Biology of the Reptilia: Index L

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L-DOPA 10:251; 19:508

L-fucose 19:495

Labial

gland(s) 4:465; 8:3, 60, 66, 76, 80, 117, 151

membranes 5:374, 381

pit 2:286, 289–297, 302–304

anatomy 2:289

physiology 2:291–293, 297, 305–314

ultrastructure 2:305–314

receptors 5:6

scale(s) 2:278, 289, 301–304; 17:368, 371, 373

surface of teeth 1:118–119, 145; 20:384, 547, 573

wall (of dental groove) 1:127, 136, 154, 163–164

Labidosaurikos, dentition 1:127, 151

Labidosaurus 9:296; 15:337

bone 1:71

eye 2:80

Labidus coecus 18:120

Labile levels of metabolism 5:167

response 5:435

Laboratory manuels 5:54–55, 63, 65

Labyrinth

bony 9:13, 15

membraneous 9:13

Labyrinthine infolding of enamel 1:38, 120–121, 150–151, 190

Labyrinthodont 9:57, 64

Labyrinthodontia

axial skeleton 1:203

bone 1:70–71

chondrocranium 11:21–22

origin and evolution 1:15, 18, 20, 22–25, 30–31, 38

Lacerta 5:22, 36, 131, 138, 140–144, 160, 164, 166– 168, 170–171, 173, 193195, 198, 200–201, 203, 205, 208, 239, 255, 281, 312, 353, 393, 449, 489–490; 7:51, 70, 83, 166, 168, 170, 176, 179–180, 183, 263, 282–296, 07–309, 311, 313, 365–366, 373–374, 407, 413, 418, 447, 451–452, 491–492, 585–587, 612–613, 640, 644–645, 651, 657–659–662; 8:52, 56, 595–596, 603, 615, 618–621, 646, 655, 657, 667, 685–686; 9:7, 13, 15–16, 19–20, 26–29, 152–154, 157, 173–175, 179, 183–184, 188–192, 195, 210, 219, 222–223, 225–226, 228–229, 235, 240, 251, 332, 348–354, 356, 358, 363, 365–366, 378, 380, 382–383, 389, 431; 10:4, 8–9, 14, 27, 67, 82, 118, 168–169, 173, 175, 185, 202–203, 206–207, 211, 229– 230, 234, 239, 251, 263, 265–266, 269, 281, 313, 325; 12:55, 62, 108–110, 181, 184–185, 223–224, 229–230, 234, 428–429, 462; 13:36–37, 63, 69–70, 74–76, 78, 96, 122, 126–127, 161, 255, 260; 14:11, 15, 28–30, 44–55, 57–60, 6469, 502, 508, 531–532, 554, 604–605, 616, 636, 662, 695, 712; 15:3–8, 10–11, 15, 17–20, 22, 25–29, 43, 49, 61–74, 77–79, 81–84, 88–98, 102, 104, 107, 119, 123–124, 126–127, 132–133, 135–138, 151–152, 159, 161–166, 168, 170, 179–180, 183–184, 186, 211–212, 216, 219, 223, 225, 235, 237, 239–246, 248, 250, 254–260, 263, 280–281, 306–316, 318–322, 324, 332, 335, 346–347, 351–353, 355–356, 360, 364, 366, 369–371, 376–377, 379–380, 385–389, 392, 413, 416, 419, 423, 430–432, 435, 437, 439, 441–444, 446, 450–456, 458–469, 479–484, 488, 490–495, 498, 500–506, 508–509, 512, 530–531, 533, 540, 552, 568–572, 584–585, 587–588, 615–617, 636–637, 662, 669, 674; 16:21, 35, 51, 54, 56, 117, 127, 140, 243, 249–250, 254, 261–262, 265, 350; 17:29, 31–32, 45–46, 54, 56, 59–60, 63, 185, 188, 190–191, 193, 208, 246, 250, 252–253, 308, 466, 487, 498, 513, 515, 517, 521, 561, 640, 653, 676; 18:25, 45, 53; 19:4–6, 22, 49, 53–55, 57–58, 79, 377, 379, 411; 20:58, 167–168, 170, 300; 21:24, 27, 32, 41, 47, 68, 146, 153, 155, 159–160, 170–171, 185, 211, 222, 241, 245, 260–281, 265, 271, 274, 277–278, 287, 299, 301, 328, 345, 352, 356–357, 361–362, 368, 374–375, 378–379, 381–383, 385, 388–391, 393, 398, 505

adrenal 3:265, 267–269, 274, 280, 283, 292, 309, 311, 317–318

agilis 18:165, 167, 252, 254, 329, 454; 19:79, 410, 417, 560; 20:300, 307; 21:27–28, 84, 94–95, 122, 129

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:248–249, 251, 263, 267–268, 270, 280

blood cell morphology 3:76, 80, 83–85, 88

blood cell numbers 3:96, 98–99, 101–102, 104–107

bood chemistry 3:9, 28–29, 39

chondrocranium 11:2, 8, 17–18, 24, 28, 31, 34, 40–41, 43, 46, 48–50, 53, 57–64, 71, 79, 175, 220

dentition 1:135, 137, 139, 167

ear 2:209, 245, 267, 271

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:92, 101, 108

eye 2:4, 15, 17–20, 22, 25, 27–28, 31–37, 39, 41

histology of gut 6:225, 232–234, 237–238, 242, 252, 255, 264, 267–268, 270, 272, 274, 276–281, 283–284, 288, 290–295, 301

internal relief of gut 6:177, 182–183

jacksoni 20:299

jaw muscles 4:315, 354, 361, 363–367, 389, 478–479

laevis 20:168, 300

lepida 19:410, 417; 20:307; 21:7, 208, 316, 373

limbs 4:21, 63, 73, 76

lymphatics 6:316, 326, 334, 337–338, 343, 348–349, 355, 358–360, 371–372, 381–383, 390, 395–398, 402, 404–406, 408, 410–411, 414, 420, 424, 427–428, 432, 440–443, 446, 453, 456

muralis 19:418; 20:300

muscle tissue 11:273–274, 277, 278, 292–294, 336–337

nose 2:120, 123, 126, 128–132, 135, 143, 154, 156, 158–160, 164, 168, 171–172, 174–175, 178, 180

oxycephala 20:300

pancreas 3:335, 337

parathyroid 3:246, 255, 257, 259

pituitary 3:164, 194

schreiberi 18:330

sicula 19:79

simonyi 20:300

thymus 3:112, 116–118

thyroid 3:207, 209, 213–217, 219–227

urinogenital system 6:5–7, 13–15, 18–20, 23, 25–26, 29–30, 37–38, 42, 49, 51, 54–55, 57–59, 61, 67–72, 75–79, 81–82, 84–85, 87, 89, 92, 95–100, 102, 105–107, 110–113, 116, 118

viridis 18:260–262, 265, 267, 269, 329; 19:3, 27, 48, 60, 64, 79, 299, 401, 410, 418, 545–546, 579; 20:300, 307; 21:7, 25–27, 53, 94

vivipara 18:31, 164, 171, 273, 276, 311, 357, 369–370, 398, 470; 19:79; 20:12, 33, 44, 300

Lacertaspis rohdei 21:397

Lacertidae 5:145; 7:9, 52, 166, 179, 262–263, 282– 286, 318, 366, 374, 377–378, 416–417, 446, 491–492; 8:46, 57, 684–686; 9:161, 163, 251, 338–340, 427, 332; 12:60, 99, 108–111, 379, 472; 14:29, 48, 530, 543, 571, 608, 707, 712; 15:5, 43, 306–324, 333–334, 348, 350, 356, 366, 374, 376, 380, 386–387, 416, 419–423, 533, 635–637, 664, 667–669, 674; 16:35, 140–141, 206–208, 257, 282, 294, 454–455, 465, 473, 486, 492, 516, 535; 19:21, 41, 66, 353, 410; 20:40–41, 43–47, 57–58, 78, 137, 159, 162–163, 165–166, 169–173, 178, 180, 183–184, 188, 193, 252–259, 264, 268–275, 283–284, 307; 21:14, 17, 66–67, 80, 96, 108, 116–117, 129, 153, 160, 172, 222, 250, 259, 265–266, 271–272, 279, 288–289, 294, 312, 397–398

adrenal 3:280

axial muscles 11:357, 384

axial skeleton 1:241–243, 247, 249, 251–253, 255, 257–260, 262–263, 265, 269–270

blood cell morphology 3:76, 78, 80–81, 83

blood chemistry 3:28, 31

chondrocranium 11:15, 19, 22, 39–65, 70, 73, 75, 77–78, 87, 90, 116, 121, 197, 208

dentition 1:167

ear 2:240–241, 245, 249, 267, 271

eye 2:13–14, 20, 25, 27, 29–31

histology of gut 6:227–231, 297, 299

internal relief of gut 6:177

jaw muscles 4:289, 361–367, 413, 416, 418, 478–479

lymphatics 6:337, 367, 382, 385, 453

nose 2:120, 131, 139–140, 143

parathyroid 3:255

pituitary 3:136, 143, 145–146, 151, 153–155, 157, 160, 163–164, 172–174

thymus 3:113

thyroid 3:205

Lacertiformes 20:159, 166

Lacertilia (see Sauria; Lizards)

Lacertoidea 20:137, 266

axial skeleton 1:263

pituitary 3:143, 149, 153, 155, 194–195

Lachesini 19:220

Lachesis 7:506; 8:37, 73, 99, 315, 328, 337, 447; 15:662; 16:18, 23, 47, 64, 122, 124, 130, 152, 288; 19:125, 146, 192, 220

axial muscles 11:357

ear 2:272

jaw muscles 4:425, 428, 446, 448, 456, 464–465, 482

muta 8:37, 99, 315, 328, 337, 447; 19:142, 147, 192; 20:520, 613, 615

stenophrys 20:615

Lachrymal 139, 204, 209–210, 212–213, 216, 218–220, 230–232, 247–248, 250, 254–256, 374; 11:60, 63, 80, 85, 95, 100, 106, 110–111, 125, 155, 218, 231, 233, 235, 244; 21:588

bone 2:10, 73–74; 21:587

canaliculus 2:10, 14–15, 49, 63, 74, 82; 11:17, 103

duct 2:10, 12–15, 49, 63, 74, 81–82, 86, 90, 115–116, 118–119, 125, 133–134, 137–143, 145–147, 150–151, 161, 164, 166, 168, 171–173, 178; 4:232; 11:17, 21, 46, 48, 60–61, 63, 72, 79, 84, 88, 96, 103, 108, 110–111, 120, 122, 129, 143, 152–153, 155, 158, 165, 179, 218, 234–235, 240; 21:547, 555, 558, 563, 583, 586

foramen 2:10, 74, 86, 140

foramen or notch 21:548, 555–557, 582, 586–587

gland 10–11, 14–15, 49, 63, 67, 74, 176; 4:106, 108–109; 14:308

groove 14:290, 292, 294

salt glands 5:415–418, 424, 437

sinus 2:146, 151

Lachrymonasal duct 11:234

Lacinate ligament 21:366–367, 374, 377

Lacrimal 20:12, 14, 18, 42, 44, 47, 54, 57, 74, 78, 84, 91, 97–98, 104, 109–110, 115–116, 120– 121, 128, 132, 136, 142, 154, 158–159, 166, 169, 173, 178, 185, 190, 194, 201–202, 209, 212–213, 217, 220–221, 225, 230, 234, 237, 240, 244, 258, 275, 279, 283–284, 287

duct 20:191, 244, 399, 408, 416, 422, 428, 450, 464, 472, 485, 527

foramen 20:18, 67–68, 121, 132, 154, 213, 221, 225, 230, 234, 237, 240, 248, 370, 399, 408, 428, 433–434, 436, 459, 498, 504, 511–512, 533, 569

gland(s) 8:50

groove 20:450, 473

Lacrimation 8:478

Lacrymal duct 18:433

Lactate 3:16–19; 16:255; 19:333, 511–512

blood 5:82, 182–185, 187–188, 199, 210, 320, 322–323

body 5:82

dehydrogenase 5:161, 168, 202–203, 206–207, 209; 6:231, 239, 249, 252, 268, 270, 284, 292–293, 295–296, 300

Lactation 17:595

Lactic acid 3:16, 18; 5:61, 67, 82, 183, 187, 199, 350– 351, 360; 8:646; 12:245; 13 :13–16, 25, 30, 72, 81, 137, 176–185; 18:123; 19:466, 512

burden 5:188

in development 14:314

dehydrogenase 2:288; 3:46, 49; 8:189; 11:292, 338; 13:16; 15:439; 17:372

elimination 5:187–188

flush 5:259

formation 5:198

production 5:7, 83, 184–187, 193, 195–196, 207

removal 5:188

UV 5:67

Lactacid 5:188

Lactropes 14:688, 691–692, 704, 709–710

Lactropin 14:709

Lacuna(ae) 1:55, 68, 100, 126, 145

pterygovomerin 20:15

Lacunar cell layer 18:153–154

cells 12:401–405

Laemanctus 7:478; 15:329; 16:257; 20:41, 79, 83, 87; 21:55, 92

axial skeleton 1:269

dentition 1:155–156

eye 2:26

serratus 20:83, 292

Lagena (see also Cochlear duct) 2:204, 209–210, 216, 218, 220, 236, 246, 248, 250, 252–256, 258–261; 9:13, 15; 10:215, 220, 241

Lagenar macula 2:204, 209–210, 217, 263

part of cochlear recess 2:202, 209

ramus of vestibulocochlear nerve 2:257

scala (see Scala lagenae)

Lagomorphs 14:7, 585

Lamarckian inheritance 16:237

Lambeosaurinae, nose 2:152–153

Lambeosaurus, nose 2:152–153

Lamella 17:31

lateralis 11:360

medialis 11:360

Lamellaires-zonaires 5:191

Lamellar

bodies 12:420–421; 19:16, 20, 22, 25, 36, 47

bone 1:49–50, 66, 68, 88, 109, 313

matrix 1:55, 71

sacs 2:35, 43, 58, 77

Lamellated dense body 9:415, 418–419

terminal 9:421–422, 435–436

Lamina(ae) 5:308

I 10:112, 120, 123

II 10:112, 120, 123

III 10:112, 120, 123

IV 10:112, 120, 123

V 10:95, 112, 120, 122–123, 125, 128

VI 10:93, 95, 117, 122–123,125, 128

VII 10:93, 117, 122–123, 125, 128

VIII 10:117–118, 120, 123, 125–126

IX 10:117–118, 123, 125–126

X 10:118

anterior of Internal tendon 4:107–108, 117–118, 126

anterior of Mandibular adductor tendon 4:131–132, 138–139, 141

cribosa 9:10

densa 6:45

externa 1:57

interna 1:53, 73

lateralis of Cranial adductor tendon 4:131– 133, 136–137

medialis of Cranial adductor tendon 4:131– 133, 136–137

metencephalica 17:498

muscularis mucosae (see Musculus mucosae)

of bone 1:65, 69

orbitonasalis 11:16

posterior of Mandibular adductor tendon 4:131–132, 137–141

propria 6:232–233, 423; 9:408

rara externa 6:45

rara interna 6:45

Rexed’s (see also Area, spinal) 10:69, 74, 100, 111–112, 114–116

rostralis (see Lamina anterior of Internal

tendon)

terminalis 9:246–247

terminalis anterior 11:15, 17–18, 22, 45–46, 48–49, 54–55, 66, 71–72, 74–76, 79, 88–89, 92–93, 98, 103–104, 106, 109–110, 117, 120, 122, 127, 138–140, 142–143, 152, 157, 160, 162–165, 169, 173, 176–177, 181–182, 194, 202, 208–209, 211–212, 232–235

transversalis anterior (see also Epidermal

shields) 4:250–251

Laminar bone 1:50, 53, 66

L-amino acid oxidase 3:33

Lamprey typhlosole 19:574

Lamprolepis 7:51, 179, 494; 9:332; 15:639; 20:140; 21:397

smaragdina 20:307

Lampropeltini 19:100, 103, 144–146, 162, 167, 171, 232

Lampropeltis 5:45, 133, 148, 293, 347, 488; 7:383, 389, 393, 397, 399, 501, 608–609; 8:15, 311, 377, 594–595, 655, 663, 692; 12:128, 463; 13:104, 309–310; 14:11, 665; 15:638, 671; 16:20, 45, 55, 119–120, 123, 132, 146, 184–185, 190, 215, 230–231, 239–240, 254, 295; 17:457; 18:161–162, 476; 19:232

adrenal 3:281

blood cell numbers 3:97

blood chemistry 3:5, 10, 15, 27, 30, 34, 45, 49, 51

calligaster 19:153, 207

chondrocranium 11:148

ear 2:269, 272

eye 2:53, 63

getulus 18:136, 159, 162–163, 476, 484, 486; 19:115, 207

getula(us) californiae 18:159, 161; 20:562, 640

getulus floridana 18:120, 443

getulus getulus 18:120, 476

getulus holbrooki 18:160

getulus niger 18:160

getulus splendida 18:118, 159, 163, 482

getulus yumensis 18:159

mexicana 19:153, 207

mexicana alterna 18:53

muscle tissue 11:294, 317, 336

parathyroid 3:248–249

pit organs 2:295

pyromelana 18:177; 19:207

ruthveni 19:207

thymus 3:121, 124–125

triangulum 18:120; 19:99, 153, 207; 20:640

urinogenital system 6:227–228, 230–231, 272, 276, 287–300, 349, 352, 420–424, 458

zonata 19:207

Lamprophiinae 19:224–225, 236; 20:561

Lamprophiini 19:224

Lamprophis 12:112–115; 16:120, 146; 19:161, 224; 21:530–532, 534, 579, 604

aurora 19:163, 207; 20:633

chondrocranium 11:136, 157–159, 186

eye 2:63

fiskii 19:163, 207

fuliginosus 19:153, 163–164, 167–168, 207; 20:632

fuscus 19:163, 208

geometricus 19:163, 208

guttatus 19:163, 208

inornatus 19:163, 208

lineatus 19:153, 163, 208

nose 2:121, 135

olivaceus 19:153, 163–164, 168, 208

virgatus 19:163, 208

Lampropholis 15:639; 16:517; 21:397

delicata 18:30

elongata 21:400

guichenoti 18:30, 236, 239

Lanceolate terminal 9:410, 412, 418–419, 426, 432, 436

Land iguana (see Conolophus)

tortoise (see Testudo)

Landolt’s club 2:36, 38; 17:54

Langaha 19:225; 21:605

nasuta 19:208; 20:645

Lankascincus 21:397

Lanolin 5:100

LANT -6 17:65, 72, 77, 654–655, 658, 659–660, 690, 692

Lanthanotidae (see also Varanidae) 8:46; 12:99; 15:333; 19:31, 38, 70; 20:195–196, 235, 237– 238, 261, 266; 21:15, 67, 96, 109, 400–401

axial skeleton 1:242, 253, 255, 257, 259–260, 262–263, 268–269, 301

dentition 1:171

ear 2:240–241, 249–250, 271

jaw muscles 4:394–407, 479

eye 2:27

nose 2:140

pituitary 3:195

taxonomic literature 2:320

thyroid 3:206

Lanthanotus 8:80–81, 146, 152; 12:472; 13:2; 16:37, 129, 142; 19:21–22, 29–32 37, 70–71; 20:33, 56, 196, 222–224, 236, 239–240, 253–256, 262, 265, 269, 273, 423; 21:80, 86, 90, 96, 122–123, 143–144, 185, 298, 400, 476, 511, 546, 551, 569, 603, 613

axial skeleton 1:241, 247, 249, 261

borneensis 8:80–81; 19:79; 20:235, 237, 303; 21:7, 401

chondrocranium 11:111, 113–114, 149

dentition 1:171

ear 2:221, 224, 249, 271

eye 2:14, 27, 32, 83

jaw muscles 4:287–288, 296, 311, 314–315, 317, 382, 388, 394–408, 414, 471, 479

nose 2:122, 140

Lapemis 5:434; 8:29, 198–199, 219, 225–226, 334, 356–357, 442, 455; 12:378, 426; 13:7, 34, 37, 192; 19:223

annandalei 20:628

curtus 8:29, 198, 218, 225–226, 356–357, 442, 455; 19:107, 199; 20:628

ear 2:272

hardwickii 8:29, 334; 18:438; 20:628

jaw muscles 4:450–452, 455, 483

pancreas 3:324

viperinus 8:29, 442

Lapparentophiidae 20:594

Lapparentophis 20:595

axial skeleton 1:281

defrennei 20:594

Lappets 1:95, 97, 111

Large intestine (see also Colon) 5:10, 57, 98, 383, 496

mononuclears (see Monocytes)

single cone (see Type A cone; Type A2 cone)

Larrea 5:170

Larus 9:156; 16:397

Larval stage 1:37

Laryngeal

branch of vagus nerve 3:203

cartilage 11:240

muscles 14:436

net 6:379–380, 431

Laryngotracheal groove 19:114

Larynx 4:152–155, 175–182, 184, 191–193; 6:375, 407, 431; 10:210; 11:4, 9, 36; 14:423, 427; 19:8, 104, 113, 116–120, 174; 20:383; 21:546, 552, 595

Laser 5:7

Latastia 16:117

blood cell morphology 3:88

Latency 11:305

Lateolabrax japonicus 19:566

Lateral

ampulla 2:204, 206, 228

ampullary crest 2:204

and mesial plantar tubercles 21:380

bending 21:61

branch of epaxial nerve 11:359

branch of ramus ethmoidalis (see Ramus

lateralis nasi of ethmoidal nerve)

bundle 10:84, 122

caudal trunk 6:320–321, 334, 336–337, 341, 344, 360, 394, 402, 406

centrale 21:10, 119–121, 123

cephalic vein 2:50, 197; 4:226

choanal fissure 2:126, 134, 137–138, 140

column of epaxial muscle (see M. iliocostalis)

cutaneous nerve 11:414, 418

digital tendons 21:134, 315

dorsal peduncle 10:174, 178, 191, 318

epicondyle 21:150, 376

ethmoid nerve (see Ramus lateralis nasi of

ethmoidal nerve)

ethmoidal branch of ophthalmic nerve 11:15–19, 46, 79, 87, 93–94, 96–98, 103, 127, 129, 140, 142–143, 165, 179, 181–182, 208, 232, 235, 240

Eustachian tube (see Rhomboidal sinus)

flexure of neck 1:219

femoral condyle 21:153, 156

femoral epicondyle 21:366, 368

foramen 1:286

foramina of maxilla 20:467, 473

forebrain bundle 9:229; 10:145, 151, 153, 159, 165, 192, 253, 270, 272, 274, 294, 312, 319

foot process of prefrontal 20:445, 447, 453, 455, 464–465, 473

frontal flange 20:362, 395, 397, 402, 405, 414, 426, 456, 462, 476–477, 491, 499, 540

Grenzfalte 2:105–111, 169, 177, 183

head vein (see also Lateral cephalic vein) 20:89, 116, 125, 135, 137, 147, 159, 164, 166, 172, 174, 192, 232, 271; 21:480

internal thoracic lymphatics 6:359

lamina of nasal 20:560

lamina of prefrontal 20:452, 565, 570

lemniscus 10:139, 141, 143, 149, 151, 157–158, 163, 173–175, 191, 217, 223

levator pterygoideus 21:508

line canals 1:25

line net 6:370

line vein 6:456

mandibular fenestra (see External mandibular

fenestra)

maxillary process 21:580

nasal fissure 11:75, 79, 84, 86–89, 92–94, 96, 196

nasal gland (see also External nasal gland) 11:15, 17, 19, 46, 49–51, 72, 79, 86–87, 91– 92, 94, 96–97, 102–104, 109–110, 120, 122, 126, 129, 142–143, 155, 165, 176, 178–179, 210, 232, 235; 20:379–380, 433, 439, 560, 570; 21:558–559, 562, 575, 583–584, 586

nasal gland of Müller (see External nasal

gland)

nasal plantar tubercle 21:180, 182, 184–185, 376, 378–379

nasal process 2:166, 168, 171

opening of recessus scalae tympani 20:11, 28, 32–34, 73, 89, 102, 111–112, 124, 128, 135, 147–148, 150, 156, 166, 172–173, 182–183, 192–193, 206, 209, 215–217, 223, 225, 232, 234, 246, 248–249, 270, 278, 282, 287

osseus ampulla 2:202–203

palatal opening 4:368, 386

pallium 18:441–444, 446–447

paraseptal cartilage 11:88–89

part of perivertebral lymphatic system 6:401–402

part of recessus scalae tympani 20:112, 158, 186

pelvic plexus (see Pelvic plexus)

plate 6:12, 18; 11:355

plate mesoderm 21:24

process 17:33

process of hymerus 4:14, 16–18, 26–27, 30–31, 33, 93

process of ischium 4:52–55, 62, 74–75, 77

process of pubis 4:52–55, 61–62, 67–68, 71, 73, 75, 78, 95–96

process of the palatine 21:554–556, 558, 563–564

pterygoid wing 4:205, 211, 214, 217, 219, 221, 235–236, 246, 248, 256, 258–259

ramus of the ethmoidal nerve (see Ramus

lateralis nasi of ethmoidal nerve)

recess (see also Extraconchal space) 2:136

recess of nasal sac (see Subconchal recess)

recess of nasal sac or capsule 11:17, 46, 49–50, 79, 88, 102, 104, 109–110, 142–143, 157, 162–163, 165, 167, 171, 176–177, 179, 182, 202, 235, 240

rictal plate 4:293–296, 300–302, 304, 322, 353, 360, 363–365, 382, 386–387, 397, 399–401, 403–404, 406, 409, 414, 431, 451

rectus 21:518

ridge (see Margo Lateralis)

scapulohumeral ligament 21:258, 260, 263

semicircular canal 2:203, 206; 11:25, 28, 45, 79, 84, 110, 119, 140, 166, 173

semicircular duct 2:206–207

septum 11:374

sequence gaits 4:6–8

shield (see Pleural shield)

sulcus 2:105–106, 109–110, 155

superficial collector of tail 6:403–404, 406

temporal fenestra (see Infratemporal fenestra)

temporal opening 1:12, 14

tibial nerve 4:86

tracheal lymphatic trunk 6:433

trunk 6:316, 318, 320–322, 324, 327–330, 334, 336–338, 340–341, 345, 348, 352, 357–367, 372–373, 376, 383–385, 387, 392–393, 395–400, 450, 455–456

trunk of the neck 6:381–382

trunk of the tail (see Lateral caudal trunk)

undulations 21:45

ventral peduncle 10:178, 310

ventricle 17:328

wing of the sphenoid 21:530–531

Laterale Grenzleiste (see Lateral Grenzfalte)

Nasendrüse (see External nasal gland)

Lateraler Nasenfortsatz (see Lateral nasal

process)

Laterally compressed teeth 1:121

Laternaria 16:173

Laterohyal 11:33, 80, 118–120, 124, 193, 198, 233, 239

Laterosphenoid 4:143, 202, 205, 211, 214, 217, 219, 221–222, 224–225, 228–229, 232–233, 236, 238, 252, 255, 257, 274, 278; 11:4, 23, 68, 70, 95, 129–130, 132–133, 150, 153, 166, 184–191, 203, 216, 242; 20:357, 364–365, 375–376, 381, 394, 398, 408, 438, 442, 458, 471, 477, 479, 505, 508, 540–541, 562, 565, 567; 21:480

Lates, epiphyses and sesamoids 1:89

Laticauda 5:388, 431–433, 437, 451, 453, 456, 458, 460; 7:205, 215, 221; 8:26, 29, 58, 73, 180, 192, 198–201, 204–207, 219, 221, 225, 227, 265, 272–273, 290, 326, 334, 354, 355–356, 442, 448, 452, 455, 458, 474, 481, 695; 12:332, 358, 363, 377, 383, 426; 13 :14, 27–28, 31, 34, 192; 15 :652–653, 662; 16:43, 287, 299–300; 19:100, 132, 134, 146, 150, 154, 156, 196; 20:518, 534–535; 21:602

adrenal 3:281

axial muscles 11:357, 417

blood cell morphology 3:78–79, 82

blood chemistry 3:6, 15

colubrina 8:29, 58, 73, 198, 219, 334, 442, 695; 19:105, 107, 138, 196, 221, 330, 356; 20:622

crockeri 8:29

dentition 1:177

ear 2:254, 270, 272

jaw muscles 4:483

laticaudata 8:29, 180, 218, 227, 326, 356, 442, 448, 474, 481; 19:123, 166, 196, 221

nose 2:121–122, 130, 136, 174

semifasciata(us) 8:29, 180–181, 192, 198, 200, 204, 206, 218, 221, 225, 265, 272, 290, 345–356, 442, 448, 452, 455, 458; 19:148, 196, 221; 20:540–541

urinogenital system 6:45

Laticaudidae 13:2; 19:221

Laticaudinae 19:171; 20:534, 540, 544, 622

Laticotoxin 8:227

Latimeria 15:529; 19:564, 572

Latisita 7:263

Latissimus dorsi 21:29, 31–32, 207, 212

Latitude (see Life history traits, distribution),

latitude; Parental care)

Laudakia 20:96–97, 100–102; 21:91, 145, 272, 279, 302

caucasica 20:294, 305

himalayana 20:294

stellio 19:22, 24, 41, 79; 21:123, 209; 20:294

tuberculata 20:294

vulgaris 20:294

Lauric acid 18:194

Lavender oil 18:199

Law of effect 7:560

Laws of brain growth 9:40

Layer

granule cell 17:500, 515, 520, 651

inner nuclear 17:103

inner plexiform 17:70, 74, 84, 149, 159

molecular 17:509, 514–515, 526, 528

outer plexiform 17:155

Purkinje 17:509–510

Layered membrane 12:401

LD50(values) 8:438, 440–441, 573, 576, 578, 581, 584

Lead

acetate 1:77

citrate 3:241–142, 244, 333; 6:226

-haematoxylin 6:283

placements 5:293

Lean growth energy 13:247

Learning (see also Conditioning; Delayed reaction

problems; Habituation; Maze learning;

Maze studies; Partial reinforcement

studies; Probability learning; Problem

box learning; Respondent conditioning;

Shuttle box learning; Successive habit) 8:2; 12:30; 16:168, 190, 194, 196, 291, 302; 18:425, 466, 490

attempts at predictability 7:656

comparison of approaches 7:564

Crocodilia 7:570

definition of 7:557–558

effect of temperature on 7:619

ethological approach 7:563

future goals 7:664–668

general process approach 7:562–563

Gestalt approach to 7:561–562

in reptiles 7:555–668

maze 18:425, 475

multi-test approach to 7:562

observational 8:5

phyletic differences in 7:564–565

phyletic discontinuity approach 7:564–565

Sauria 7:571

Serpentes 7:571

Testudines 7:568–570

view of 7:558

Y-maze (junction) 18:135–136, 139–141, 151, 162, 186

test 18:151

Least squares regression line 5:139–140, 146–147, 150–152, 163, 177, 230

Leavachia 9:299

Lecanium, postmeiotic restitution 15:479

Lecithin (monolayers) (see Phosphatidal)

choline 8:260, 473, 488, 514

Lecithinase (see Phospholipase A2)

Lecithinase B (see Phospholipase B)

Lectin(s) 18:442; 19:495, 506

Lectotype 15:468, 470

Leech 8:456

Left

aorta (see Left systemic arch)

gastric-pancreatic artery 3:321

gastro-splenic artery 3:322

systemic arch 3:321, 325, 333

Leidyosuchus, skull 4:279

Leimadophis 5:133, 148; 7:227, 501; 8:40

reginae 20:654

taeniurus 20:654

typhlus 8:40

Leiocephalidae 21:12, 67, 129

Leiocephalus 7:274, 360, 478–479; 15:632; 16:115; 20:45, 79–80, 83, 89–90, 292; 21:88, 95

dentition 1:155–156

ear 2:271

herminieri 20:305

pancreas 3:330–332, 335–338

Leioheterodon 19:101, 225

ear 2:272

geayi 19:208

madagascariensis 19:208; 20:633

modestus 19:208

Leiolaemidae 21:12, 129

Leiolepis 9:339; 15:418–419, 435–436, 488, 502–504, 507; 16:137, 258; 20:91–92, 96, 98, 100–103; 21:88, 95, 220, 224, 232, 234–235, 246, 250, 252, 257, 266, 268, 271, 275–276, 279, 281, 338, 345, 347, 350, 352, 357, 361, 375, 378–379, 382–383, 393–394, 396

axial muscles 11:385

belliana 19:22, 79; 20:294, 305; 21:7

bellii 20:294

eye 2:25, 27

jaw muscles 4:477

Leiolopisma 5:199; 7:viii, 51, 69, 179, 263, 287– 288, 373, 493; 8:687; 12:112; 13 :95, 308–309; 15:532, 535, 540, 543, 555–556, 558–561, 592, 594, 639–640, 670, 675–676; 16:21, 51, 141, 465, 517; 17:99; 20:138, 146; 21:397

adrenal 3:280

ear 2:207, 267,271

grande 19:418

muscle tissue 11:283, 336

thyroid 3:216, 218, 227

urinogenital system 6:37–38, 63, 72–73, 78, 82, 97–98, 100, 118–119

Leiopython 19:101; 20:443

albertisii 19:196; 20:433, 439, 442, 444, 604

Leiosauridae 21:12

Leiosaurus 15:329; 16:140, 256; 20:82, 84

axial skeleton 1:269

chondrocranium 11:86

nose 2:119, 128

Leioselasma 19:101

Leismania, blood cell morphology 3:88

Lejosophis gigas 20:654

Length-tension curve 11:293

Lens 2:2, 6, 18–25, 33, 52, 64–65, 69–72, 75, 82–83; 11:17, 128, 143; 17:215

aperture 2:83

capsule 2:4, 25, 64, 69–70

development 14:132, 288, 290, 292, 509

ectoderm 14:132

fibers 2:4, 19, 25, 52

placode 14:398

sutures 2:52, 75

vesicle 2:4; 14:132, 173

Leopard shark 8:616

Lepidoblepharis, ear 2:266, 271

Lepidochelys 5:347, 386, 393, 420; 8:591, 670; 12:140, 195, 337; 13:12, 307; 14:79, 81, 94–95, 99, 124–130, 134–135, 145, 148, 152, 155–156, 158, 222, 271, 274–278, 280–282, 305, 308–312; 15:264, 273–274; 16:354, 365, 367, 391, 402, 404, 436, 526

adrenal 3:275–276

blood chemistry 3:4

chondrocranium 11:219, 223–224

kempii 18:192, 466

limbs 4:2, 11, 33, 35

olivacea 18:315

shell 1:324, 329

thyroid 3:209, 226

urinogenital system 6:11, 117

Lepidodactylus 7:467; 15:418, 430–431, 433, 456– 457, 459, 492, 587; 16:513; 21:95, 397

dentition 1:148, 161

ear 2:271

lugubris 18:13; 21:185, 188

nose 2:120

Lepidophyma 12:120, 462, 464, 474; 13:308; 15:416, 430, 499, 503; 16:142; 20:158, 160, 162–164, 166, 259; 21:89, 275

axial skeleton 1:263, 270

chondrocranium 11:71

ear 2:271

eye 2:26, 30–31

flavimaculatum 20:161–162, 164, 299, 308

Lepidosauria 9:19, 29, 57, 66, 75, 139; 14:19, 528–529, 537, 550–551, 585, 616, 618, 692; 19:2, 21–34, 37, 44, 66, 69, 74, 297; 20:1, 4–7, 14–15, 48, 51, 62–65, 68, 246, 250–254, 257–258, 260–261, 263, 266, 269–275, 277, 279, 285–286; 21:8–10, 38

adrenal 3:272, 276, 278, 286, 295, 309, 312

axial muscles 11:375–376, 396, 423

axial skeleton 1:207, 234–299, 301–302

blood cell morphology 3:80

bone 1:61–63

chondrocranium 11:4, 6, 21, 23, 36–38, 144, 168, 191–204, 207, 210, 241, 246

dentition 1:151–184

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:92–106

eye 2:86–92

histology of gut 6:255, 287

origin and evolution 1:3–7

parathyroid 3:245–259

pituitary 3:139, 165

thymus 3:112–114, 118

Lepidosauromorpha 20:4, 250, 252, 254, 257, 262, 264, 273, 279, 285, 287; 21:185

Lepidosaurs 12:287, 303, 401, 404, 412

Lepidosiren 19:535, 564

paradoxa 19:37, 53, 57, 572

Lepidosis 19:94

Lepisosteus 17:683

Leposoma 13:210; 15:417, 428; 16:142, 464–465, 513; 20:186, 188–193, 301

parietale 20:187, 189, 191, 308

percarinata 20:189

Lepospondyli, origin and evolution 1:18, 20, 22

Leposternon 8:689; 15:18; 19:33, 81, 557; 21:623–624, 633–635, 644, 676, 678–679, 682, 687–689, 695, 697, 699, 707, 729

chondrocranium 11:125–126, 128, 132, 135

infraorbitale 21:689, 691, 695–698, 731

internal relief of gut 6:190, 192

microcephalum 21:626–627, 688–690, 695–698, 731

polystegum 21:689, 692, 695–698, 706, 731

scutigerum 21:689, 693, 695–698, 731

wuchereri 21:689, 693, 695–698, 731

Leposternum, axial skeleton 1:272–273, 276, 278–279

jaw muscles 4:311, 397–398, 409, 414, 416, 420, 480

nose 2:122

Leptodactylus 16:9

Leptodeira 7:277, 501; 8:40, 91, 181, 251, 262, 296, 316, 323–324, 327, 440; 15:647; 16:230; 17:8–9, 24, 26–27; 19:208, 229

annulata 8:181, 251, 262, 296, 316, 323–324, 327, 440; 19:127, 142, 153, 208; 20:651

annulata polysticta 18:28

bakeri 19:208; 20:651

chondrocranium 11:159

ear 2:272

eye 2:62, 91

frenata 19:208; 20:651

jaw muscles 4:481

latifasciata 20:651

maculata 19:208; 20:651

nigrofasciata 19:208; 20:651

punctata 19:208

septentrionalis 8:40; 19:208; 20:651

splendida 19:208

urinogenital system 6:30, 94

Leptodeirini 19:103, 229

Leptodrymus 19:231

pulcherrimus 19:142, 208; 20:640

Leptoglossa

internal relief of gut 6:177

nose (see also Scincomorpha) 2:127, 139

Leptognathus philippii 20:652

Leptomenix 9:23

Leptomicrurus 8:21; 16:150; 19:221

collaris 8:21; 19:196

narducci 8:21; 19:196; 20:621; 21:571

schmidti 8:21

Leptomonas, blood cell morphology 3:86

Leptophis 7:501; 8:40, 692; 16:146; 19:208, 231

ahaetulla 8:40; 19:127, 151, 208; 20:640

cupreus 19:208

dentition 1:177

depressirostris 19:208; 20:640

diplotropis 8:40; 19:153, 208

ear 2:272

liocercus 20:640

mexicanus 19:142, 208; 20:640

modestus 19:208, 236

nebulosus 19:208

richardi 20:640

riveti 19:208

Leptoropha, origin and evolution 1:11

Leptosiaphos 15:138

blochmanni 21:402

graueri 21:398

hackarsi 21:401

luberoensis 21:402

vigintiserierum 21:397

Leptospirosis 5:27

Leptosuchus 9:79, 81

Leptotene 14:51

Leptotyphlopidae 7:9, 497; 8:46, 658, 695; 10:225; 12:126, 134; 15:100, 117, 121, 663– 664, 666–667; 16:39, 121, 151, 288, 296, 454; 17:218; 19:127, 129–130, 151–152, 158–159, 171, 184, 218; 20:354, 360, 370, 373, 375–376, 389, 398, 401, 415, 589–590, 597; 21:511, 528, 542, 547, 552, 564–565, 567–568, 574, 581, 584, 596, 601, 607–609, 612–613

adrenal 3:281, 284

axial muscles 11:417

axial skeleton 1:206, 284–285, 290–291

blood cell morphology 3:77

blood chemistry 3:28, 31

chondrocranium 11:180–185

dentition 20:378

ear 2:227, 252–254, 268, 271

eye 2:54

feeding mechanics 20:371

histology of gut 6:244, 287

jaw muscles 4:370–374, 413, 421, 427, 430, 434–436, 448, 480

nose 2:120

pancreas 3:324

pituitary 3:136, 144, 146, 151, 156–157, 181–183, 192–195

urinogenital system 6:30, 113

Leptotyphlopoidea, pituitary 3:136, 140, 154

Leptotyphlops 5:491; 7:70, 497; 8:58, 73, 658, 695; 9:368; 10:204, 230; 12:131, 134, 465; 16:7–8, 39, 120, 150, 288; 19:122, 144–145, 150, 185, 218, 507; 20:372, 374; 21:476–477, 483, 485, 495, 510, 534, 542, 545, 562–563, 572, 579, 597, 604, 611–612, 614–615

adrenal 3:281

affinis 19:184

albifrons 19:184; 20:374, 597; 21:562

albipunctatus 19:184

albiventer 19:184

algeriensis 19:184

anthracinus 19:152, 184

australis 19:184

axial skeleton 1:290

bakewelli 20:369, 371, 373, 597; 21:542, 545

bicolor 19:184

bilineatus 19:184; 20:597

blanfordii 19:184; 20:374, 597

blood cell morphology 3:77, 79

blood chemistry 3:28

borapeliotes 19:184

borrichianus 19:184

boueti 19:184

boulengeri 19:184; 20:374

brasiliensis 19:184

broadleyi 19:100

cairi 19:184; 20:374–376, 597

chondrocranium 11:180, 182–184

collaris 19:184

columbi 19:184

conjunctus 19:184; 20:597

cupinensis 19:184

dentition 1:178

diaplocius 19:184

dimidiata(us) 19:184; 20:372, 374, 597; 21:536, 561, 600, 604

distanti 19:184; 20:597

drewesi 19:100, 184

dugandi 19:184

dulcis 18:117, 119–122, 133, 139, 316, 462, 479–480, 487; 19:184; 21:561, 584; 20:597

ear 2:268, 271

emini 19:184; 20:374, 598; 21:545, 561

eye 2:50–52, 54–55

goudotii 19:184; 20:597

gracilior 19:184

histology of gut 6:255, 296

humilis 19:184; 20:374, 597; 21:542

jaw muscles 4:372, 426, 434–436, 440, 480

joshuai 19:184

kafubi 20:374, 598

labialis 19:184; 20:374, 598

latifrons 19:184

latirostris 19:184

leptepileptus 19:184

longicaudus 19:184; 20:374, 598

macrolepis 19:152, 184; 20:375, 598; 21:562

macrops 19:100, 184

macrorhynchus 19:184; 20:374, 598; 21:476, 485

macrurus 19:184; 20:374

magnamaculata 20:597; 21:545

maximus 19:184; 20:598; 21:561, 563, 584, 600

melanotermus 19:184

merkeri 19:185

meszoelyi 19:100

munaoi 19:185

narirostris 19:185

nigricans 19:185; 20:374, 598; 21:476, 485, 545

nigroterminatus 20:374

nose 2:120

nursii 19:185; 20:374

occidentalis 19:185; 20:374, 598

pancreas 3:323

pembae 19:185

perreti 19:185

peruvianus 19:185

phillipsi 19:185

pituitary 3:156, 181, 183

pungwensis 19:100, 185

reticulatus 19:185; 20:374

rufidorsus 19:185

scutifrons 18:316; 19:185; 20:374, 376, 598; 21:485, 536

septemstriatus 19:185

striatulus 19:185

subcrotillus 19:185

sundewalli 19:185

sylvicolus 19:100, 185

telloi 19:185

tenellus 19:185

tesselatus 19:185

tricolor 19:185

unguirostris 19:185

urinogenital system 6:38, 49, 57, 63, 89–90, 95

weyrauchi 19:185

Lepturophis 19:230

borneensis 19:208

Lerista 12:112, 460; 15:614, 639–642, 661–662, 670, 675; 16:52, 228, 141, 517; 21:58

aericeps 21:402

arenicola 21:397

borealis 21:403

bougainvillii 21:398–399

christinae 21:401–402

desertorum 21:403

distinguenda 21:400, 402

dorsalis 21:402

elegans 21:401

fragilis 20:307; 21:403

gerardii 21:403–404

haroldi 21:403

kalumburu 21:403–404

lineata 21:403

macropisthopus 21:403

microtis 21:397–398

muelleri 21:402–403

neander 21:404

orientalis 21:402

planiventralis 21:403

punctatovittata 21:404

separanda 21:402

stictopleura 21:404

storri 21:404

taeniata 21:402

talpina 21:403

terdigitata 21:403

vittata 21:403

walkeri 21:403

wilkinsoni 21:402

xanthura 21:402

zonulata 21:402

Lesion study (see also Brain study, lesions) 10:292, 313

Lesser curvature of stomach 3:322; 6:412–415, 426

Lesser omentum 6:411, 413, 426

Lethal

abnormalities 15:430, 451–453

genetic factors 15:430

high body temperature 12:19

minimum 12:18

Lethality 8:176, 438

Letisimulation 7:382–383

Leucine 3:23, 40; 5:486

aminopeptidase (LAP) 3:29; 8:326–327

naphthylamidase 3:47–48, 51

Leucineamino-pepitase 6:230, 249, 280, 295

Leucocystic

count (see Leucocystic formula)

formula 3:93–94, 100–107

Leucocyte 6:97; 8:379–380

counts 6:61

Leucocytes 3:74, 86, 88, 93–94, 100–107; 13:91

Leucocytosis 3:104

Leucogram (see Leucocystic formula)

Leucocytosis 8:497, 499

Leucopenia 3:104; 8:499, 599; 14:614

“Leucostoma peptidase A” 8:319

Leukemia 14:665–666

Leukocyte, number, variation 14:612–614

Levator

bulbi 21:511, 521, 545

bulbi muscle 2:7, 9, 11–14, 46, 67

bulbi musculature 21:513–514, 517, 529–530, 540–541, 551–552

crest of the parietal 21:512, 528, 551, 587–589

palpebralis superior muscle 2:74

pterygoideus 21:511–512, 551, 566–567

scapulae 21:212

vomeris muscle 2:49

Levels of organization (see also Organizational

levels) 4:263–264, 266, 276

Leverage (see Condyle)

Leydig cell(s) (see also Interstitial cell) 14:339

LH (see Luteinizing hormone)

cell (see Gamma cell)

-RH (see Luteinizing hormone-releasing

hormone)

Lialis 7:21, 470; 8:661, 686; 15:329; 16:9, 33, 117; 18:437; 20:130–133, 135–136, 254

adrenal 3:280

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:246, 267, 269

blood cell morphology 3:76

burtonensis 20:297

burtonis 20:131–132, 134–135, 297, 307

chrondocranium 11:83–84

dentition 1:163

ear 2:242, 266, 271

eye 2:15, 20, 26, 42–43

jaw muscles 4:289, 350–351, 353–355, 368, 413, 417–418, 478

jicari 20:132, 297, 307

nose 2:120, 127, 132, 178

parathyroid 3:255

pituitary 3:146, 168

Liasis (see also Morelia; Python) 12:126–127; 16:143, 285, 289, 291, 300, 303; 19:186, 234

albertisii 20:604

amethystinus (see also Morelia amethistina) 19:414–415, 419

childreni 20:604

ear 2:269, 271

fuscus 19:186

jaw muscles 4:481

lymphatics 6:415, 421, 434, 441, 446

mackloti 19:154, 186; 20:440, 604

olivaceus 19:154; 20:605

papuana 20:604

pit organs 2:295, 302–303

stimsoni 20:604

urinogenital system 6:26

Libertadictus 19:101

Lichanura 7:393–394, 498; 8:690; 12:127; 13:163, 181, 187–188; 16:15, 38, 51, 143; 19:157, 235; 21:554

adrenal 3:281

blood cell morphology 3:77

blood chemistry 3:5, 10, 28

ear 2:271

eye 2:51

pancreas 3:323, 329

pituitary 3:184

pit organs 2:295, 301

roseofusca 19:140, 160

trivirgata 19:166, 189; 20:608

Lick (see Tongue, lick)

Lidocaine 5:53

Lielaphis 19:104, 236

dumerilii 19:236

parvus 19:153

Life

cycle 18:115

expectancy (see Life history methods; Life

history traits)

-history 19:156, 353

history theory 13:235, 240–244, 256–261

of individual teeth 1:141, 185

style 13:301–302

tables

lizards 7:191–194

uses of 7:193–194

Life history methods (see Life history traits;

Statistical analyses)

age estimates 16:347–350

age of reproduction 16:353–356, 447–448

age structure 16:347–353

capture methods (see Capture methods)

clutch size and frequency 16:358–368

common garden studies 16:500

fecundity 16:353–368, 358, 448

gonadal cycles 16:356–360

gravidity 16:355

growth models 16:347–350

histological stains 16:355

injury rates (see also Caudal autotomy) 16:352

life expectancy 16:351

life tables 16:335–336, 351, 367

long-term studies 16:333, 369, 499

marking methods (see Marking methods)

mortality rates 16:350–353

multiple clutches (see clutch size and frequency)

newborns 16:346–347, 351

ovarian cycles 16:358–360

population size 16:343–347

predation intensity 16:352

relative clutch mass 16:364–365, 449, 488, 495

reproductive maturity 16:345–356, 358

reproductive periodicity 16 :358

skeletochronology 16:347–350

survivorship (see also Embryos) 16:242, 267, 350–353

testicular cycles 16:357–358

transplant studies 16:500

x-radiography 16:355, 360–361, 368

Life history traits (see Life history methods;

Parental care)

age of first reproduction (see reproductive

maturity)

age structure (see Age)

analyses (see Statistical analyses)

birth rate 16:333

body size 16:362–365, 391–395, 398–400, 406–421, 443–444, 446, 450–451, 456–463, 466–497, 512–521

brood frequency 16:333, 359, 365, 391–393, 395, 400–401, 407–409, 412, 415–421, 443–448, 450, 454–455, 457–463, 466–467, 469, 471, 475–483, 489–497, 512–521

clutch number (see brood frequency)

clutch size 16:333, 359, 391–394, 400–401, 406–421, 446–448, 450–451, 456–463, 466–498, 512–521

constraints 16:398, 400–401, 412–414, 420– 421, 443, 445–446, 451, 467–468, 474, 476, 485–487, 491–500

correlations among traits 16:443–447, 450–453, 456–497

death rate 16:333

diet 16:391–394, 397–398, 406–407, 410–413, 419

distribution (tropical, temperate) 16:443, 449–450, 457–461, 466–467, 469, 470–480, 482, 495, 512–521

egg size 16:311, 391–399, 406–414, 416, 420–421, 444, 475, 477, 498, 566, 584

emigration 16:333

environmental effects 16:333, 335, 400–401, 419–420, 444–445, 474, 476, 491–494, 498

evolution 16:398

fecundity (see also brood frequency; clutch

size) 16:333–334, 443

foraging mode 16:445–446, 449, 452, 467–471, 478, 492–498, 512–521

genetics 16:389, 403, 416, 419–420, 443, 445, 500

geographic variation 16:400, 414–420, 441, 453, 474–477, 499

growth 16:396–399

habitat (see also distribution) 16:391–394, 398, 406–413, 415, 420–421, 449, 462–463, 467–471, 475, 493–497, 512–521

hatchling size 16:396, 498, 546–547, 567–569, 588, 579–583

immigration 16:333

inaccuracies of data 16:449–450, 478, 480, 495, 498

interactions among traits 16:463–467, 469–420, 482

intraspecific comparisons (see geographic

variation)

intrinsic rate of increase 16:406

iteroparity 16:304, 389, 401, 405

latitude 16:359, 368, 391–394, 397, 406–407, 414–415

life expectancy 16:405, 419

life tables 16:333–336, 351, 368

longevity 16:333–336, 405

mode of reproduction 16:292–293, 307, 313, 315, 289, 401, 405, 443–444, 446–448, 450, 454–455, 457–463, 466–467, 478–483, 488, 490–497, 512–521

morphological correlates 16 :445

mortality (see survivorship)

multiple clutches (see brood frequency)

nesting (see Nests)

nutrition 16:398

parental care (see Parental care)

paternity 16:209

phenotypic plasticity 16:445

population size 16:333–334, 343–347, 498–499

predation 16:397

r-and-K selection 16:497

relative clutch mass 16:364–365, 444–445, 448–449, 452–455, 467–475, 478, 483, 485, 488–489, 493, 495, 497–498, 512–521

reproductive maturity 16:209, 333–336, 389, 394, 397–399, 405, 416, 419–421, 443–444, 447, 459, 454–467, 469–498, 512–521

scaling (see body size)

senescense 16:353, 356, 498

sex determination (see Sex determination,

differentiation)

sex ratio 16:353, 363, 402, 415, 418

sexual dimorphism 16:399

size at maturity 16:447, 454–461, 463, 466–498, 512–521

size hatchlings (see Embryos)

snakes vs. lizards 16:478, 481, 485–491, 494–497

social facilitation 16:401

“strategies” 16:443–447, 451, 461–462, 471– 474, 476, 482–485, 488–489, 495–497

survivorship 16:333–336, 396–397, 405, 418, 444, 476–477, 498

taxonomic biases 16:444, 452–453

temperature 16:398, 402–403, 419

theory 16:398–401, 403, 405, 411–412, 443–445, 471–474, 477, 498, 500

variation 16:333, 443, 449

Life tables (see Life history traits)

Ligament(s) 20:355–356, 392–394, 400, 402, 415, 417, 423, 440, 462, 476, 478–480, 490, 496, 503, 512–513, 529, 567–568, 570, 573, 576, 578–579, 587; 21:62, 70–71, 86, 177, 203, 357

apical 19:382

arteriosum 19:133

of breast-shoulder apparatus 21:97

coronary 19:487

dorsal 19:378, 381, 392, 401, 405, 409

falciform 19:487

gastrohepatic 19:486

hepatoduodenal 19:487

impressions 1:94

of levator bulbi muscle 2:7

pulmonary (see also Mesopneumonia) 19:4, 39

suspensory 19:381–382, 409, 411, 415

Ligamentary pit 1:287

Ligamentous intercentrum 1:204

Ligamentum

axillaris 21:97

hypoischium 21:141

interosseum obliquum 4:83

medianum pelvis 21:140

nuchae 4:309

thyreohyoideum 4:193

Ligatures 5:42, 64

Light 5:24, 27, 33–36, 169; 12:222, 225, 227, 231–233, 237, 257

-dark cycle 5:34

funneling 17:15

green 3:146, 151, 331

infrared 12:225

microscopy 5:417

regimes, in captive breeding 14:209–210

sensitivity 12:225

Lignin 8:631

Limb

abnormality 14:454

bud(s) 14:95–96, 399–402, 419, 447, 462, 509–510; 21:24

ablation 15:96–97

and nervous system 14:95–100

and somites 15:63, 65–66, 225

explanted 14:158, 447

formation 14:11, 17–18, 96, 123, 288, 290–291

grafts 14:447, 641

in vitro culture 14:447

nerve penetration 15:96

regression 15:100–102, 107, 110, 113, 124

role of nerves 15:84

torsion 15:70, 72

cycle 21:43

development 14:8, 96, 100–101, 123, 158–160, 176, 292, 400–403, 405–407, 409–411, 446–449, 509–511; 15:3, 5, 14, 60–139; 21:6

effect of chemicals 15:134–139

role of apical ridge 15:88, 100

role of somites 15:87–88, 100–105

stages 15:62–87

girdles 14:151–156, 176, 310, 312–313

inductive capacity 14:158

kinematics 21:206

loss 21:60

orientation 21:6

reduction 14:7, 19–20; 20:583, 591; 21:61, 187

redundancy 21:58

regeneration 14:7

Limbic

brain 10:308, 327

bulge 2:204, 217, 236–238, 245–250, 254, 260

hiatus 2:217, 220, 238, 245, 249

lip 2:236, 239, 243–245, 250, 254, 260

part of cochlear duct (see Basilar part of

cochlear duct)

system 12:227

Limbless condition 14:19–20

Limblessness (see also Reduction of limbs) 16:307

in lizards 11:65, 67, 85, 104, 361, 375, 380, 382–383, 385–389, 397, 423, 429–431

Limbs 1:32; 5:41, 93, 95, 102

amputation 15:98, 386–387

innervation 15:81–84, 122–123

muscles 15:77–78, 84–85, 122–123

primordia (anlage) 15:216, 225, 227–228, 230–231

reduction 15:100, 110, 115, 127–134

and innervation 15:96, 130

comparative studies 15:128

regeneration 15:303, 362–363, 386–392

regression 15:91, 139

rudimentary 15:3, 100–134

specialization 15:86

Limbus 2:204, 210–211, 216–218, 220, 234, 236–239, 242–255, 257, 259–261

Limenitis 16:184

Limiting

membrane 2:54, 56

similiarity, theory of 7:64

Limnophis 19:167, 233

bicolor 19:208

Limnoscelidae 19:74

origin and evolution 1:11, 14–15, 18, 30, 36, 38

Limnoscelis 20:268

bone 1:71, 76

origin and evolution 1:15, 17–18, 23, 27, 30, 35, 37–38

Limnostygis, origin and evolution 1:18

Limonene 18:495

Limulus 5:342–343

serum 14:645

Lincoln-Peterson index 16:343–346

Linea aspera 21:149

Lingua (see Tongue)

Lingual

aperature 21:605

branch of facial nerve 11:64

collectors 6:348, 379, 382–383, 385–386, 407–409

gland(s) 6:227, 232–234; 8:49–50, 53, 55, 59–66, 144; 14:427

membranes 5:374, 381

mucosa 6:408

musculature (see also Muscles) 14:427

nerve 2:294

papilla 6:232–233, 407–408

(surface of tooth) 1:119, 145

process of hyoid 11:24, 36, 40, 42, 46, 71, 79, 90, 98, 100, 107, 109–110, 115, 117, 119, 123, 133–134, 137–138, 149, 159, 164, 168, 174, 178, 183, 196, 198, 211, 215, 231, 239

ramus of V3 21:595

tooth ridges 20:547, 573

trunk 6:319–320

wall (of dental groove) 1:127

Linguatulids 5:27

Linoleic acid(s) 14:552; 18:123, 194, 199

Linton, Ohio 1:27, 36

Liocephalus, axial skeleton 1:259

Liochlorophis 19:104, 231

vernalis 19:208; 20:641

Liodytes, ear 2:272

Lioheterodon 7:501; 8:41; 16:146; 20:565; 21:605

adrenal 3:281

madagascariensis 21:493

Liolaemus 7:91, 114, 146–147, 165, 174, 180, 262, 274, 479; 8:683; 9:157, 293, 330; 12:100–101, 181; 13:98; 14:604; 15:6, 42, 348, 532, 550, 590–591, 631–632, 635, 660, 669, 674; 16:29, 33, 126, 140, 242, 464–465, 514; 20:12, 79–83, 86, 90, 292; 21:57

altissimus 21:37

blood cell morphology 3:83

blood cell numbers 3:96

chondrocranium 11:86

ear 2:271

eye 2:26

lutzae 20:305

multiformis 18:390

muscle tissue 11:314

nose 2:119, 128

pictus 20:305

scapularis 20:17, 292

urinogenital system 6:87

wiegmannii 20:85, 90, 292

Liolepis 7:488; 20:97

axial skeleton 1:258

belliana 20:294

bellii 20:294

dentition 1:157, 160

urinogenital system 6:32

Liopeltis 19:231

aestivus 20:641

baliodeirus 20:640

calamaria 19:208

frenatus 19:208

philippinus 19:208

rappi 19:153, 208

tricolor 19:208

vernalis 20:641

Liophidium 19:208, 225; 21:602

mayottensis 20:633

rhodogaster 20:633, 640

torquatum 19:208; 20:633

vaillanti 19:153, 208; 20:633, 640

Liophis 5:133, 148; 7:501; 16:120, 146, 176–177, 190, 204, 231, 483, 485, 519; 19:227; 21:509

almadensis 19:153, 208; 20:654

andinus 19:208

cobella(us) 19:208; 20:654

dentition 1:177

ear 2:272

epinephelus 19:208

jaegeri 19:208

melanotus 19:208

miliaris 19:208; 20:654

poecilogyrus 19:164, 208; 20:654

problematicus 20:654

rufiventris 20:652

reginae 19:208

sagittifer 19:208; 20:640

splendens 20:651

taeniogaster 20:654

taeniurus 19:208; 20:654

typhlus 19:208

urinogenital system 6:38

viridis 19:208

Liopholidophis 19:225; 21:605

dolicocercus 20:633, 640

eye 2:61

epistibes 20:633

grandidieri 20:633

infrasignatus 20:633

lateralis 19:142, 166, 208; 20:633, 640

pinguis 19:208; 20:633

pseudolateralis 19:208

sexlineatus 19:208; 20:633

Lioscincus 21:397

Liotyphlops 8:73; 19:235; 20:379–385; 21:476, 491, 507–509, 513, 534–535, 540–541, 552, 557–559, 562, 564, 566–568, 573, 583, 589, 593, 601, 608, 613

albirostris 19:181; 20:369, 371, 373, 378–379, 383, 598

anops 19:181

argaleus 19:181

beui 19:181; 20:598

chondrocranium 11:180, 182–184

ear 2:271

jaw muscles 4:373, 438, 440, 480

maximus 21:564

nose 2:120

ternetzii 19:181

urinogenital system 6:90

Lipase 8:615, 621

Lipid(s) (see also Fat; Skin) 3:26, 29–30, 36, 86, 128, 239–241, 250, 266–269, 288–289, 292–295, 297–298, 304–305, 309–312, 318, 334, 336–337; 5:81; 6:33–34, 36, 43, 48, 73, 75–77, 79–80, 100, 103–104, 111–112, 119, 237, 241, 246, 252, 259, 267, 279–280, 285–286, 289, 292, 294, 297; 11:267–268, 280, 282, 293, 323; 12:287, 326, 333, 336, 340, 349, 353; 13:73–82, 211–212, 236–238, 241, 243, 247, 253, 255, 265; 16:250, 253, 264, 397, 527; 18:118, 123, 150–151, 153–155, 162, 168–171, 186–187, 192, 194, 200, 203, 205–206; 19:25, 349, 351, 501, 511, 513–514, 524; 20:534

corpora luteal cell 15:580

digestion and absorption 8:615, 621, 668

epidermal 14:550

extraction studies 12:416–419

from follicle cells 14:62

in yolk 14:64, 236

limb mesoderm cell 15:66–68

metabolism and thyroid 14:553–554

oocyte 14:54, 64

peroxide 3:32

primordial germ cells 14:44, 46

seminiferous tubule cell 15:241

sheets 18:153

solubility 5:48, 494

somitic cell 15:104

straining 18:151

waterproofing 12:400, 414–424, 435

yolk sac 15:568

Lipinia 13:308; 15:639, 641, 670; 16:517; 21:397

Lipochrome 6:75

Lipofuscin 3:295; 19:499, 543

Lipogenesis 19:503

Lipoid substance 6:284

Lipolysis 8:518

Lipophosphoprotein 3:36

Lipopolysaccharide

in oocytes 14:56

response of B-lymphoctyes 14:643

Lipoprotein(s) 3:29, 33; 19:513

in yolk 14:64

Liposomes 14:61

in primordial germ cells 15:170

Lissemydinae, internal relief of gut 6:161

Lissemys 8:674; 14:115, 158, 198, 626; 16:135, 393, 439

blood chemistry 3:9

ear 2:265, 270

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104, 154–155, 158, 171–172, 180–181

internal relief of gut 6:161–162, 165–166, 170, 173, 175–176, 218–220

limbs 4:3–4, 24, 28–29, 31, 41, 47, 65, 74, 78–80, 84–85, 88, 90, 96

muscle tissue 11:283, 336

pancreas 3:320, 325

punctata 18:236, 273

punctata punctata 18:237–238

shell 1:329

Lithophagy 8:606

Live bearing (see Viviparity)

Liver 3:26, 36–37, 220, 240, 273, 320, 323, 325; 5:36, 48, 82, 160, 164, 193, 196, 198, 200–207, 232, 235, 309; 6:30, 43, 101, 104, 269, 337, 349, 355–357, 421, 424, 426, 458; 8:508, 618–620, 636, 658, 698; 11:292; 12:333; 13:32, 70, 72, 74, 87, 95; 18:151; 19:26–27, 30, 32, 39–41, 96, 114, 133, 135, 137, 139, 144, 171, 404, 485–524, 535, 543, 545, 563

and yolk proteins 14:64, 341

blood supply 19:488–489

breathing mechanics 19:41

capsule 19:491, 521

development 14:143, 162, 174, 401–402, 440; 19:487–488

diverticulum 19:488

glycogen 5:81

hilum 19:487

infection 14:212

lobes 19:487–489, 500–501, 505–506

location 19:486–487

mass 19:486–487

meatus venosus 14:438

parenchymal organization 19:489–493

structure 19:486–511

succinic dehydrogenase 5:168

succinoxidase 5:168

tubules 19:491, 493

Lizard(s) (see also specific genera and specific

families; Sauria) 5:2, 6–11, 22–23, 28–29, 33, 36, 38, 40–42, 52–53, 59, 61, 63–64, 71–72, 75, 78, 83, 88, 91, 93–98, 101–103, 126, 129–133, 137–138, 140–145, 151–154, 159–161, 163, 166–168, 170–175, 179–180, 182–188, 191–196, 198, 206–209, 227–230, 236, 239, 243, 245, 249, 251–253, 255, 259–261, 264–265, 281, 285, 387, 293–295, 297–301, 306–308, 310, 315–316, 318, 327, 348, 353–356, 365–366, 370–371, 374–375, 378, 381–382, 384, 387, 389–390, 397–402, 404, 406, 414, 420–421, 423, 425–430, 433, 435, 438–440, 448, 453–454, 456–459, 464, 466–470, 472–473, 475, 477, 479–481, 488–491, 494, 496; 8:1, 3, 7–8, 66, 146, 596, 623–624, 659, 661–662, 677–689; 9:2, 8, 12–14, 19, 24, 26, 30, 34, 43, 57, 66, 75–76, 102, 121, 128, 130, 148, 151–152, 154, 157–161, 163–164, 166–168, 218, 220, 235, 240–241, 248, 264, 271, 273, 282, 288–290, 292, 296, 323, 329, 337–338, 340–341, 349, 361, 370, 372–374, 376, 407–408, 419, 421, 425, 434, 437; 10:4, 7–10, 17, 19, 21–25, 27–33, 35–37, 39–41, 59, 63, 69, 84–85, 87, 94, 100–101, 111, 120–121, 124–126, 128, 133, 137, 167, 171, 173–174, 188–189, 191, 206–207, 217, 222–223, 225, 227, 235, 239–241, 251, 263, 265–266, 282, 293, 297, 317–318, 326, 328; 12:3, 29, 32–33, 57–58, 98–125, 142, 144, 146, 171, 173–185, 223, 227–229, 235, 238, 244, 246, 251, 278, 301, 326, 333, 367–368, 416, 425, 449, 458, 469, 486, 490, 493, 497; 13:2, 4–5, 19, 29, 31, 57, 67, 74–75, 77, 98, 100, 105, 114, 159, 162–163, 174, 177, 182, 202–204, 212–214, 216, 218, 238–240, 246, 280–282, 290–294, 301, 303; 14:19, 88, 113, 121, 153, 185, 200, 209, 220, 347, 358, 376, 442, 451, 502, 512, 514, 532, 534, 537, 555, 557, 570–571, 604, 609, 614, 616, 622, 626, 635–636, 638–639, 641–644, 648–652, 658–659, 661–663, 665, 695, 697, 700, 711–714; 19:4, 7, 12, 20, 33–34, 41, 46, 65, 134, 299, 308–309, 318–321, 337, 376, 429, 452, 485–486, 491, 508, 513, 521, 578; 20:5, 10–12, 14, 19, 23, 38, 45, 48–49, 258, 269, 352, 360–366, 389, 395, 407–408, 412, 416, 438, 460, 584, 587, 667, 671, 675, 680

alligator (see Gerrhonotus)

anole (see Anolis)

antipredator mechanisms 16:15, 17–18, 20–21, 28–37, 39, 41, 58, 122, 136–142

basilisk (see Basiliscus)

bearded (see Amphibolurus)

blue spiny (see Sceloporus)

blue tongued (see Tiliqua)

bobtail (see Trachydosaurus)

capture methods 16:339–340

carnivorous 5:172, 184, 428, 491

caudal autotomy (see Caudal autotomy)

chameleon (see Chamaeleo)

collared (see Crotaphytus)

cylindrical skink (see Chalcides)

desert iguana (see Dipsosaurus)

eggs and embryos 16:529–532, 544–546, 562, 565–568, 574

evolution of lungs 19:69–71

flat (see Platysaurus)

flying (see Draco)

fringed toed (see Uma)

Galapagos (see Tropidurus)

gecko (see Coleonyx; Gekko; Tarentola)

Gila monster (see Heloderma)

herbivorous 5:101, 170, 172, 428, 491

horned (see Phrynosoma)

iguana (see Iguana; Ctenosaura)

insectivorous 5:170

life history 16:336, 344–345, 349–350, 352, 355–356, 358, 363–365, 367–368, 403–404, 443–447, 454–477, 487–500, 512–518

marking methods 16:341–342

mimicry 16:173–174, 206–208, 242, 252

monitor (see also Varanus) 5:145, 250, 260, 262, 299, 421, 428, 488, 491

nests 16:533–535, 543, 558–559

night (see Xantusia)

parental care (see Parental care)

phylogenetic relationships 16:25, 38, 31–32, 34–35, 38, 50, 69

plated (see Gerrhosaurus)

predation (see also Caudal autotomy) 16:6–12, 114–118, 403–404

racerunner (see Cnemidophorus)

sand-burrowing 5:42

sand goanna (Varanus) 5:421, 428, 451, 454, 457–458, 464, 467–468, 470, 479

sex determination 16:353, 551–553, 583–585

sleepy (see Trachydosaurus)

slowworm (see Anguis)

spleen 19:550–554

tegu (see Tupinambis)

terrestrial 5:227, 249

xerophilous 5:145, 398, 428, 438, 456–457, 467, 494

Lobster 8:469–470

Lobulia 15:639, 641, 670, 675–676; 21:397

Local action (reaction) 8:449, 500–507, 519

anesthesia 5:52–53, 94

Locomotion 4:2, 6–11, 91–92, 95–96; 5:83, 85, 182–183, 327; 12:29, 302; 13:168–176, 194; 18:142, 167, 183, 463; 19:49, 61–62, 65, 70, 156, 158, 338–340, 398, 459, 474

allometric relationships 13:169–174

aquatic 13:2–6

caudal autotomy 16:243, 248–249, 255–259, 266–267

cost 16:488

developmental effects 16:581–582

energetics 13:168–176, 235

escape 16:26, 28, 31, 35–36, 41–42, 50–52, 205, 210–212

foraging mode 16:445–446

limbless 13:170, 194

maximal aerobic speed 13:169, 172

mimicry 16:206–208

net cost of transport 13:168–171

reptilian versus mammalian 13:172–173

swimming 13:175–176, 192

thermal dependence 13:170–173

walking and running 13:3, 168–175, 190–192

Locomotor

apparatus 1:311; 4:1–100

coordination 5:165

cycle 21:43

kinematics 21:6

modes 21:6, 195

Locus coeruleus 10:92–93, 141, 151, 158, 164, 187, 209, 232, 258, 274, 276; 17:329, 515, 529, 531, 599, 632, 651, 664

Lodoicea 12:124

Logarithmic grid 5:137, 139–140, 146–147, 150–152, 157, 177

relationship 5:29

Loggerhead sea turtle (see Caretta)

Long

ciliary artery 2:52

ciliary nerve 2:11

inferior branchial nerve 4:23

Longissimus capitis 20:51

Longissimus crest 21:496

crest of the exoccipital 21:492

Longitudinal

canal 6:52, 66–68, 70

collecting duct 6:4

columns 1:89

muscles 6:237, 269, 280, 287–288, 414, 416, 419, 423, 451

superficial lymphatic of the neck 6:374

ventral trunk 6:352, 366–367, 373, 403

Longevity (see Age; Life history traits)

Longus capitis 21:491–492

Loose collagen fiber bundles 1:313

Lophocalotes 9:339

Lophocranion rusingense 21:627

Lophognathus 8:678; 12:107–108; 16:114, 258; 20:101

gilberti 20:305

longirostris 21:7

Lophorhothon 9:101, 104

Lophosaura(us)

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:101; 16:249

ventralis 20:294

Lophura

amboinensis 20:294

axial skeleton 1:258

dentition 1:160

ear 2:271

eye 2:27

Lordosis 14:455; 18:25, 45, 53

Loreal pit(s) 5:6; 20:509–510

Loss of teeth 1:120, 124, 178–179, 181, 183, 188–189, 192

Lotka-Volterra competition model 7:43–44, 59–60

Loveridgea 8:71; 21:644, 648

axial skeleton 1:272

chondrocranium 11:126, 132

ionidesi 21:626–627, 651, 731

Loveridgelaps 8:21, 73; 19:223

elapoides 8:21; 19:197; 20:628

Low molecular weight components 8:193

Lower

alethinophidian 20:397, 475–476, 490–491, 493, 552, 563

eyelid 2:9–11, 13–14, 63, 67, 74–75, 81–82, 88; 4:130, 292, 311, 316–317, 320, 327–328, 349, 354, 362, 367, 375, 377, 384–386, 413–414

jaw (see also Mandible) 2:302–303; 20:6, 15, 25, 35–36, 43–44, 48–49, 53–54, 60, 65, 79, 85, 89, 93, 95, 97, 104, 107, 109, 114, 119, 134, 136, 139, 148, 151, 153, 157, 159, 161–162, 164, 169, 172, 175, 177, 179, 187, 193, 197–199, 201, 207, 211, 213, 216, 219, 224, 227, 232, 234, 237, 239–240, 242, 247, 249, 272, 276–278, 367, 370–371, 394, 412, 430, 691

jaw kinesis 20:367

labial scale (see Infralabial scale)

lip 2:225; 4:436, 441, 462

nasal chamber (see Choanal tube)

temporal arch (see Inferior temporal arcade)

temporal bar 20:48, 65, 68, 74, 249–251, 259, 276–277, 287

temporal fenestra 20:14, 19, 65, 74, 110, 115, 151, 218, 224

Lowland reptiles 5:193, 195

Loxocemidae 15:645; 16:39; 19:33, 186, 234; 20:354, 396, 604;q 21:549

Loxoceminae

jaw muscles 4:440

taxonomic literature 2:320

Loxocemus 19:234; 20:419, 423–424, 431–433, 436–437, 440, 478, 491, 591; 21:502, 529, 532, 549–550, 553, 579–581, 585, 590–591, 602, 604–605, 610–611

bicolor 19:186; 20:430–431, 433, 604; 21:502, 524, 532, 611

ear 2:268, 271

jaw muscles 4:481

pit organs 2:301

Loxomma, chondrocranium 11:21–22

Loxommatidae, origin and evolution 1:35

Lubricate 8:2, 6

Lucasium 7:292–294, 467; 15:328

alboguttatus 21:398

maini 21:398

squarrosus 21:398

stenodactylus 21:398

Lumbar

-aortic plexus 6:417

plexus 21:34, 325

rib 1:263

trunk 6:317–320, 331–332, 337–338, 340–349, 353–354, 358, 396–398, 406, 422, 428, 434, 441–442

vertebrae 1:203, 205, 226, 232, 238, 263, 301

Lumbosacral plexus 4:3, 63

development 15:82

reduction 15:122

Lumbricales 21:213, 304, 318, 320, 383

Lumbricus 8:377

premeiotic restitution 15:478

terrestris 18:468, 492

Lumen 5:384, 423–424, 427, 434, 437–438, 447, 473, 486, 492–495, 497–498; 8:91, 106, 111, 113, 120

Luminal

chloride 5:481

fluid 5:472, 493

membrane 5:439, 473, 479, 493, 498

Lunelaps 20:627

Lung(s) (see also Pulmonary) 3:17, 220; 4:11, 182; 5:8, 51, 57, 85, 96, 184, 196, 198, 202–203, 225–226, 228–229, 231, 236, 238–239, 241, 243, 245, 260, 276–277, 280, 284–285, 301, 305–306, 309–310, 316, 320, 322, 351–352, 365, 375, 403; 6:24, 83, 354–357, 384–385, 400, 429–430, 432–433, 458; 8:508; 10:8, 27–28, 30–34, 45; 13:8, 18–22, 26, 30; 19:1–77, 93–236, 395, 429–430, 454–455, 463–471, 473, 522, 563, 566; 20:430

accessory structures 19:8

-air interface 19:42043

-airsac system 19:63, 72–73

asymmetry 19:31, 94–95, 98, 112–114, 157, 165

avascular portion 19:7, 178

avian 19:4, 63, 71–73

bronchoalveolar 19:4, 69, 74

capacity 19:50, 352

cardiac 19:33034, 100, 102–106, 126, 129–134, 138–139, 177

chamber (camera) 19:2–9, 18–22, 24–25, 28–38, 41–42, 60–63, 65, 67–75, 102–103, 107, 111, 113, 120, 130, 132–133, 135–136, 138–141, 170, 235–236, 331, 350

development 14:140–142, 174, 311, 401, 436

development (embryology) 19:24, 34, 71–72, 112–115

diffusion capacity 19:327

disease 14:212

diverticulum 19:23–24, 134

evolution 19:38, 67–75, 165

external suspensory structures 19:38–41

fluid balance 19:298, 346–348

foramina 19:100, 129

function 19:354

gas 19:64, 306, 312, 326–328, 331–332, 334–335, 340, 345, 467, 471

gas content 5:259

gases 5:79, 247, 301, 304–306, 321, 327

high-performance 19:2

hilus 19:5–6, 8, 22, 31–32, 34–35, 37, 41

histology 19:111–112

historical review of literature 19:97–100

hypothetical ancestral reptilian 19:3

in vitro culture 14:462

inflation of 19:48, 56, 108

innervation 5:236–237

left lung 19:4, 26–33, 39, 70, 94, 96, 98, 100, 102, 104–105, 113–115, 132–135, 139, 141, 143, 156, 161–162, 164, 168–171, 179–180, 234

blind sac 19:180

complex 19:157–168

length 19:102, 105–106, 131, 134, 138–140, 148, 151, 161

reducton of 19:29, 39, 94–95, 114, 139, 149–150, 155, 157–160, 163–165, 170

lobes 19:4, 6, 9, 15, 18, 25, 33, 65, 102, 110, 132–133, 135–136, 141–143, 159–160, 163, 169, 178

location 19:4

mammalian 19:41–42, 48, 69, 346

mass 19:39, 61, 350

mechanical properties 19:38–49

metabolic functions 19:354

morphology (see also structure) 5:228, 266; 19:104–115

morphometry 19:50

muscle 5:237

musculature 19:4

nonrespiratory functions 19:65–67, 155–157

ophidian saccular functions 19:155

orifices 19:96, 104, 160, 164, 166–170, 178, 180

oxygen content 5:319

oxygen storage 19:333–335

parenchyma 19:6–18

parenchymal muscle 5:309

partitioning 19:4, 7–8, 12, 18, 28, 31, 33, 36, 48–49, 56–57, 61, 64

performance 19:323–335

posthilar 19:8, 15, 26

pre-pipping function 14:362

prehilar 19:8, 15

pressure 19:320

receptors 5:245

relaxation 5:236–238

right lung 19:18, 26–28, 30, 32–33, 35, 41, 61, 66, 70, 94, 96, 98, 100, 102–106, 109, 112–115, 128–129, 131–135, 159–161, 165–166, 169–170, 177

right lung complex 19:104, 139–157

saccular 19:96, 98, 102, 105–107, 110–0111, 124, 128, 133–134, 136–138, 140, 144–146, 148–149, 151, 154, 156–157, 162–163, 168, 170, 179, 350

semisaccular 19:109–111, 133, 140, 146–147, 157, 179

structure 15:629; 19:2–18, 67–68, 97–100

surface area 19:13, 51–55

suspension 19:38–49

bridge model 19:42–43, 108–109

terminology 19:2–18, 101–104

thoraconuchal 19:98, 105, 139, 179

tonus 5:229, 238

tracheal 19:105, 130–138

types 19:3–17, 51, 60–61, 65, 67, 70, 74–75, 98, 101–107, 132, 145, 165, 170

vascular 19:106–107, 145–147, 154, 178, 348

vascular resistance 5:305

vestigial 19:33, 96, 105, 133–134, 139, 144, 157–160, 169–170

volume 5:79, 227–229, 318, 322, 326; 19:41, 43, 48, 50–51, 53, 56, 60–61, 63, 66–67, 105–106, 149, 303–304, 320, 334–335, 463

Lunged vertebrates 5:318

Lungfish 10:323, 326; 14:655; 657; 19:37, 67, 535, 563–564, 570–573, 575–576, 578

Lunula(ae) 1:91, 93, 98, 108; 21:29, 155–156

Luteectomy 15:574, 581–587, 589–590, 592

Lutein cell(s) 6:103; 15:579–580, 587

Luteinizing hormone (LH) (see also Gonadotropin) 6:78; 13:217; 14:346, 692, 702, 709; 15:586–587; 18:33, 72, 395

hormone-releasing hormone 13:217

Lyase 6:231, 252

Lycaenognathus 9:299

Lycaenomorphus, jaw muscles 4:441

Lycaenops 9:299

Lycodactylus 12:123; 18:352

eye 2:22–23, 45, 88–89

nose 2:120

Lycodon 7:227, 501; 8:693; 16:120, 123, 146, 232–233, 286, 295, 305; 19:208, 230; 20:546, 556, 581; 21:501, 521, 531, 534, 577

albofuscus 21:607

aulicus 19:132, 208; 20:572, 640; 21:501, 605, 607

capucinus 19:208

dumerilii 19:208

ear 2:272

effraensis 19:208

fasciatus 19:208; 20:640; 21:607

jara 19:208

jaw muscles 4:441

laoensis 19:153, 208; 21:607

muelleri 19:142, 208

osmanhilli 21:607

ruhstrati 19:208; 21:607

striatus 19:208

subcinctus 19:208; 20:641; 21:607

travancoricus 19:142, 153, 208

urinogenital system 6:27, 37, 98

Lycodonomorphus 16:120, 146; 19:166, 224; 21:497, 532

bicolor 19:153, 208; 20:633; 21:525

eye 2:61

laevissimus 19:209

rufulus 19:209

whytii 19:164, 209

Lycodontinae

eye 2:91–92

jaw muscles 4:441

Lycodontini 19:230, 236

Lycodryas 19:101; 21:605

blood cell morphology 3:78

gaimardi 21:494

pituitary 3:185

Lycognathophis 19:233

seychellensis 19:209

Lycognathus, urinogenital system 6:30

Lycophidinae 8:90

Lycophidini 19:131, 158, 171, 225

Lycophidion 8:90; 16:6, 120, 146; 19:148, 225; 20:561, 563; 21:555, 586, 600, 808–608, 610

acutirostre 20:633

capense 19:153, 209; 20:563, 633; 21:606

dentition 1:177

depressirostre 19:209; 20:633; 21:606

ear 2:272

hellmichi 20:633

irroratum 19:209

laterale 19:153, 209; 20:633; 21:606

meleagris 19:153, 209; 20:633

multimaculatum 20:633

namibianum 20:633

nanum 20:633

nigromaculatum 19:209

ornatum 19:164, 209; 20:633

pembanum 20:634

pygmaeum 20:634

semiannule 19:209; 20:634

semicinctum 19:209

uzungwense 20:634

variegatum 20:634

Lycophidium (see Lycophidion)

Lycopods 1:36

Lycosuchus 9:299

Lygisaurus 21:400

Lygodactylus 7:69, 291, 293–295, 307, 365–366, 372, 467; 14:584; 15:345, 347–348, 367, 376, 382; 16:115, 249, 513; 20:121–122; 21:397

blood cell numbers 3:103

capensis 20:296

chondrocranium 11:73

Lygophis lineatus 20:654

Lygosoma 5:29, 131, 141–144, 160, 162, 183, 185, 298–299; 7:viii, 167; 8:687; 9:332; 15:115, 362, 639, 641, 670, 673, 675, 677; 16:118, 141; 19:409; 20:138, 146, 298; 21:400

adrenal 3:280

axial skeleton 1:270

blood cell morphology 3:77, 81, 84–85

brevicaudus 21:400

chondrocranium 11:65, 68

ear 2:267, 271

eye 2:20

guentheri 19:409, 418

indicum 20:298

jaw muscles 4:478

nose 2:120

punctatum 21:397

quoyii 20:298

urinogenital system 6:89, 98, 100

Lygosominae 20:15, 138, 140–142, 144–149, 307

Lymnaea 13:260

Lymph 6:315–317, 331, 335, 346, 352–353, 356–357, 361, 372, 374, 378, 382, 458

movement of 6:315–316, 357, 447–448, 452–454

nodes 6:236, 269, 315–316, 458; 14:601, 632, 648

nodules 6:280, 258

sacs 12:349

sheath portocaudal (see Gastrohepatoduodenal

trunk)

sinuses 14:632

Lymphapophysis 1:208, 240–241, 265–266, 268, 279, 287, 294

Lymphatic

cisterns (see Lymphatic sinuses)

collectors 6:315–316

follicles 6:279, 288–289

heart 1:208, 240, 265–266, 282, 288; 6:316, 318–321, 334–336, 344, 359, 378, 394–395, 404, 447–458

heart beat and rhythm 6:447–448, 452–454

plexus of pectoralis major 6:333, 378

plexus of the elbow 6:388–390, 392

plexus of the jugular-subclavian confluence

(see Jugular-subclavian plexus)

plexus of the wrist 6:389, 392

reservoirs (see Lymphatic sinuses)

ring of the masseteric muscle (see Perimasseteric

lymphatic ring)

ring of the neck 6:318, 322–324, 333, 345, 354, 375–376, 378, 389

ring of the neck pars dorsalis (see Nuchal

sinus)

ring of the neck pars ventralis (see Transverse

sinus)

ring of the tail 6:372

sacs (see Lymphatic sinuses)

sheath of aorta (see Thoracic duct)

sheath of liver 6:321, 353

sheaths of blood vessels (see names of blood

vessels sheathed)

sinuses 6:315–316

space 1:265–266

spaces in gastric wall 6:269

system 6:315–462; 14:177, 438; 19:11–12, 348, 352, 354, 468, 506, 534, 540–541, 544, 548–556, 558–559, 561–562, 566–571, 574–575, 577–578

development 14:307

system embryology 6:455–458

values 6:316, 331, 357, 412, 441, 447, 449–450, 453

vessels 1:201; 3:121, 203

Lymphatico-venous anastomoses 6:316, 318–319, 321, 323–324, 326–327, 329, 331, 353–355, 374, 378, 380–381, 390, 446, 453–455

Lymphoblastic lymphosarcoma 14:665

Lymphoblasts 14:619–627

Lymphocyte(s) 3:74, 82–83, 86–87, 102–105, 107, 120, 210; 6:97; 268, 280, 450, 458; 8:499–500; 14:603, 609, 612–613, 615–616, 618–619, 627, 631–632, 637, 640, 642–644, 657, 661–663; 15:352

maturation 14:601, 624

sexual variation 14:613

Lymphocytic thyroiditis 14:665

Lymphocytopoiesis 19:544, 561, 563

Lymphoid

aggregates 14:601, 614, 628–635, 637

body 6:457–458

cells 3:128–129

tissue 6:458

cloaca 14:629, 631, 637

ectopic 14:631–632, 637

kidney 14:632

lung 14:632

pancreas 14:632, 635

spleen 14:495, 628

testes 14:632, 635

urinary bladder 14:632

Lymphoma 14:665

Lymphomyeloid sites 14:603

Lymphopoiesis 3:127

Lymphopoietic activity 19:563

Lymphoreticular

activity 19:577

tissue(s) 6:279; 19:540

Lymphosarcoma 14:665–666; 19:523

Lynx 16:61

Lyophilization 5:69, 104

Lyriocephalus 9:331; 15:626; 20:94, 96, 100–101, 294; 21:95, 398–400

axial skeleton 1:258

chondrocranium 11:95

dentition 1:157, 160

ear 2:271

eye 2:27

jaw muscles 4:477

scutatus 20:98, 294

Lysine 3:23, 25, 40; 6:43

Lysocithine (see Lysolecithin)

Lysolecithin 8:468, 470, 479, 488–490, 514–515, 518–520, 522, 626, 571

Lysolecithinase (see Phospholipase B)

Lysophosphatides 8:479

Lysophosphatidylcholine 19:350

Lysosome(s) 3:338; 5:433; 6:79, 241, 259, 261, 284, 286, 292; 19:494–497, 499, 504, 508–509

in limb bud 15:105

somitic cell 15:104

Lystromycter leakeyi 21:627, 707–708

Lystrophis 7:501; 16:146, 186, 199, 231; 19:227; 20:654

dentition 1:182

dorbignyi 19:209; 20:654

histricus 19:164, 209; 20:654

nattereri 20:654

semicinctus 19:209

Lystrosaurus 9:295, 301, 303–304

Lytorhynchus 7:501; 16:146, 232; 19:231

diadema 19:209; 20:641

ear 2:272

gaddi 19:209; 20:641

maynardi 19:209

ridgewayi 19:209; 20:641

 

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