 316, 322, 394

Gonadectomy (see Castration; Ovariectomy)

Gonadorme 6:116

Gonadotropes 14:687, 691, 702, 704–705, 710

Gonadotrophic

FSH cells 3:149–152, 155–157, 161–163, 166–167, 169–174, 176–177, 180–183, 185–186, 188–191, 193

LH cells 3:146, 149–150, 152, 155–157, 161– 163, 166–169, 171–178, 180–186, 188–191, 193–194

Gonadotropic hormone (see Gonadotropin)

Gonadotropin(s) (see also Follicle stimulating

hormone; Luteinizing hormone) 6:78, 81, 84, 97, 101, 115–116; 13:92, 218–221; 14:278, 346, 705, 709; 18:45, 395

and ovarian follicles 15:39, 592

and sexual development 15:258–260

-releasing hormone 17:603; 18:45–46, 48, 53, 55–56

concentrating sites in the brain 18:47

source of 15:587–588

Gonatodes 7:140, 142, 189, 291–292, 294–295, 315, 466; 12:56, 122; 13:203, 210, 309, 311; 16:123, 138; 17:99; 21:95, 142, 148

adrenal 3:279

axial skeleton 1:243, 245

ear 2:266, 271

eye 2:21, 31, 42–43, 45, 88

humeralis 21:155, 397

jaw muscles 4:478

vittatus 18:352

Gongylophis 19:104, 235

colubrinus 20:608

conicus (as Eryx conicus) 19:99, 166, 188; 20:608

muelleri 20:609

thebaicus 20:608

Gongylosoma 19:230

baliodeira 19:168, 206

longicauda 19:206

scripta 19:206

Gongylus 17:500

Gonial(e) (see Prearticular)

Goniocephalus

axial skeleton 1:258

dentition 1:160

ear 2:271

Gonionotophis 19:224

brussauxi 19:206

granti 19:206; 21:586

klingi 19:141, 206

Goniopholis 9:82–83

skull 4:280

Gonlopholidae

dentition 1:185

skull 4:278

Gonocephalus 7:488; 8:678; 12:107–108; 16:137, 258; 20:92, 98, 101, 103; 21:76, 396

chamaeleontinus 20:98, 294

grandis 20:305

kuhlii 20:294

Gonocyte(s) (see also Primordial germ cells) 6:81, 111–113; 15:20, 23–24

Gonoduct 3:269, 271, 273, 278, 284, 312

Gonyocephalus 15:330

chamaeleontinus 20:294

godeffroyi 20:294

kuhlii 20:294

subcristatus 20:294

Gonyophis 16:143; 19:231

margaritatus 19:206

Gonyosoma 19:100, 162, 236

frenata (as Elaphe) 19:162, 204

jansenii (as Elaphe) 19:127, 205

oxycephalum 19:127, 129, 133, 147, 161, 206; 20:640

Goose 9:431

Gopher snakes 16:197, 199

Gopherus 5:135, 153, 169, 365, 367–368, 373, 375, 377, 379, 383, 390, 451–452, 455,, 473–474, 477–478, 487, 489–492; 7:340– 342, 348–349, 414–415, 419, 432, 462, 465, 590, 596–597, 600; 8:49, 55, 607, 673; 9:373; 10:203; 12:61–62, 65, 94, 137, 191–193, 288, 329, 338, 346–347, 350, 353–354, 357–358, 361–362, 364, 379, 459, 470, 473, 487–491; 13:62, 80, 102–103, 106, 109–110, 114, 118–121, 125–231, 136–137, 293, 297, 300, 310; 14:154, 207, 212, 222, 529, 628; 15:264; 16:113, 134, 341, 367, 392, 400, 403–405, 437, 552; 18:192–194, 251

agassizii 18:192–194; 19:498, 525

berlandieri 18:193–194, 249–251, 467; 19:498, 525

blood cell numbers 3:95

blood chemistry 3:8, 28, 42–43

bone 1:52, 56

ear 2:265, 270

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:108

flavomarginatus 18:194

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:105

histology of gut 6:278

limbs 4:4, 6, 8–9, 15, 56–58, 77, 84, 88

polyphemus 18:194, 250–251, 268, 451–452, 454

thymus 3:124

Gorgonops 9:299

Gorgonopsia 9:68, 132, 299, 305

Gorgosaurus, dentition 1:186–187

Gout (see also Pathology) 3:25–26; 19:524

Graciliscincus 21:397

Graded junctional potential (see Junctional

potential)

Gradient calorimeters 5:82

Graft(s)

heterotypic 14:417

intracoelomic 15:61

of embryonic tissue 14:15, 417, 640–641

rejection 14:637, 639–642

somite 15:133

vs host reaction 14:637–638, 642

Graine de segregation (see Urinary granule)

Granular cell (see Myoid cell)

cell of fundic gland (see Serous cells)

cells 12:371–374

layer, external 18:441

layer, internal 18:444–445

myeloid leucocytes (see Granulocytes)

Granulated wandering cell 6:279

Granule cell 9:192–193

Granules

cytoplasmic 3:75, 83–86, 120, 122–123, 125–127, 137, 240, 244, 285, 291, 295, 298, 332, 334, 337

neurosecretory 3:138, 141–142

pigment 3:210, 251

protozymogen 3:327

secretory 3:144–145, 148–150, 152–156, 158, 161–163, 166, 168–169, 171–176, 179–188, 191, 207, 209–210, 301, 303–305, 311, 328–331, 333–338, 340

zymogen 3:326–328, 338

Granulocytes 3:74, 103, 119–120, 123, 127, 209; 6:458; 14:603–604, 606, 612–613, 623–624, 636–637

Granulocytopoiesis 14:162, 614, 635, 637

Granulocytosis 3:104, 107

Granulomas (see also Infection) 19:521–522

Granulopenia 3:107

Granulopoiesis 19:488, 564

Granulosa

cells 14:53, 56–62, 64, 66, 68–69; 15:579

-lutein cell 6:99

of ovarian follicle 6:81–83, 97–99, 101–103

Grape ending(s) (see also En grappe) 17:467–472

Graptemys 5:34, 347; 7:349, 462, 464, 569–570, 596–597, 600–601; 8:653, 658, 672; 12:138, 327, 335, 351–352; 13:74–75, 86, 89–90, 93, 307, 310; 14:78, 105, 118, 150, 166, 168, 209, 217–218, 220, 222, 228, 231; 15:264, 270–274, 283, 286; 16:112, 337, 344, 356, 362, 391, 398, 402, 404, 437, 552; 18:197

blood chemistry 3:4

ear 2:265, 270

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:84

geographica 19:350–351, 355

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104– 105, 107, 112, 126, 163

internal relief of gut 6:160, 165, 167–168, 175–176

limbs 4:4

parathyroid 3:237, 239, 243

pseudogeographica 18:442

shell 1:316–317, 321, 325

urinogenital system 6:98

Grass dwelling 20:583

Gravid snakes 5:175

Gravidity (see also Life history methods; Life

history traits) 18:141, 357–359, 361–364, 370–371, 375, 378, 398

Gravitational effects 19:376–377

Gravity feed arrangements 5:54

Grayia 15:649–651, 671; 16:233; 19:225; 21:497, 509, 599, 607

axial muscles 11:357, 398, 402, 408, 412, 414

caesar 19:206; 21:607

ornata 19:153, 206; 21:607

smythi(i) 19:164, 206; 20:633; 21:607

tholloni 19:142, 206; 21:607

Great cisterna (see Cisterna chyli)

vessels 5:276, 286

Greater curvature of the stomach 6:412–414

ischial foramen 6:336

Greece 2:322

Green rod 2:84

Grenzlinie (see Boundary line)

Grenzwall (see Postvestibular ridge)

Grinding teeth 1:121, 150, 187

Grison 16:53

Grooved teeth 1:124, 170–171, 173, 175–176, 181–183; 20:534, 572

Gross assimilation efficiency 5:170

Ground reaction forces 21:61

skink (see Lygosoma)

squirrel 10:315

substance 1:92

Growth (see also Age; Life history traits; Parental

care; Water effects on embryos) 5:35; 12:6, 8, 27, 29–30, 254, 286, 302, 304, 355; 13:234–235, 274–290; 14:3, 13, 496; 19:114, 354, 508, 511

after luteectomy 15:586

analysis 13:282–290

and caudal regeneration 15:365

columns 1:85, 97

curves 348–349, 398

determinate 13:276, 278

directions (bone) 1:48

discontinuous 13:274–275

energy requirements 15:365

factors 19:508

hormone 3:222; 6:44, 84; 8:607; 12:258; 13:92, 305; 15:587

hormone-releasing factor (GHRF) 17:612

inderterminate 13:276, 279–280

laminae 1:56

lines (see Growth rings)

measurement 13:282–283; 14:279–280

models 13:274–277, 283–290

of caudal regenerates 15:350–386

of dermal armor 1:321

of shields 1:319

plate 1:97, 101, 103–104

postnatal 13:275–276

prenatal 13:275–276

rate 13:233, 247, 277–305; 14:333, 336, 397, 408, 495

and life history 13:289, 301–303

extrinsic factors 13:295–299

instantaneous growth rates 13:275, 282–283

intrinsic factors 13:299–303

relative growth rates 13:275, 282–283

variability 13:283, 290–305

rings 1:319

zone 1:81, 84, 87, 89

GTH (see Gonadotropins)

GTP 13:33

Guanethidine 10:24, 40

Guanidination 8:225

Guanine (guanin) 2:76; 8:193; 18:305–306

Guanophore 18:319

Guanosine 8:193; 19:163, 207

Guatemala 2:321

Gubernaculum cordis 19:379, 381–382, 390, 397, 400, 405–408, 410, 412–413, 416

Gueriniella, meiotic restitution 15:479

Guinea pig 8:94, 376–378, 439, 464, 473–475, 479, 486–487, 498, 509, 521–523, 525

Gular

fold (see Dewlap)

gland (see Gland, gular)

movements 5:228–229, 236

ocellus 1:318

pouch 5:229, 236

pump 5:229

pumping (see also Temperature regulation,

evaporative cooling) 19:61, 66–67

region 19:126, 134, 141, 169

sac 4:270

shield 1:315

Gulls 5:421

Gulo-humeral shield boundary 1:318

Gum 1:147

Gustatory gustation 18:125, 186

Gut (see also Intestine) 5:55, 104, 170, 309, 370, 381–383, 385, 387, 390, 413; 10:8, 21, 24, 26, 45; 12:349; 19:26, 32, 39, 41, 113, 430, 487–488, 512, 514

associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) 14:626, 628–631, 652

development 14:137–138, 174, 311, 381, 398, 400–402, 404, 438–439

Gyalopion 7:501; 15:647; 16:123, 145; 19:232; 20:565

canum 19:206

quadrangularis 19:206

Gymnodactylus 5:204; 7:466; 15:212; 16:259, 513; 20:117, 122, 295

ear 2:239, 266, 271

jaw muscles 4:349, 413, 478

kotschyi 19:560

Gymnophiona

copulatory organs 15:168, 240

urinogenital system 6:3–4, 7, 52

Gymnophionians 19:67

Gymnophthalmidae 16:454–455, 465, 473, 492, 513; 19:21; 20:45, 57, 137, 159, 166, 170, 174, 176, 186–187, 190, 194, 252–255, 257–258, 264–265, 269–271, 273–275, 284, 308; 21:15, 135, 232, 235, 400, 402

Gymnophthalmus 15:417, 424, 430, 456–457, 488; 16:118, 464–465, 513; 20:187–190, 192–193, 195; 21:400

eye 2:14

pleii 12:461, 471

speciosus 13:210; 20:187, 189, 301, 308

underwoodi 20:308

Gynogenesis 15:284, 414, 431, 478

Gyrinophilus porphyriticus 19:567

Gyroxin 8:197

 

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