Biology of the Reptilia: Index O

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Obere

Ausbuchtung (see Dorsal recess)

Nasendrüse (see External nasal gland)

Oberhäutchen 9:409, 430; 18:154

layer 14:533–535, 538–540, 542–544, 546, 556–557, 564, 575, 577, 580, 584

layer of skin 12:404–405

Oberlieferfortsatz (see Maxillary process)

Obesity 19:524

Obex 10:204, 213; 18:42

Obligatory hibernators 13:66–67

Oblique muscle 6:451

Observation time 5:129

Obturator

fenestra (see Thyroid fenestra)

foramen 21:34, 137–139, 144, 191

lymphatic vessels 6:342

nerve 4:53,63

Occipital 4:108, 316, 374, 419–420

arch(es) 4:249, 251–252; 11:10, 12–13, 15, 28–29, 37, 40–41, 44–46, 52, 56, 59, 66, 74, 93, 117, 121, 136–138, 140–141, 144–145, 151, 159–160, 166, 170, 173, 193–194, 197, 204–207, 209, 211, 213, 231, 238, 242; 14:125; 20:10–11, 25, 28, 30, 33, 589

bones 20:363, 374, 381–382, 392, 408, 414, 416, 478, 526

condyle 1:7, 22, 106, 204, 210, 226–227, 273–274, 289–290; 4:116–117, 147, 204–205, 211–214, 216–221, 224–225, 238, 253, 256–257; 11:12, 15, 22, 28–29, 36–38, 52, 56, 59–60, 66, 68, 76, 93, 106, 112, 123, 140, 144, 150–151, 160, 173, 179, 185, 192, 209, 211, 213, 218, 224, 238, 240, 242–243; 20:28, 70, 75, 115, 124, 128, 135, 137, 156, 163, 192, 215, 232, 238, 246, 248, 357, 382, 398, 405, 408, 416, 432, 438, 4762, 475, 478, 480, 507, 511, 513, 525–526, 540–541, 543, 566; 21:544

muscles 11:366

pillar 9:3

recess 11:29, 112; 20:28, 75–76, 78, 88, 91, 101–102, 104–105, 112, 115, 124, 127, 135, 147, 150, 156, 163–164, 172, 182–183, 204, 207, 209, 215, 222, 225, 231, 234, 238, 240, 270, 281–282

region 11:25–30, 39, 56, 121–123, 134, 144, 197–198, 213, 238

segment 20:47–49, 51, 54–55, 58–59

surface 4:201, 203

tectum 11:3, 29, 53, 59, 80, 93, 116, 193, 197, 204, 240

Occipito

-capsular fissure 11:138, 140–141, 145, 166, 173, 204

-vertebral joint 1:210; 20:408, 257, 288–290

Occiput 20:7, 77, 93, 129, 139, 152, 159, 161, 167, 175, 211, 213, 219, 227, 237, 257, 579, 585, 587, 590, 592

Occlusal (surface of tooth) 1:118, 189

Occlusion 1:118

Occult excitement 5:37

Ocellus(i) 1:318; 2:279

Octadecanolide 18:203

Ocular

membranes 5:374, 381

shield 2:49

water loss 12:290, 445, 453–454, 472–476

Oculomotor

foramen 4:205, 224, 229

nerve 2:7, 11, 41, 49–50, 74; 11:15, 21–22, 24, 40–41, 74, 90, 105–106, 112, 115–116, 121, 124, 155, 160, 163, 187, 189, 195, 210, 217, 224, 229, 231, 236–237, 243; 14:133, 429

Oculorotatory

muscles (see Muscles of eye)

nerves (see Abducens; Oculomotor; Trochlear

nerves)

Ocypoda 16:397, 403

Odatria 19:32; 20:229

axial skeleton 1:261

Odaxosaurus 20:196

Odland bodies (see Lamellar bodies)

Odontoblast(s) 1:125, 142, 144, 146; 11:39; 14:526

Odontoceti 19:538

Odontoclast 1:142, 144, 146–147

Odontogenic epithelium 1:125

Odontoid process 1:204, 226–228, 236, 273, 276, 288–289; 11:37–38, 41, 56, 137, 144, 192; 21:544–545

process of the axis 20:408

Odontology (see Dentition)

Odoriferous gland 14:413

Odor(s) 18:144–145, 160–163, 170, 182–184, 195, 199, 202, 204

cloacal 18:470–471

discrimination, premating isolating

mechanism 18:471

conditioning 18:425, 475

electrophysiological response to 18:451–452, 455

excitation 18:453, 455

suppression 18:453, 455

habitat 18:465

habituation 18:425, 486

imprinting to 18:426, 465–466

orientation to 18:426

prey washes 18:456

production 18:426

social 18:465

Oedura 7:51, 57, 468; 8:681; 12:122, 253; 15:327– 328; 16:115, 259, 461, 463–465, 474, 513; 19:408, 418; 20:117–118, 121, 123, 296; 21:79–80, 3997

axial skeleton 1:259–260

dentition 1:162

ear 2:271

karrowia 20:296

monilis 20:306

nose 2:120

tryoni 20:306; 21:7

Oesophagus 4:158–159, 168, 173, 421; 11:146, 240, 368

Oestradiol 6:87 17β 6:101

Oestriol 6:87

Oestrogen 6:76–77, 80, 83–84, 90, 101, 103, 115

Oestrone 6:80, 87, 92

Oestrous 6:83, 90, 104

Öffnungsmuskel (see Dilator muscle of naris)

Ogmodon 8:24; 19:223; 20:545

dentition 1:177

vitianus 8:24; 19:197; 20:628

Oil-droplet(s) 2:2, 34–35, 41–42, 45–46, 48, 54, 65, 72, 76, 87–88; 17:12–18, 28, 40, 91, 99, 101–102, 137–138, 215

of cloves 18:203

of wintergreen 18:145

storage 1:311

Old Testament 8:95

Olecranon 1:95, 101, 109, 111; 4:17, 27

process 21:115–116, 264, 289, 302 3β-Ol-dehydrogenase 6:102

Oleic acid(s) 18:123, 194, 199; 19:351

Olfaction (see also Odors) 8:2; 18:119, 124, 127, 132, 162, 173, 178, 181–182, 190, 194, 196, 206, 355, 424; 19:46

cues 18:127, 129, 132, 160–161, 171, 180–182, 196

homing 18:466

imprinting 18:465–466

nerves 18:125, 132, 426, 433–435, 438

effects of transection 18:494

electrophysiology 18:452–454

EOG recording 18:451

role in reproductive behavior 18:467

olfactometer 18:160–161, 183, 204

receptor 18:124

stimuli 18:355

system 18:127, 132–133, 424

anterior nucleus 18:441–443, 445–447

anterior nucleus, development 18:447

bulbs 18:203

bulbs, accessory 18:433, 435, 440–450, 455–457, 495

bulbs, accesory, development 18:447

bulbs, accessory, electrophysiology 18:426, 455

bulbs, electrophysiology 18:452–454

bulbs, main 18:426, 431, 435, 440–443, 446–450

bulbs, main, development 18:447

epithelium 18:426–431, 436, 447–449, 451, 459

peduncle 18:441, 446

stalk 18:440

tract, accessory 18:443

tract, intermediate 18:442–443

tract, lateral 18:442

tract, lateral, nucleus 18:445–447

tract, medial 18:442–443

tubercle 18:442–443, 445

Olfactory

I 21:581–582

bulb 2:6, 104, 157; 5:94; 8:3; 9:9–10, 22, 29, 33, 44, 46, 55, 69–71, 74, 76, 78–79, 82–84, 86–87, 90–91, 94–97, 99, 102–103, 105–109, 111–113, 122, 126–128, 130–135, 149, 176, 178, 221, 229, 234, 305; 10:134–135, 249, 279, 302, 306, 309, 325; 11:17, 19–20, 22, 122, 124, 170, 179, 181–182, 240; 14:127, 129–130, 400; 17:599, 633; 20:362, 366, 388, 490

accessory 17:607

effect on maze learning 7:609

input 10:307

tract 10:306

tubercle 10:277, 303

capsule 9:3, 26, 34

cells 2:153, 156–158, 160, 162, 164

chamber (see Cavum nasi proprium; Conchal

zone)

cup 14:290

discrimination 7:583–584, 661

epithelium 2:104, 108–109, 118, 129, 131, 133, 136, 143, 151, 153, 155–156, 158–160, 162, 174–176, 181

foramen of fenestra 20:395, 405, 499, 560

gular movements 5:236

gular pumping 5:229

hairs 2:156–157, 162, 176

lobe 2:99

mucosa 11:18, 51

nerve (see also Nerve, olfactory) 2:99, 104, 114–115, 142–143, 160, 162, 164–165, 167, 181–182; 11:15–19, 22, 50, 79, 87, 89, 94, 96, 103, 122, 142–143, 160, 165, 170, 176, 179, 202, 219, 221, 235, 240; 14:129, 133–134

peduncle 9:9–10, 33, 44, 55, 77, 82, 102, 106, 115, 117, 123, 130; 11:20, 22, 24, 32, 93, 104, 110–111, 124, 143, 155, 185, 195, 212, 237, 240; 19:322

pigment 2:157, 159

pit 14:95, 100, 290

process of frontal 20:402, 404–405, 414

region 2:105–109, 111–113

rod 2:157

tract (2) 2:6; 4:228, 232, 251; 9:29, 33, 70, 79, 81, 83, 91, 99, 112, 120, 122; 20:10, 16, 26, 128, 131, 136, 149, 158, 165, 476

tubule 9:235

vesicle(s) 15:14

Oligocene 4:267, 272

reptiles 15:394

Oligodon 7:502; 8:693; 16:15, 147, 232–233; 18:437; 19:211, 230

affinis 19:211

albocinctus 19:211; 20:641

ancorus 19:211

arnensis 19:153, 211; 20:641

barroni 19:211

bitorquatus 19:127, 211; 20:641

brevicaudus 19:211

calamarius 19:164, 211

catenata 20:641

chinensis 19:142, 211

cinereus 19:153, 211; 20:571, 581, 641

cruentatus 19:211

cyclurus 19:153, 211

dorsalis 19:211

ear 2:272

everetti 19:211

fasciolatus 19:211

formosanus (“formosus”) 19:211; 20:641

lacroixi 19:211

maculatus 19:211

meyerinkii 19:211

modestus 19:153, 211

ocellatus 19:164, 211

octolineatus 19:153, 211

ornatus 19:211

parathyroid 3:248

perkinsi 19:153, 211

purpurascens 19:153, 211

quadrilineatus 19:153, 211

signatus 19:211

subcarinatus 19:211

sublineatus 19:153, 211

taeniatus 19:211

taeniolatus 19:153, 211

theobaldi 19:211

torquatus 19:211

vertebralis 19:211

waandersi 19:153, 211

Oligodontini 19:230

Oligokyphus 9:133, 299

Oligodontosauridae 21:688

Oligontosaurus wyomingensis 21:688

Oligophyodonty 1:135

Oligosoma 19:409; 21:112, 397

fallai 21:112

grande 19:401–402, 409–410, 418

homalonotum 21:112

zelandicum 21:208

Oligosynaptic

cells 2:84–85, 90–91

pedicle 2:78–79

Omega oxidation 19:513

Omentum (see also Mesentery) 19:536–537

Ommateremias 16:140

Omnivore 8:606, 632–633

Omnivorous reptiles 5:388, 397, 404

Omohyoid muscle 6:375

Omyohyoideus 21:212

Omphalochorionic membrane 15:543

Omphalomesenteric

arteries 14:146

veins 14:146

Omphaloplacenta (see also Placenta, omphalo) 6:103

Omphalopleure

bilaminar 15:542, 546

trilaminar 15:540, 543, 546

On-off controller 12:214–222

On-Off response 10:291

Onchorhynchus mykiss 19:489, 544

Oncotic pressure (see Colloid osmotic pressure)

Ontogenetic

change 12:10; 13:243–244, 274–282

change in metabolism 13:184, 238

changes in tooth shape 1:124, 154, 170

variation 20:38, 176, 392, 573

Ontogeny (see also Age; Antipredator mechanisms;

Caudal autotomy; Development) 19:67, 151, 157, 560, 578; 21:19

of skull 4:249–253, 259

Oocyte(s) 6:50–51, 82–83, 92, 101, 104, 111, 120; 14:46, 51–56, 58–62, 64, 66–68, 70, 118, 317, 342

amoeboid movement 14:52

binucleate 14:51

degeneration 14:64

growth 15:265, 271, 463

maturation 15:462

Oogenesis 6:92, 104, 116; 12:230; 14:53, 51, 66, 69, 210

in parthenogenetic species 15:478–479

Oogonia 6:50–51, 79, 81–82, 111; 14:50–51, 342; 15:38, 463

Oolemma 6:84

Oophagous 20:549

Oophagy (see Eggs)

Operant conditioning 18:327

Operative

environment 12:275

environmental temperature (see Operative

temperature)

temperature 12:277, 294–295

Operculum 11:207, 222

Opetiosaurus, epiphyses and sesamoids 1:108

Opheodrys 5:134; 7:297, 226, 393, 502; 13:97, 104, 107, 115, 117, 122–123, 127–129, 131; 15:646, 651, 661–662, 671, 675; 16:50, 120, 147, 286, 295, 483, 519, 531, 543, 546; 19:231

adrenal 3:281

aestivus 19:211; 20:641

blood chemistry 3:51

ear 2:269, 272

vernalis 20:641

Ophiacodon 9:298–300

bone 1:75

dentition 1:193

origin and evolution 1:4

Ophiacodont 9:125, 298

Ophiacodontia

dentition 1:121, 193

origin and evolution 1:14, 35

Ophidia (see also Serpentes; Snakes) 5:19, 254, 337, 347, 349, 367, 369, 373, 377, 379, 386, 393, 453, 466, 487; 19:95, 97, 100, 104, 111, 115, 121, 126, 134, 158, 168, 412–418

adrenal 3:267, 271, 273–274, 284, 298

axial muscles 11:357–358, 360–362, 367, 376, 379, 382–383, 387, 389, 393–394–417, 421–423, 425, 427–432

axial skeleton 1:203, 207, 240–241, 247, 249–250, 252, 257, 259–260, 268, 276, 280–299, 301–302

blood cell morphology 3:77–79, 82, 84–85, 88

blood cell numbers 3:94, 97–98, 103

blood chemistry 3:1–3, 5–6, 10–11, 13, 15–22, 26, 28–29, 31, 34–36, 39, 42, 44–46, 51–52

bone 1:47, 61–63, 67, 71, 75

chondrocranium 11:-2–5, 7, 11, 20, 23, 31, 53, 70, 78, 105, 108, 131–132, 136–194, 200–204, 220, 242

dentition 1:124, 127, 133, 138, 141, 148, 173–184

ear 2:194, 221, 226–228, 232, 251–255, 258, 262–263, 271–272

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:84, 106

eye 2:3, 6, 48–63, 76, 81–82, 84–87, 89–92

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:152, 162, 166

histology of gut 6:226–231, 234–235, 243, 246– 248, 265, 269–274, 277, 279, 287, 301–302

internal relief of gut 6:159, 179, 192–212, 218–219, 221

jaw muscles 4:286–289, 313–314, 316–318, 370, 372, 374, 394–396, 405, 407,411, 414–416, 420, 471, 480–483

lymphatics 6:316–317, 321, 326, 329–331, 336, 338, 343, 349–353, 355, 359, 361, 372, 386–387, 396, 399, 403–404, 409, 411, 415, 421, 423, 427, 433, 443, 454–455

macrostemata 20:385

microstemata 20:395

muscle tissue 11:271–272, 274–275, 283–286, 288–289, 292, 294–295, 297, 317, 323, 325, 327, 331–332, 336

nose 2:101, 120–122, 126–127, 130, 135–136, 139–140, 142–144, 159, 161, 172–174, 178–179

origin and evolution 1:2, 6

pancreas 3:322–324, 328, 331, 341

parathyroid 3:247–250

phylogeny 19:157

pit organs 2:277–314

pituitary 3:135–136, 140, 142–143, 154, 160, 163, 165, 181–188, 193

pulmonary terminology 19:173–180

saccular lung function 19:155

systematics 19:96

taxonomic literature 2:316, 320–324

thymus 3:113–114, 117, 121, 124

thyroid 3:202–203, 207, 209, 217, 221–224, 227–228

urinogenital system 6:6, 8, 12, 15, 20–21, 24, 26–27, 29–31, 33, 35, 37–38, 41, 43–44, 54, 56–57, 59, 65–67, 70–71, 74, 78, 81–83, 85, 89–90, 94, 96–103, 105–106, 110–111, 113–114, 116, 118, 120

Ophidian

kidneys 5:491

lung 5:232

reptiles 5:447

sense organs 5:7

Ophidine 11:292

Ophidiocephalus 20:132, 135

eye 2:88

taeniatus 18:312; 20:297, 307

Ophioden, axial skeleton 1:242, 255, 261, 266, 267, 269

Ophiodes 15:626, 671; 16:266; 20:200, 202–206, 208–209

jaw muscles 4:479

striatus 20:309

Ophiomorphus 20:595

Ophiomorus 7:287–288, 307; 15:325, 376, 379, 636–637; 16:141, 266

blanfordi 21:402

brevipes 21:402

chernovi 21:402

ear 2:271

eye 2:13, 27

nuchalis 21:402

persicus 21:403

raithmai 21:403

streeti 21:402–403

tridactylus 21:403

Ophiophagous 18:159, 161–163, 476

defensive response 18:160

repellants 18:120, 136

Ophiophagus 7:389, 394, 397–398, 505; 8:24, 174, 180, 187, 189, 202–203, 214–216, 223, 242, 244, 246–247, 250, 262, 295–296, 300, 305–307, 316, 324, 326–328, 335, 341, 360, 366, 368–370, 378, 444, 461; 16:10, 41–42, 56, 64, 121, 124, 129, 131, 150, 278, 287, 297, 299, 301, 303; 19:132, 146, 236; 20:535, 544; 21:524, 600

dentition 1:175

ear 2:269, 272

hannah 8:24, 174, 180, 187–188, 202–203, 213–215, 223, 242, 244, 246–247, 250, 262, 295–296, 300, 305–307, 316, 324, 326–328, 335, 341, 360, 366, 368–370, 378, 444, 461; 19:120, 127, 129, 136, 197; 20:537, 548, 550, 625

jaw muscles 4:483

urinogenital system 6:30

Ophioscincus 15:638

eye 2:27

Ophioseps 20:132

Ophisaurus 7:495–496; 8:679; 9:333; 10:290, 313, 317–318; 12:118; 14:617, 658–659, 663; 15:61, 100–101, 110–111, 122, 131–132, 139, 306, 331, 345, 366–367, 626, 672; 16:35, 115, 137, 257, 266, 279, 283, 294, 301, 303, 307, 534; 17:189, 561; 18:189; 19:383; 20:197–200, 202, 206, 208–209, 266, 269, 273

adrenal 3:280, 290–291

apodus 18:444; 19:29–30, 79, 410, 418; 20:201, 204, 302, 308; 21:143

axial muscles 11:357, 382–383, 387–388

axial skeleton 1:242, 247–250, 253, 258, 265–269

blood cell morphology 3:77

blood chemistry 3:5, 10, 28

bone 1:46

chondrocranium 11:101–102

dentition 1:168–169

ear 2:222, 247, 267, 271

gracilis 20:198, 302

harti 19:30, 79

histology of gut 6:242, 287–288

internal relief of gut 6:178, 187, 220–221

jaw muscles 4:315, 374–377, 382, 416, 420, 479

lymphatics 6:349, 355, 358, 402, 411–413, 419, 422, 453

nose 2:120, 133, 159, 178

parathyroid 3:255

pituitary 3:156, 177, 192

thymus 3:113

urinogenital system 6:106

ventralis 18:189; 19:79; 20:302

Ophisops 8:686; 9:333; 15:307; 16:141; 20:168

axial muscles 11:357

dentition 1:167

elegans 20:307; 21:7

eye 2:14, 27

histology of gut 6:278

jaw muscles 4:479

“Ophisthotropis” (see Opisthotropis)

O-phosphodiester 11:292

Ophryacus 19:220

melanurus 20:615

undulatus 19:192; 20:615

Ophryoessoides 15:634

Ophthalmic

artery 2:12, 40, 50, 52, 63, 75; 11:21, 115–116, 121, 209–210, 229–230, 236

ganglion 4:119, 142; 11:15, 24, 26, 30, 32, 212, 214

nerve 2:7–8, 11–12, 49, 74, 176, 180, 281, 289, 294, 297; 11:15, 17, 24, 30, 32, 46, 68, 93, 103, 106, 124, 127–131, 140, 143, 155, 160, 163, 170, 179, 185–191, 212, 217, 235, 237, 242–243

Ophthalmicus profundus 5:423

Ophthalmosaurus 9:297

dentition 1:190

eye 2:80

Opioid peptide 17:614

Ovipeuter 20:187–188

vestus 20:308

Opisthocoely 1:205–206, 211, 213, 215, 217, 219, 225, 300–301

Opisthodonty 1:177–178, 183

Opisthoglyph 8:74, 83, 94, 142, 149, 440

Opisthoglyphous 20:488, 534, 547

Opisthoglyphy 1:177–178, 180–181, 183; 11:152

Opisthomegadonty 1:176, 178

Opisthonephros 6:20

Opisthoplus degener 20:655

Opisthotic 1:12; 4:108–109, 114, 163, 226–227, 236, 252; 11:22, 29–30, 59–60, 81, 112, 124, 150, 153, 185, 213, 216, 218, 237, 242–243; 20:20, 28, 31, 33–34, 43, 69–70, 72–73, 75, 114, 128, 135, 147, 150, 164, 173, 183, 186, 193, 195, 206, 209, 216–217, 230–231, 246, 248, 270, 272, 278, 282, 421–422, 425, 428, 431, 434, 442, 485, 589

bone 2:202, 227, 232

Opisthotropis 16:147, 286, 301; 19:233; 21:501, 577, 579

andersoni 19:142, 211

balteata 19:211

jacobi 19:211

jaw muscles 4:441

kuatunensis 19:211; 20:556; 21:501, 579

lateralis 19:211

latouchi 19:211; 20:556

maxwelli 19:211

typicus 19:211

Opluridae 21:396

Oplurinae(ine) 20:79–81, 85–86, 88–90, 305

Oplurus 7:479; 9:329–330; 20:45, 79–80, 88, 90, 292; 21:230, 275, 279, 294, 298

cuvieri 20:305

dentition 1:155–156

ear 2:271

eye 2:26

jaw muscles 4:477

quadrimaculatus 20:305

Opossum (see also Didelphis) 8:378

Opsin 17:6

Optic 21:533

capsule 9:34, 58, 83

chiasm(a) 2:13, 33; 3:164; 9:10, 56, 176; 10:253; 11:21, 240; 17:175, 207, 301

cup(s) 2:4–6, 24, 53; 14:131–132, 173, 398, 509; 15:14

fenestra 2:6–7

fissure (see Embryonic fissure)

foramen 2:6, 4950, 67; 4:205, 224, 229

foramen or fenestra 20:357, 374, 381, 389, 391, 398, 404, 407, 411, 415, 426, 431–432, 434, 438, 441, 443, 457, 463, 478, 484, 486, 490, 503–505, 508, 523, 526–527, 539–541, 543, 559, 564–565, 567, 569

lobe(s) (see also Optic tectum) 5:94; 9:46–47, 50, 70, 72, 86, 88, 90, 92, 109, 132, 258, 305, 366; 17:242

nerve (see also Nerve, optic) 2:5–8, 12–13, 15–16, 24, 32–34, 39–41, 48–49, 52–53, 63, 65, 67, 72, 74–76; 11:12, 15, 21–24, 32, 84–85, 90, 106, 124, 127–129, 131, 155, 158, 160, 168, 171, 179, 184, 199, 217, 241, 243; 14:133; 17:175, 177, 210, 293, 307

papilla 2:3, 53, 76; 14:131

placode 14:397–398, 459

stalk 2:4–5; 14:128, 132

tectum 2:89; 9:18, 25, 44, 47–48, 52, 57, 75, 78, 83, 87–88, 91, 96, 118, 178, 194–196, 198–218, 220–221, 225–228, 237–238, 240, 285; 10:91, 122, 127, 134–135, 167, 169, 174–176, 179, 183, 188, 191–192, 224, 236–237, 254, 263–264, 266, 269, 280, 289, 291–292, 294, 296–298, 301–302, 311, 315, 320–321; 11:240; 14:129–131; 17:176, 213, 216, 219, 242, 317, 323, 328, 330, 612, 632

tract 3:137; 10:174–175, 177, 232, 253; 17:175, 177, 190, 242, 293, 310–311

vesicle(s) 2:4; 14:99, 128, 131, 173, 287–288, 459, 502, 508; 15:14

Optical

axis 2:2

illusions (see Senses)

rotary dispersion 8:356

Optimal

diet, models of 7:65–66

habitat range, model of 7:66

Optimality (see also Caudal autotomy, costs

and benefits; Parental care, cost-benefit

models; Reproduction) 16:62–63

models (see Costs and benefits)

Optimum 12:36, 40–45, 300

temperature 5:28

Optokinetic nystagmus 10:293; 17:533

Opuntia 8:607

Ora

serrata 2:6, 16, 20, 32, 40–41, 51, 65, 70–71, 75

terminalis (see Ora serrata)

Oral

cavity 2:101, 113, 118, 133, 136, 139, 143, 151, 168; 3:159; 6:226–234, 375, 381–382; 8:51, 151; 20:419, 549, 587

epithelium 1:129–130, 141, 143–145, 147; 6:232–233, 385; 8:51

glands 6:226; 8:43–141, 144, 148, 151; 20:534

lobe of Adenohypophysis (see Anterior lobe

of adenophpophysis)

mucosa 4:172; 20:384, 478; 21:568, 614

opening 20:585, 587–588

route 5:47

surface 8:2

Orange G 3:141, 144, 146, 150–151, 156, 158, 162, 167, 170, 173, 175, 177, 179–180, 182–184, 186, 189, 191

Orangeophily (see also Erythrophily) 6:115

Orbicular vein (see Ringvein)

Orbiculus cilaris 2:51

Orbit(al) 2:1, 6–15, 40, 48–50, 52, 63–64, 66–67, 73–75, 79, 81–84, 151, 172–173, 239; 4:107–108, 113, 117, 119, 126, 137–138, 142, 201, 212, 215, 222, 230, 232–234, 244, 248, 252–253, 272, 274–277, 374, 407, 410, 434, 439; 5:102; 11:11, 24, 31, 61, 63, 71, 83, 122, 128, 131, 143–144, 155, 163, 166, 170, 179, 181, 195, 200, 202, 206, 212, 234; 20:14–15, 18–19, 63, 82, 84, 88, 108, 120, 131, 142, 170, 189, 210, 220, 225, 234, 236, 240, 244, 275, 282, 356, 360–363, 372–373, 381, 388, 406, 409, 415, 420–422, 426, 428, 437, 439–440, 456–457, 470, 477, 485, 492, 503–504, 507, 513, 524, 540, 542, 544–545, 563, 565, 567, 571, 588; 21:512, 541, 558, 564, 582

artery 2:75

cartilage(s) 2:6; 11:10, 12, 16, 20, 50, 115, 128, 144, 158, 163, 166, 168, 171, 173, 199, 203, 220–221; 14:125; 20:10, 362, 366

cavity 21:533

collectors 6:378, 386

(end of optical axis) 2:2

fascia 2:9, 11–12

foramen 21:528, 533, 591

glands 2:81, 83, 161, 176; 5:387–388, 394, 396–397, 408

lamina 20:560, 569

membrane 2:7–9

plexus 2:11

salt gland 3:15

segment of eyeball 2:15

sinus 2:11–13, 41, 50, 53, 64, 67; 5:316; 6:374, 381, 385; 11:31, 50

wing of the prefrontal 21:554–555

Orbitalgewölbe (see Orbitonasal trough)

Orbitalmulde (see Orbitonasal trough)

Orbitonasal

canal 11:96–98; 21:548

fenestra 20:82, 188; 21:581

fissure 2:13; 11:15, 18–19, 55, 87, 96, 119, 142, 195, 202, 208–209

flange 20:18, 68, 84, 142, 178, 190, 211–212, 217, 220, 225, 230, 234, 237, 244

foramen 21:582

lamina of the prefrontal 21:560, 582

membrane 2:9, 11

septum 20:254, 282

trough 2:123, 138–140; 19:102, 117, 174; 21:546

Orbitopterygoid groove 4:126

Orbitosphenoid 4:290, 292, 362, 367; 11:21–23, 58, 82, 90, 95, 110, 112, 127, 129–132, 134, 150, 158, 168, 188, 200–201, 216, 241; 20:26–27, 49–50, 70, 75, 88, 91, 101, 104, 112, 115–116, 124, 128, 134, 137, 146, 150, 156, 158, 163, 172–173, 182, 186, 192, 204, 215, 222, 225, 231, 234, 240, 246, 248, 269

bone 2:6–8, 13, 74

Orbitotemporal

artery 4:226

membrane 2:9, 12–13

region 9:2, 5; 11:3–4, 7, 9–10, 15, 20–25, 53, 57, 64–65, 68, 78, 83, 90, 94–95, 97, 101, 104–105, 107–110, 116, 121, 130, 136, 144, 155, 161–162, 178, 187, 189, 192–193, 195, 197, 199–200, 202–203, 210–223, 227–228, 234–238, 243; 20:25, 28

Orchidectomy (see Castration)

Orchitis 14:635

Oreocalamus 19:228

hainitschi 19:211

jaw muscles 4:441

Organ

of Corti 2:210

of Jacobson (see Jacobson’s organ)

samples 5:68

system 5:59, 128

weights 19:537–538

Organelles 5:418

Organic

acids 5:497–498

buffers 5:58

phosphates 5:251, 257; 13:33

Organizational

effects 18:71, 77, 80–82, 85, 88

levels 1:331–332, 336–337

Organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis 17:607, 649

Orientation 18:197, 424

movement 17:332, 335

of embryo 15:4, 9

Orienting response 10:293

Orlitia 14:182

Ornithine 3:23

-citruline-arginine cycle 19:515

-urea cycle 5:489

Ornithischia 7:61; 9:56, 67, 101, 103, 114, 304

bone 1:73

chondrocranium 11:246

dentition 1:121, 124, 187–189

eye 2:80

Ornithischians 19:74

Ornithocheiridaem dentition 1:189

Ornithomimid 9:92

Ornithomimidae, dentition 1:120, 186

Ornithopoda 9:67, 101, 137, 304

dentition 1:120, 187–188

nose 2:152

Ornithorhynchus 5:254; 14:431

anatinus 19:569

eye 2:84

Oronasal cavity 14:401, 404–405, 420, 426–427

Oropharyngeal membrane 14:681, 684–685, 693, 695, 711–712

Orthagoriscus 9:93

Orthochromasia 6:279

Orthomerus 9:101

Orthosuchus, skull 4:272–273, 276, 278–279

Oryctolagus

muscle tissue 11:291–292

pancreas 3:331–332

thymus 3:127

thyroid 3:214

urinogenital system 6:22

Oryzias 13:260

Os cloacae 21:141

Os entoglossum (see Hypoglossum; Processus

lingualis)

Os hyoide (see Corpus hyoidei)

Os styloideum (see Cornu branchiale I)

Os transiliens 1:108; 4:105

Oscillating competition 7:87–88

Oscillograph 5:95

Oscilloscope 5:85–86, 89–90

Osmic acid 3:238

Osmiophily 3:266–268, 293; 6:111

Osmium 3:238, 241–242, 244, 301

tetroxide 3:333; 6:226

Osmolality 5:345, 348, 455, 469–470, 473–475, 477

Osmolar concentration 5:54

Osmolarity (see also Osmotic pressure) 5:55

pressure 3:1, 3, 4–7, 13–15, 17, 29, 39

Osmometers 5:102

Osmoregularity budget 5:414

Osmoregulation 5:365, 382, 394–396, 398, 404; 12:325–326, 341–345, 347–348, 386

Osmosis 5:384

Osmotic

balance 5:406, 408, 415

concentration 12:327–333, 341–343, 345, 348, 351, 353–354, 368–369, 487

conditions 5:397

equilibrium 5:402, 472

gradient 5:385, 472

on egg 14:118

independence 5:365

pressure 5:102, 225, 384–385, 458, 490; 13:85, 88–89

role 5:387

strategy 5:398

stress 5:366, 396, 429

water movements 5:380

Osseous

common crus 2:202–203, 206

labyrinth 2:201–203, 206, 215–216, 252, 256, 259–260

nasal septum 20:379–380, 386, 424

necrosis 1:65

Osseus common crus 20:31, 113, 115

Ossification 14:126, 132, 156–158, 172, 312–314, 406, 456; 21:27, 29

cartilage tube 14:369

centrum 15:312, 314

endochondral 15:80

epiphyses 15:81

in limb development 15:72–81, 114

neural arch 15:311, 314

perichondral 14:80, 119, 312–313

vertebrae 15:311

Ossified

tendons 1:109, 111–112

trabecula 21:520

Osteichthyes 9:248; 19:535, 563–567, 573, 576–577

eye 2:79

Osteoblast(s) 1:46, 83, 93–94, 99–100; 15:312

Osteoclast(s) 1:100, 144, 171; 3:243, 259; 15:352, 386

Osteocranium 4:203–244, 251–253; 11:4, 7, 9, 58–63, 65, 70, 73, 80–82, 91, 95, 100–101, 108, 111–114, 123–125, 136, 150–157, 159–162,164, 168–169, 174–175, 178, 183–185, 205, 216–220, 241–245; 14:312, 431, 514

Osteocytes 1:49, 63, 68, 88

Osteocytic necrosis 1:56, 59, 63, 68, 74

Osteoderm(s) 4:209, 212, 246, 274; 11:63, 71, 82, 157; 14:450; 20:40, 47, 81, 140, 151, 154, 157, 160, 165, 167–169, 173, 184, 194, 196, 200, 208, 210, 217–219, 221, 224, 27, 233, 236, 240

Osteodermic crest 4:218, 220, 230, 246

Osteoderms 2:13

Osteogenesis 14:157; 16:527; 21:27

Osteogenetic relations 1:313

Osteogenic

layer 1:83

sites 14:312, 315, 424

Osteolaemus 7:238; 8:676; 14:344, 349, 355; 16:281; 18:491, 503, 507

axial skeleton 1:228

chondrocranium 11:244

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:87

histology of gut 6:255

internal relief of gut 6:212, 217

skull 4:206–208, 212–215, 222–223, 227, 229– 232, 234–236, 238, 242, 253, 274–275

tetraspis 19:526

Osteology 19:94–95, 168

Osteone (see Haversian system)

Osteons 4:246

Osteoscutes (see Osteoderms)

Ostia tubae 14:150, 175

Ostium 5:278

abdominale 6:24–25, 52, 54–55, 85–90, 92–93, 105–106, 437–438

tubae (see also Ostium abdominale) 15:175, 179, 182–183

Ostrich (see Struthio)

Otic

ampullae (see Anterior ampulla; Lateral

ampulla; Posterior ampulla)

capsule 2:193, 197–203, 226–227, 230, 232–233, 248, 251, 256, 259; 4:249–250, 252, 286; 9:2, 52, 111; 11:3–4, 8, 10, 12, 15, 20–21, 25–32, 35, 39, 41–45, 52–57, 59, 63, 66–70, 74, 76, 78–79, 84, 93, 98–99, 103, 106, 110, 112, 116–119, 124, 137–141, 144–147, 149–151, 156, 159–160, 166, 170, 173–174, 179, 183, 187, 189, 192–194, 196–197, 203–207, 209–217, 219, 221–227, 229–233, 236–238, 241–243, 245; 14:125, 136, 172; 20:7, 9–12, 14, 25, 27028, 30–31, 33–34, 47, 70, 89, 102, 112, 115, 126, 140, 144, 203, 222, 246, 255, 270, 278, 287, 361–362, 364, 370, 376–377, 381, 384, 393, 400–401, 405, 416, 426, 429, 435, 443, 484, 493, 524, 530–531, 563, 578, 589–590

duct 2:204, 207,209

fluid 2:202–203

labyrinth 2:201–215, 248, 251–252, 256

meatus (see Recessus oticus externus)

notch 1:7–8, 12, 14, 18, 20, 23, 27, 30–32; 2:232–233; 4:277

pit 14:399

placode (see also Otocyst) 14:135–136, 397

process of palatoquadrate 4:251

process of quadrate 11:12, 25, 30, 33–34, 45, 55–56, 112, 115–116, 145, 192, 199, 243

region 1:12; 11:25–30, 65, 69, 121–123, 170, 197–198, 237–238

sac 2:196, 204, 207–209, 238–239, 242, 244–245

valve 4:244, 277

vesicle(s) 14:288, 290, 398; 15:14

Oticoccipital region 20:25 28, 382, 388, 390, 401, 404, 406–407, 414, 437–438, 442, 456, 458–459, 485, 502, 526, 565

Otocryptis 16:29, 137, 258–259; 20:96, 102; 21:398

axial skeleton 1:258, 260

eye 2:27

jaw muscles 4:477

nose 2:119, 124, 129, 142, 154, 178

wiegmanni 20:305

Otocyst 2:202; 11:8, 25, 221–222; 14:402

Otooccipital 11:22, 59–60, 107, 112; 20:14, 31–33, 69, 72–73, 89, 91, 102, 104, 113–114, 124, 126–127, 133, 135, 148, 156, 164, 172, 183, 193, 206–207, 216, 223, 226, 232, 234, 239–240, 246, 270, 282

Otosaurus, ear 2:271

Otostapes 4:251; 11:35, 149

Ototriton 21:685, 688

solidus 21:685

Ouabain 5:472; 8:641

Ouchterlony technique 8:346, 349, 355–356, 358, 363

bite identification 8:358

Outer

choana (see Choana)

connective layer 2:283, 285

dental epithelium 1:146

limiting membrane 2:16, 33, 35–36, 38–40, 57, 61–62

molecular layer 2:16

nuclear layer 2:16, 36, 38, 40, 48, 61, 63, 66, 72, 84–85, 91

plexiform layer 2:4, 33, 36, 3, 40, 48, 66, 72, 77

segment 17:3, 10–12

segment of visual cells 2:34, 4143, 45–46, 53–54, 56, 58–60, 62–63, 65, 72–73, 76–77, 84–85, 91–92

(Outer) tongue-sheath 21:594

Oval window (see Vestibular window)

Ovarian

artery 3:273; 6:83

collectors 6:441

cycles (see Reproduction)

follicle(s) 3:36–37; 6:50, 81–84, 91, 96–101, 103–104, 116, 437, 441; 14:43, 56–64, 66– 68, 118, 209, 218, 274, 341–342, 346–347

and gonadotropin 15:39

as gestation chamber 15:529

atresia 15:38

development 15:38, 265, 267

false 15:484–485

growth 15:38–39, 592

postovulatory 15:579

hormones (see also Estradiol; Progesterone) 15:591–592, 594–595

lymph cavity 6:82

lymphatic net 6:437, 442

sinus 6:440

vein 6:83

Ovariectomy 6:101–102, 104; 15:278, 581–587, 589–590, 592, 594–595; 18:35, 38, 52, 147

Ovary 3:36, 218–219, 271; 6:24–25, 49–51, 58, 76–77, 81–84, 87–93, 96, 98, 101–104, 106, 113, 116, 118, 120, 349, 437–442, 458; 14:58, 274, 341–342; 18:54; 19:515

cortex 15:158–159, 162, 242, 265, 269, 272, 276, 282

cycle 18:34

development 14:149, 151, 175, 441; 15:154, 158, 162–164, 166, 254, 269, 275–276; 18:43, 45

embryonic 15:242

follicles 18:357–358, 363–365, 375

in tetraploid hybrid 15:477

in triploid hybrid 15:463–465

maturation 18:55

medulla 15:242, 269, 272

ovulation 18:34–35, 54–55, 361–363, 369, 398

regulation 18:33–45

stages 18:54

steroid 18:35–36, 41, 55

Oven-drying 5:69

Overstepping 21:52

Overview 5:1

Overwintering sites (see Hibernation sites)

Oviducal

collectors 6:437, 441

funnel 15:40, 47

glands 6:85, 87, 89–92, 95

lymphatic net 6:437–439, 441

Oviduct 5:12; 6:1, 20, 24–27, 44, 49–52, 54–56, 81–83, 85–96, 98–103, 105–197, 113, 116, 118, 120, 274, 287, 338, 342, 353, 437–442, 458; 14:240, 278, 341; 18:51–52, 155–156, 192

AVT 18:51

constriction 18:53

contractions induced by hormones 15:589

development 14:150, 175, 441; 15:174

eggs 18:358, 363–364, 367

glands 14:274, 441

hypertrophy 15:251

in triploid hybrid 15:463, 466

progestin receptors 15:591

prostaglandin 18:51

reduction 15:462

rudimentary 15:185, 468

secretions 14:278, 367

shell-forming segment 14:274–275

Oviparity (see also Life history traits, mode of reproduction) 1:147, 149, 161; 6:85, 97–100, 105; 14:9–10, 15, 20, 341; 18:75

and heteromorphic sex chromosomes 15:285

cost vs benefit 15:608

definition 15:530, 607

Oviparous species 15:4, 40, 51–52, 579, 581, 593, 607, 625–660, 662, 667, 671, 674, 678

Ovipary 5:365

Oviposition 6:99–100, 117–118; 8:142; 17:595; 18:358, 361–363, 376, 398

egg laying 14:10, 13, 18, 177, 184, 190, 216– 217, 219–220, 272, 275, 279, 317, 341–344, 347–349, 363, 397, 496–497

hormonal induction 14:11, 184, 216, 220–221, 281

egg deposition, effect of

lutectomy 15:582–584, 589

ovariectomy 15:582–584

oxytocin 15:588

temperature 15:62

preferred sites 14:20–21

sites, competition among females 18:371

Ovocyte 6:106

Ovomacroglobulin 14:377

Ovomucoid 8:330

Ovophis 15:657; 19:220

chaseni 19:192

monticola 19:192; 20:615

okinavensis 19:192

Ovotestis 6:106; 15:254, 261, 265, 272, 282, 286

Ovoviviparity 1:149; 6:87, 100, 102–103; 14:169; 15:531, 608

Ovulation 3:36–37, 218–219; 6:62, 81–84, 87, 90, 94–96, 99–103, 116–117; 14:199, 213, 215–216, 218, 274–275, 278–279, 317, 340–341, 343, 347–348, 352, 357; 15:3, 40–46, 50–51; 16:359

and steroids 15:592

and temperature 15:39, 49, 609

hormonal induction 14:240, 346, 349, 357

Ovulatory cycle 6:84

Ovule (see Ovarian follicle)

Ovum 6:81–83, 92, 94–98, 100–102, 106, 116

Owl 14:7

Ox 8:486

Oxalate(s) 3:2, 46; 5:60; 14:211

Oxidase 3:32

Oxidation 19:310–311, 516

Oxidative

enzymes 11:267, 282, 284, 309, 321, 335; 13:72

metabolism 5:321; 8:513–516, 527

phosphorylation 5:320; 19:497–498

respiration 8:641

Oxidoreductase 6:231, 238, 247, 252, 264, 269, 280, 284, 289, 296, 300–302

Oxybelis 7:387, 501; 8:41; 14:30; 16:50, 123, 125, 147, 173, 215; 19:157, 231; 20:565

aeneus 19:211; 20:565, 641

axial muscles 11:357, 402, 415

brevirostris 19:211

ear 2:269, 272

fulgidus 8:41; 19:211; 20:642

jaw muscles 4:441, 482

nose 2:165

Oxydation

of foodstuff 5:172

of hemoglobin 5:255

products 5:55

Oxygen (see also Anoxia; Hypoxia; PO2; Respiratory

gases and embryos) 3:17, 19, 42–46, 53; 5:28, 50, 58, 76, 79, 128, 183, 191, 196, 198, 227, 230, 239, 241, 243–244, 249, 289, 318– 320, 352, 375, 407; 12:245, 428–430, 444, 447; 13:22–24, 26, 28–35, 38, 120, 185, 238–240; 19:50, 52, 63, 154, 298–305, 312, 317, 319, 323, 327, 329–330, 332, 336, 345–346, 399, 438, 451, 460, 465–467, 489, 524

acquisition 5:195

affinity 5:251, 253, 256, 258–260, 265–266; 19:156–157

affinity of hemoglobin 13:24, 30–33, 71

capacity of blood 13:28–29, 90–91, 96

concentration in blood 5:281, 287

conductance 19:465

consumption (see also Aerobic metabolism;

Metabolism) 2:311; 3:45, 220; 5:33, 36, 70, 73–76, 78–83, 129–130, 160, 165, 167–170, 172, 175–180, 182, 186, 190, 193, 195, 197, 227, 283, 304, 325, 352–353, 355, 371–372, 375, 377, 395, 401, 407; 9:383–385; 19:57– 59, 62, 497

consumption of embryos 15:562, 592–593

content 19:345, 433, 446, 464, 467–469

debt 5:179, 187–188, 302; 19:64

delivery 5:253, 297, 302–303; 19:465–467

demand 19:64, 459

depletion 19:466

diffusion 19:2, 28, 53, 58

dissociation 19:464

dissociation curve 5:247, 251–253, 256–259, 261–263, 301, 356

equilibration 5:256

equilibrium curve 3:42; 19:466–467

exchange 19:471

extraction 5:302; 12:449; 19:48, 59, 62

inspiration rate 19:62

pulmonary 19:325

pulse 5:299, 301–304

saturation 5:256; 19:432, 434, 459, 472

storage 13:9, 14–15, 23–24, 28–29; 19:155, 333–335, 463–465

stores 5:318, 320–321

supply 19:63

tension 5:198, 304

transfer 19:323, 340, 463

transmission in placenta (see Placental transmission)

transport 3:1, 39–44, 49; 5:128, 183, 225, 250, 253, 256, 265, 300, 303; 13:29–30, 96, 160, 165–166; 19:345, 459, 464, 467–468, 470–473

unloading capacity 5:258

uptake 5:76, 79, 195, 197–198, 225, 240, 250, 261, 318; 19:65, 298–299, 310–312, 337, 340

uptake from water 13:35–40

Oxygenation 5:58; 19:138, 471

Oxyhemoglobin 3:43; 5:250

Oxymorphone 5:44, 47

Oxyntic cells (see Serous cells)

Oxynto-peptic cells (see also Serous cells) 6:261–262

Oxyphil cells 3:236, 238

Oxyrhabdium 19:211, 233; 21:500–501, 555, 577

ear 2:272; 20:556, 573/

jaw muscles 4:441

leporinum 19:211

modestum 19:211; 20:642

Oxyrhopus 5:134, 148; 8:664; 16:185, 230–231; 19:226

clathrata 19:211

doliatus 19:211

dorbignyi 20:655

fitzingeri 19:211; 20:655

formosus 19:211; 20:655

guibei 19:211

immaculatus 20:655

jaw muscles 4:481

labialis 20:655

leucomelas 19:153, 211

marcapatae 19:211, 226

melanogenys 19:211

petola 20:655

petolarius 19:211; 20:655

rhombifer 19:211; 20:655

trigeminus 19:153, 211

Oxytalan fibers 1:146

Oxytocic activity 5:464

Oxytocin (see also Arginine oxytocin) 5:386, 464, 477; 6:94, 118; 14:11, 15, 184, 220, 281, 349; 15:588–589, 591; 17:590, 593, 665, 688; 18:51

Oxyuraniini 19:222

Oxyuranus 7:389, 394, 505; 8:24, 262, 293, 310, 316, 325–326, 369, 444, 456, 491, 493; 12:132; 15:654; 16:150; 19:222; 20:542, 545

adrenal 3:281

blood cell morphology 3:78

microlepidotus 18:312; 19:197

pituitary 3:186

scutellatus 8:24, 293, 310, 316, 325–326, 369, 444, 456, 491, 493; 18:312; 19:127, 197; 20:628

Ozonolysis 8:225

 

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