Biology of the Reptilia: Index P

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P-aminohippurate 5:459–460

component 5:293

wave 5:87, 89, 91, 294

P-chlorophenoxy acetic acid 19:498

PCO2 13:22–24, 30, 35, 38

PN2 13:26–27

PO2 13:22, 24, 26–27, 37–40

Pacemaker 10:12–14, 17; 12:239; 19:379

cells 5:293

Pachycalamus 21:636, 717–720, 722–726

axial skeleton 1:272, 275

brevis 21:626, 720, 722

Pachycephalosauria 9:55, 67, 101, 105–106, 137–138

Pachycephalosauridae, dentition 1:187

Pachycephalosaurus 9:105–107

Pachydactylus 7:468; 9:416, 425, 430; 12:122; 15:328; 16:51, 115, 138, 260; 20:118, 121; 21:133–134

austeni 21:396

bibronii 20:120, 122, 296

blood cell numbers 3:103

chondrocranium 11:73, 77

dentition 1:162

ear 2:222, 266, 271

eye 2:26, 30

jaw muscles 4:419, 478

maculatus 20:296

mariquensis 21:396

nose 2:120

plodactylus 20:126, 135

punctatus 21:396

rangei 21:57, 186, 189, 396

vanzyli 21:57, 186, 189, 396

Pachyophiidae 20:595

Pachyophis 20:595; 21:563–564

origin and evolution 1:6

woodwardi 20:595

Pachypleurosaurus 9:297

dentition 1:191

Pachyrachis 19:165; 20:352, 367–368, 582–583, 586–588, 590, 594–595; 21:471–473, 477–479, 483–485, 499, 508, 510, 526, 541, 548–549, 563–564, 573, 579, 584, 590, 593, 599, 604, 609, 611

problematicus 20:595

Pachytene 14:51, 53, 66; 15:463–464

Pacific area 2:323

Packed cell volume 3:8–12

Paedogenesis 19:567

Paedomorphosis 20:38, 362, 458

Pain 8:475, 500, 524

Paint marks (see Marking methods)

Paired trabeculae 21:577, 583

Pakistan 2:323

Palachrodon, origin and evolution 1:5

Palaeagama 9:296

Palaeochoanate condition 11:61

Palaeolacerta 15:394

Palaeophiidae(ids) 20:482, 986

Palaeosuchus 16:281, 542

Palaeoxantusia 20:159–162, 299

Palatability spectrum (see Mimicry)

Palatal

complex 4:102

fenestra 4:138, 202, 204, 209, 216, 223, 236, 254, 272, 275

folds 6:232

glands 6:226

membrane 2:9; 4:104, 292, 316, 320–321, 328, 341, 354, 356, 362–363, 367, 375, 377, 385–386, 413

process of maxilla 4:202, 230, 235, 252; 11:103, 152

process of palatine 4:202, 252

process of premaxilla 4:202, 222, 229–230

process of pterygoid 4:202, 235

processes 20:17

shelf of the maxilla 21:559

teeth 1:120, 123, 150–154, 163–164, 169–170, 173, 179, 183–185, 191–193; 4:242, 280; 20:42, 76, 78, 115–116, 128, 136, 166, 228, 231, 234, 268–269, 273, 276–278, 287, 396, 589

Palate 1:3, 9, 12, 27, 32, 35, 192; 2:101, 113, 116, 118, 122–123, 137–138, 140, 143, 160, 165, 172–173; 4:316; 6:226; 11:5, 18, 87, 96, 111, 120, 152, 199, 208, 227, 234, 242; 20:6, 14, 23, 25, 46, 49, 51, 56–57, 62, 64–65, 67, 69, 74, 87, 92, 94, 106, 117, 152, 157, 160, 167, 220, 226, 228, 236, 254, 257, 264, 278, 282, 387, 400–401, 410, 419, 424, 583, 595, 601–603, 605–609, 619–621, 624–625, 629, 631, 633, 636, 640, 647, 653

closure 14:406, 423–426, 442

development 14:331, 381, 403–407, 411, 414–415, 417, 421–427, 462, 514

fully neochoanate 20:14, 140, 188, 218, 228, 236, 241

incompletely neochoanate 20:14, 136, 152, 157, 160, 166–167, 173, 184, 198, 282

in vitro culture of tissue 14:426, 462

malformation 14:453, 459

neochoanate 20:14, 41, 106, 117, 134, 149, 194, 210, 225, 233, 265

paleochoanate 20:14, 41, 65, 74, 78, 81, 87, 91–92, 103, 115, 134, 136, 160, 198, 210, 218, 225, 264, 276

primary 14:404–405, 413–414, 421–422

secondary 14:403, 405–406, 414, 419, 421, 424

sensory receptors 14:355–356, 411, 427

Palatine 1:118, 120, 129, 152, 168, 170–171, 173, 179–181, 192–193; 4:116–117, 126, 138, 188, 203–205, 209–211, 213–214, 216–221, 223, 225, 231, 234–236, 248, 250–252, 254–256, 258, 265, 272–273, 276, 292, 306, 311, 313, 327, 385–386, 421, 434, 436, 438; 11:17, 20, 22, 39, 60–62, 68, 70, 72, 81, 84, 106, 110, 119, 124–125, 128–129, 142–143, 151–154, 165, 170, 178–179, 209, 218, 233, 235, 237, 240, 244–245; 20:14–15, 18, 23–25, 41–42, 67, 65, 68–70, 75–76, 78, 81–82, 84, 88, 91–92, 94, 98, 101, 104, 106, 110–111, 115, 118, 120, 122–125, 128, 134, 137, 142, 145–146, 149, 152–153, 156, 158, 161–163, 165–166, 168–171, 173, 175–176, 178, 180–182, 185, 188, 190–191, 196, 198, 200, 202, 204–205, 212, 214, 217, 219–222, 225, 228, 231, 234, 236–238, 240, 242, 244–248, 258, 264, 266–268, 276, 278–279, 282, 284, 287, 356, 369–371, 373, 375–376, 379, 384, 387, 389, 394, 397, 399–400, 402–404, 407, 409–410, 412, 414, 417, 419, 421–422, 424, 428–429, 431, 434, 440, 442–444, 456–457, 462, 464, 469, 472, 480–483, 486, 492, 503, 506–507, 510, 512–518, 527–529, 531, 533, 538, 542–545, 547–548, 550, 559, 569, 571, 573, 575–577, 588–589, 591, 596; 21:546, 551–554, 561, 565, 570, 582, 585

artery 2:7, 12, 50, 63; 11:12, 15, 24–25, 99, 211, 219; 20:390–391; 21:528, 535–536

bone 2:9, 11, 66–67, 73; 14:421; 19:117

branch of facial nerve 11:15, 17, 22–24, 32, 68, 79, 98, 110, 112, 124, 129, 158, 160, 170, 185, 187, 211–212, 214, 219, 236–237, 243

bulla 4:214, 218–219, 235

choanal process (see Choanal process of

palatine)

dental laminae 21:548

draggers 20:542

erectors 20:542

fangs 1:18, 20, 22, 25, 27, 31–32, 118–119

fold (see Vomerine cushion)

foramen for suborbital branch of maxillary

(V2) nerve 20:427, 444, 481

ganglion 2:11

gland(s) 8:48–55, 69–70, 144; 11:79

groove for suborbital branch of maxillary (V2)

nerve 20:444, 457

membrane (see Palatal membrane)

nerve 2:7, 11, 49–50, 177

process of maxilla 20:388, 400, 402–403, 417–418, 421–422, 429, 434, 442, 447, 453, 455, 457, 459, 463, 465, 467, 469, 472–473, 480–483, 486, 562, 569, 572, 575–577

protraction 20:439, 518

-pterygoid arch 21:550

-pterygoid articulation 21:571

ramus of VII 21:512–514, 516, 519–525, 528, 531–532, 535–536

sinus 2:67; 20:24, 100

teeth 20:24, 65, 75, 88, 158, 173, 181, 191, 194, 204, 209, 238, 240, 269, 275, 287, 410, 441, 450, 453, 459, 468, 482, 486, 518, 548, 577

Palato-vomerine joint 20:410, 591

Palatobasal articulation 20:285

Palatomaxillary

arch 20:355–356, 364, 395, 412, 434, 440, 442–444, 454, 457, 464, 480–482, 492, 501, 511–512, 515–516, 527–528, 531, 542–545, 549, 557, 565, 570, 572, 575, 577, 582, 589, 592, 596

function 20:442, 504, 515, 544, 546, 558, 589, 591

segment 20:49, 55

teeth 20:589

Palatopterygoid

bar 20:400–401, 466, 492–493, 514, 518, 522, 571, 592

joint 20:417, 450, 452, 459, 486, 507, 512, 518, 542, 545

series 4:285, 289, 292, 313, 316, 384–385, 413

tooth row 20:441, 492, 550

Palatoquadrate (see also Pterygoquadrate) 4:104, 250–252; 20:263

cartilage 20:12, 21–25, 33, 52, 68, 262–263; 21:478

Paleoneurology 9:39–146, 290–305

Paleontological history 5:395

Paleontology 14:5

Paleostriatum 10:265; 17:629, 646; 18:41

augmentatum 17:528, 535

Paleosuchus 8:607, 675; 13:307; 14:344, 377

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:184

palpebrosus 18:203; 19:34, 36, 82

skull 4:212, 222, 227, 232, 243, 275

trigonatus 19:203

Paleozoic era 14:5, 526–527, 586

Paliguana 9:296; 15:340; 20:250, 252, 254, 257–258, 268, 285, 287

whitei 20:290

Paliguanidae 15:341; 21:9, 116, 120, 186

Pallial thickening 10:253, 261, 294, 305–306, 309, 313, 317, 327, 330; 17:656

Pallium 18:42

Palmar

aponeurosis (see also Flexor plate) 21:294–296, 304–305, 309, 312, 316

collectors 6:390

head of M. flexor digitorum longus 21:213, 415

lymphatic vessels 6:390

net 6:389

sesamoid 21:29, 126, 294, 314

Palmate nerve endings 2:282–283, 285

Palmatogecko 15:328; 16:115, 254, 260; 20:117, 121, 123

chondrocranium 11:75

eye 2:22

nose 2:120

rangei 20:296

Palmitic acid(s) 18:123, 194, 199; 19:351

Palmotoleic 18:194, 199

Palpebral (see also Supraciliary; Supraorbital) 20:44, 137, 142, 154, 158, 169, 173, 178, 185, 194, 196, 202, 209, 212, 217, 221, 225, 230, 234, 237, 240, 382; 21:559, 583

aperature 2:13–14, 23, 86

bone 4:212, 215, 274–275; 21:591

Pamalaescincus gardinieri 21: 399

Panacra 16:172

Panaspis 7:167, 169, 172–174, 179, 189; 12:113; 16:6, 118, 464–465, 517; 20:138, 298; 21:399

africana 20:307

breviceps 21:397

hackarsi 21:400

reichenowi 20:307

togoensis 21:397

wahlbergi 21:399, 401

Pancreas 3:21–22, 319–346; 6:43, 349, 356, 413– 414, 421, 427–428; 8:610–618, 651, 698; 13:94; 17:589; 19:39–40, 169, 488, 505–507, 522, 536, 545–546, 557, 560, 564

development 14:143–144, 174, 307, 440

embryology 3:319–320

endocrine 10:41

exocrine 10:26

histology 3:324–341

innervation 3:341

topography and gross structure 3:320–324

tumors 3:332

Pancreatectomy 3:23

Pancreatic

amylase 8:611–613, 616

capsule 3:328

collectors 6:427–428, 446

duct 3:328; 6:203, 458; 14:440

-duodenal artery 3:320, 333

islets 3:319, 327–328, 341–342; 8:610–611

juice 8:610–611

polypeptide 17:660, 673, 676

tubules 3:324, 327–328

Pancreatico-duodenal collectors 6:426

Paneth cell 6:43, 275, 277–278, 283, 287, 302

Panhera 16:6, 11, 27, 52, 60

Panting (see also Breathing; Temperature regulation,

evaporative cooling; Ventilation) 5:245, 374–375; 19:157, 306

Pantodactylus 20:186, 189–190, 192–193

ear 2:271

schreibersii 20:301

Papilla

basilaris 10:215, 220, 241

basillaris 9:13, 15

neglecta 9:13

Papillar bar 2:237–238, 242–250, 253, 257, 260

Papillary cartilage 11:17, 48, 105, 119–120, 122–123

Papio 16:194

Papuascincus 21:397

Para-aminohippuric acid 5:496–497

Parabasal canal (see also Vidian canal) 9:8; 21:514

Parabasisphenoid 11:22–23, 60, 62, 70, 123, 127–132, 134, 150, 154–155, 163–164, 172, 185, 187, 216, 218–219, 237, 244–245; 20:355, 381–382

Paraboloid 2:34–37, 42, 44–48, 54, 65, 72–73, 77, 85; 9:215, 347; 17:15–16, 19, 22–24, 215

Parabrachial region 17:507, 599–600, 613, 633, 651, 664

Parabronchi 19:72–73

Paracapsular

recess 21:560, 564, 583, 586–587

sinus (see also Pericapsular sinus) 2:231–232, 259, 262

Parachalcides 16:266

Parachordal 4:249; 9:2, 34; 11:3, 10–14, 29, 40–41, 116, 136, 194, 200, 207, 238

cartilage 20:361

plate (see also Basal plate) 14:125, 127; 20:416

Parachordals 20:10, 28

Parachuting 21:59

Paracloacal gland (see Gland, paracloacal)

Paracondylar processes 20:472

Paracotylar foramen 1:286

Paracotylar foramina 20:460

Paracrine regulators 19:64

Paracynictis 16:6

Parademansia 8:24

microlepidota 8:24

Paradiapophysis (see Synapophysis)

Paradidymis 6:52

Paradipsosaurus 20:82, 292

Paradoxical

discharge 2:293

sleep (see Sleep)

Paradracaena 20:174, 181

colombiana 20:301

Paraechinus 10:191

Parafibula 21:153

Paraffin 5:98; 6:226

Parafilm 5:97

Parafollicular cells (see Macrothyreocytes)

Paraformaldehyde 10:249

Parahelicops 19:101

Parahydrophis 8:27; 19:223

mertoni 19:199

Parakeet (see Melopsittacus)

Paraldehyde fuchsin 3:137, 139, 141, 143, 145–146, 149–154, 156, 158, 163, 167, 169–170, 177, 184–185, 191; 6:226

“Parallel-fibered” bone 1:49–50, 55, 61, 64, 66, 68

Parallel-fibered

cortex 1:53

matrix 1:71

Parallelism 4:267–271, 276, 374, 405

Paralysis 3:240, 257; 8:449, 469, 473, 479

Paramacellodus 15:334, 340

axial skeleton 1:270

Paramagnetic oxygen analyzer 5:71–74, 129

Paramedian tract 6:396

Paramesonephric ducts (see Müllerian duct)

Paranaja 8:24; 19:146, 221; 20:518

multifasciata 8:24; 19:142, 197; 20:625

Paranasal

cartilage 11:15–17, 19, 45–46, 49–52, 54–55, 66, 74–77, 79, 84, 87–88, 92–93, 96, 102–103, 109–110, 116, 120, 122, 142, 158, 162, 165–167, 171, 177–179, 196, 202

process 11:158, 160

sinus (see Accessory, nasal sinus)

sinuses 11:228

Paranatrix 19:101

Paranuclear body 2:59, 61; 17:28

Paranucleolar mass 6:111–112; 14:44, 46–47, 50–51, 53–56, 60; 15:170

vacuole 14:46

Paraoccipital process 9:64

Paraoxon 6:280

Paraphalangeal elements 21:134, 189

Paraphyletic 19:297, 353

groups 18:9

Paraphysis (see also Parapineal) 9:225, 227, 246–247, 258, 285, 289, 336; 12:227; 14:128, 172, 433–434

Parapineal 9:56–57

Parapistocalamus 8:24; 19:221

hedigeri 8:24; 19:198; 20:622

jaw muscles 4:483

Paraplocephalus atricesa 20:628

Parapsicephalus 9:41, 86, 88

Parapophysis 1:201–202, 209, 229–231, 237, 252, 284–286; 11:411

Parapsid 20:249

Parareptilia, origin and evolution 1:10

Pararhabdophis 19:101

Pararhadinaea 19:221

albignaci 19:195

melanogaster 20:642

Parasaurolophus, nose 2:152–153

Paraseptal

apophysis 1:239

cartilage(s) 4:251; 9:3; 11:15, 17–19, 22, 46, 48, 51–52, 54–55, 61, 66, 70–73, 76, 79, 83, 87, 89, 93–94, 96–97, 102–104, 106, 109–110, 117, 120–122, 127, 142, 157, 171, 176–178, 194, 197, 202, 208–212, 224–225, 229–230, 232, 240–241; 14:125

Parasibynophis torquatus 20:642

Parasites 5:23–24, 26; 14:602, 614

of blood 3:73, 75, 83, 87–88, 100, 104

Parasitic

disease (see also Pathology) 19:521–522

lesions 1:323–324

Paraspecific

action (see also Cross-reactivity) 8:356–357, 577

protection 8:365–366

Parasphenoid 1:12, 25, 31, 150; 4:130, 228, 250, 252, 254–255, 421; 9:8; 11:11, 23–24, 32, 58, 60, 62, 81, 90, 98–99, 106, 112, 117, 123–124, 132, 143, 150, 153–155, 158, 164, 166, 179, 184–185, 187, 190, 214, 216, 219, 224, 231, 233, 240, 244–245; 20:7, 23, 28, 30, 70, 135, 137, 156, 164, 205, 222, 227, 268–269, 357, 361–362, 368, 371, 389, 395, 397, 402–405, 414, 418, 421, 425, 434, 438, 445, 447, 451, 453, 455, 462, 464–465, 467, 471, 473, 477, 479, 501–502, 504–505, 511, 513, 523, 527, 533, 538, 541, 543, 559, 562, 564, 566–567, 569, 571; 21:514, 520

-basisphenoid suture 21:536

bone 2:48–49; 14:126, 428

intertrabecular crest 21:534

rostrum 2:6; 11:22, 39, 60, 62, 70, 90, 100, 129–130, 132, 154–155, 161, 170, 199, 201, 219, 245; 20:7, 25, 30, 42, 50, 75, 91, 101, 104, 112, 115–116, 124, 128, 137, 147, 150, 156, 164, 166, 172–173, 182, 186, 192, 195, 205, 209, 216–217, 222, 225, 232, 234, 238, 240, 246, 248, 268–269, 276

teeth 20:269, 276

Parasternal

cartilage 11:385–387

chevrons 1:254, 262

rib 1:262

Parasternalia (see Parasternal chevrons)

Parasternum 1:237, 254

Parasympathetic 20:567

control 12:243–244

(cholinergic) innervation 19:402, 452

effects 8:478

fiber(s) 5:238; 10:13, 20, 26, 28

influences 5:308

nerves 5:429

nervous system 10:2, 24, 27, 29, 213; 12:237, 239

origin 5:416

Parasympathicomimetic drugs 5:11, 102

Parasympathomimetic drugs 8:95, 605

Paratendinous intravaginal flexors 21:315

Parathoracic rib 1:266

Parathorax 1:240, 266, 293

Parathormone (see Parathyroid hormone)

Parathyroid 3:118, 223, 235–262; 14:140

activity 5:34

capsule 3:236, 245, 248, 254

degeneration 3:257–258

development 14:139–140, 174, 307, 309, 446

extract 5:482–485

follicles 3:236–237, 239, 245, 250, 254, 258

function 3:240, 243, 250, 257, 259

histology 3:236–237, 239, 245–246, 254, 257

hormone 3:236, 259, 332; 6:118; 15:388

Parathyroidectomized animals 5:482

turtles 5:483

Parathyroidectomy 3:237, 240, 243, 250, 257, 259; 5:482

Paratorus 9:220–221

Paratracheal collector (see Paratracheal trunk)

Paratracheal trunk (see also Jugular trunk) 6:319, 322, 325, 345, 373, 375, 379–380, 384, 386, 411, 431

Paraventricular

nucleus 3:137–138, 224; 6:117; 12:227, 256

organ 10:258–259, 265–266, 282

Paravertebral

lymphatic system (see Perivertebral lymphatic

system)

stripes 15:472, 485

trunk 6:321, 330–331, 346, 352, 356, 363, 387, 396–397, 399, 412, 455; 10:3

vein 6:399

Parazygantral foramen 1:286

Parazygosphenial foramen 1:286–287

Pareas 7:225; 16:143, 233; 19:132, 134, 224; 20:567, 571–573; 21:474, 508, 574, 576, 586

carinatus 19:153, 211; 20:632

chinensis 19:211

dentition 1:182

ear 2:272

eye 2:49, 55–56, 91

formosensis 19:211; 20:632

hamptoni 19:211.20:632

iwasakii 20:632

jaw muscles 4:442, 481

komaii 19:211

laevis 19:211; 20:632

macularius 19:211; 20:568–569, 632

malaccanus 19:211; 20:632

margaritophorus 19:211; 20:632

monticola 19:211; 20:632

nose 2:179

nuchalis 19:211; 20:632

stanleyi 19:153, 211

vertebralis 19:211

Pareatinae 19:132, 224; 20:551, 556, 561, 578, 631

Pareatini 19:133

Pareiasaura

axial skeleton 1:203

dentition 1:121, 151

origin and evolution 1:10, 39

Pareiasauria 19:74

Pareiasauroidea, origin and evolution 1:2, 10

Pareiasaurus 9:57, 66, 121

dentition 1:151

Pareinae

dentition 1:182

jaw muscles 4:441

Parenchyma (see also Ediculus; Faveolus; Trabeculae) 2:282, 285; 19:3–4, 6–19, 25, 28, 30, 33, 36, 42, 44, 53, 55–56, 61, 63–65, 76, 96, 102–103, 105, 107, 109–111, 130–136, 138–140, 142, 144–145, 148–149, 154, 160, 165, 169, 171, 173, 489–493, 500, 504, 511, 518, 547, 552–554, 559

Parental care 12:8; 13:241, 275; 14:20; 18:77

aggressiveness 16:297, 299

alarm calls 16:282

benefits 16:277, 298–302, 306–308, 315

body size 16:291, 307, 309

brief incubation 16:310–311, 313

cost-benefit models 16:277, 298–299

costs 16:277, 298, 302–312, 315

crocodilians 16:18, 278–283, 296, 301, 307–308, 310, 313, 315

defending young 16:279–281, 288

development 16:290, 301, 310–311

egg-attendance 16:277, 279–282, 288, 291, 295, 297, 301, 305–306, 310–311, 314

egg-brooding 16:277–278, 288–291, 301, 314

egg-guarding 16:277, 279–281, 288–289, 299–300, 311, 314–315

egg-manipulation 16:282, 301

egg-predation 16:282, 288, 298

eggs and nests 16:277, 279

environmental factors 16:310–311, 315

evolution 16:294–295, 305–313, 315

factors influencing 16:306–313

fecundity 16:303, 309–310

food intake 16:302–304, 309, 312

future studies 16:305

growth 16:305

helping birth 16:292

increasing benefits 16:306–308

independent origins 16:294–295, 305–306, 315

intermediate stages 16:305–306, 313

investment 16:277

latitude 16:309–310

learning 16:291, 302

lizards 16:282–284, 288, 291, 296–297, 307–309, 314, 444

male, female, biparental (see sex showing)

maturity 16:308–309

mode of fertilization 16:312–313, 315

mode of reproduction 16:292–293, 307, 313, 315

mouth brooding, and transport 16:292–314

myths (apparent) 16:291

nest opening 16:278–282, 288, 301, 314

non-reptiles 16:293, 307, 311, 313

oophagy (see Egg predation)

oviparity versus viviparity 16:292–293, 307, 314–315

rarity in reptiles 16:313–314

removing dead eggs/young 16:292, 301

route 5:47

sex showing 16:297–298, 312–313, 315

shivering thermogenesis 16:278, 288–291, 301–302, 315

snakes 16:285–297, 307

survivorship (see benefits)

swallowing young 16:292–293

taxa showing 16:278–293, 289

taxonomic biases 16:293–294, 314–315

terminology 16:277

thermal benefits (see shivering thermogenesis)

turtles 16:278, 293, 296, 310, 314, 401, 415

venomous species 16:307, 315

young 16:277

Paries membranaceus 19:132

Parietal 4:105, 108–109, 111–117, 138–139, 147, 170, 186, 204, 209–210, 213–214, 216–220, 222, 224, 227–228, 232–233, 236, 247, 249, 251, 253–257, 265, 272, 297, 299, 301–302, 309, 317, 320, 322–324, 326, 335–336, 339, 341, 349, 351, 358–359, 362, 365, 367–368, 374, 379, 381, 383–386, 389–391, 394–396, 398, 401–402, 407–411, 416, 420, 431, 450– 451, 453, 455, 459, 466, 469–471; 11:20, 22, 24, 28–29, 32, 39, 56, 58, 60, 62–63, 68, 70–71, 73, 79–82, 85, 91, 100–101, 105–107, 111–112, 119, 124–125, 128–131, 133–135, 148, 153, 155, 158, 163, 184–190, 199, 209, 212, 214, 216, 218–219, 224–227, 237, 243– 244, 366; 20:7, 12, 14, 16–17, 19, 21, 23, 26, 30, 34, 40, 42, 44, 46, 48–52, 54–57, 62–63, 65, 67, 72, 74, 76, 79, 81–83, 86–87, 89, 96, 100, 103, 108, 113, 115–116, 118, 120, 122–123, 126, 128, 130–131, 133, 136, 140, 142, 144, 147, 149, 152, 154–155, 158, 160, 162, 164–168, 170, 173, 176, 181, 183, 185, 188–190, 194–195, 200, 203, 206, 212, 214, 216–217, 219–221, 223, 225–226, 228–229, 231, 234, 236, 238, 240–243, 246, 363–257, 261–262, 275, 277–278, 280–283, 285–288, 355, 357, 361–363, 365–366, 368–369, 371, 373–375, 379, 381, 387–392, 397–399, 403–405, 407–412, 415, 421, 425, 427, 431–432, 434, 438–442, 445–447, 449–450, 453, 455, 457–458, 462–467, 470–471, 473, 477–479, 484, 486, 490–491, 497, 501–509, 511, 513, 523–527, 529, 532–533, 538–541, 543, 559, 561–564, 566, 568–569, 571, 578, 584, 588, 591; 21:219–220, 503–504, 512, 516–517, 520, 528, 530, 533, 537, 540, 551, 589–592

behavioral effect 9:383

bone 2:48–49, 196; 8:105, 111

cartilage 14:125, 172

cells 6:246, 264

crest 4:339, 347, 415

development 9:250

evolution 9:290

eye (see also Pineal; Pineal complex) 9:20, 70, 78, 90, 178, 221–222, 225, 245–250, 255, 258, 264, 270–275, 280, 282–283, 285, 288, 292–295, 301–302, 304, 323, 329, 335–342, 346, 361, 370–371, 377–379, 383, 385, 390; 12:224–226, 231, 253; 14:495, 514; 17:649

activity rhythms 18:243

anatomy and physiology 18:233–234

melatonin 18:238–239

pineal 18:239, 242

reproduction 18:266

thermoregulation 18:264–268

foramen (see also Foramen, parietal; Pineal

foramen) 20:16–17, 40, 44, 67, 74, 82, 91, 96, 103, 108, 115–116, 119, 128, 131, 136, 142, 149, 152, 158, 160, 165, 168, 173, 177, 189, 194, 200, 208, 212, 217, 220, 225, 229, 234, 236, 240, 243, 248, 254–255, 275, 280–282, 284

lappets 20:142, 160, 168, 188, 243, 248, 284

nerve (see also Nerve, parietal) 12:226

ossification 14:312

phase 10:25

-pineal complex 13:216–217, 221

plate 5:65

tabs 20:138, 152, 158, 168, 173, 176, 254

unit 20:54–56, 209, 260–261

Parietalectomy 3:223, 226; 5:167; 6:121; 9:383, 386–388; 12:224–225, 235, 253; 13:216

Parieto-tabular arch 21:507, 510

Parietotectal cartilage 11:14–19, 22, 45–46, 48–52, 54, 66, 74–76, 78, 84, 87–88, 90, 93, 96, 98, 102–103, 106, 109–110, 115–116, 120, 122, 127, 129, 138–143, 157–158, 160, 165–167, 171, 173, 177, 179, 202, 208, 210, 212, 224, 231–233, 235, 240; 20:361, 456, 554

Parioxys

bone 1:71

origin and evolution 1:23

Parkinson’s disease 10:251

Parkosaurus, dentition 1:188

Parlodion 5:99

Paroccipital

abutting 20:116, 122, 128, 133, 158, 162

process 2:196, 199–200, 229; 4:204–205, 210– 211, 214, 217, 219–221, 226, 233, 236–237, 255–257, 266, 271, 277, 419; 11:22, 25, 30, 34, 59, 85, 112, 124, 199, 216, 218; 20:8, 17, 20–23, 28, 33–34, 47, 50–51, 55, 68, 73, 86, 91, 100, 102, 104, 110, 114–115, 122, 126, 128, 133, 135–136, 144, 148, 154, 156, 162, 164, 166, 170, 172–173, 179, 193, 200, 203, 209, 212, 214, 216, 221, 223, 225–226, 230, 232, 234, 238–240, 246, 248, 262, 264, 271–272, 276, 278, 285, 287–288, 400, 435, 443, 584; 21:472, 507

Paroedura 15:328; 16:260; 20:117, 126, 296; 21:89

bastardi 20:306

Parotic process (see Paroccipital process)

Parotoid 8:43

gland 8:91

Parovarium 6:49

Parrot 14:7

Pars

anterior (see Pars distalis of pituitary)

anterior of Jacobson’s organ (see Anterior

sulcus)

anterior of recessus inferior (see Ventral recess)

ciliaris retinae 2:1–19, 23

distalis (see Distal lobe of pituitary)

distalis of pituitary 6:115–116

dorsalis of Jacobson’s organ (see Lateral

sulcus; Medial sulcus)

inferior of extracolumella 11:33–34, 55, 66, 76, 79, 93, 104, 124, 196

inferior of extrastapes 2:198–200, 229

interhyalis (see Interhyal)

intermedia (see also Intermediate lobe of

pituitary) 18:316–317, 347

iridiaca retinae 2:16, 19, 23, 65, 70

nervosa (see also Neural lobe of pituitary) 15:247

nervosa of pituitary 6:117–118

olfactoria (see Olfactory region)

respiratoria (see Intermediate region)

superior of extracolumella 11:33–34, 54, 66, 76, 79–80, 93, 104, 196

superior of extrastapes 2:198–200, 229

terminalis 3:140, 193

tuberalis 3:137, 140, 157–160, 162, 166, 183–184, 188–190, 193, 195

ventralis of Jacobson’s organ (see Ventral

sulcus)

zygomatica 21:506

Parthenogenesis 6:96, 107; 13:207; 14:7, 9, 15; 16:363; 18:26, 37–39, 76, 80, 86

adaptive significance 15:498–499

and abnormal development 15:373, 451–453, 455

and genome interaction 15:497

and hybridization 15:414–415, 437–441, 459–477, 494–497, 513

and sexual phenotype 15:284

and triploidy (see also Triploids; Triploidy) 15:495–497

artificial 15:496

evolutionary aspects 15:491–510, 513

origin 15:492

taxonomic problems 15:512

Parthenogenic species 14:11, 641–642; 15:415–429

developmental rate 15:513

embryonic stages 15:500, 513

experimental production 15:497

geographical distribution 15:421–427, 429, 441–451, 503–504, 509

habitats 15:443–447, 450–451, 498, 503

heterozygosity 15:497–498, 506

meiotic mechanisms 15:435, 478–480, 497, 498, 513–514

ovaries 15:463–465, 502

oviducts 15:465

partial sterility 15:505

population density 15:503

range expansion 15:509–510

reversion to reproduction 15:506–507

variability in 15:480–491

Partial pressure 19:332

alveolar 19:300

arterial 19:301, 303–306, 319, 327, 330, 335–337, 340–342

blood PO2 19:64, 306–307, 317–318, 323, 325, 331, 345, 433, 438, 448, 452, 454, 456–457, 460, 462, 464, 467, 469, 472

carbon dioxide 19:64, 305–307, 314–315, 320, 323, 329, 331–332, 341, 343–344, 369

difference 19:52, 56–57

faveolar 19:329

gases 16:548

gradient 19:156–157

lung 19:306, 335, 340, 345

oxygen 19:28, 307, 329–331, 335, 340, 345

Partial reinforcement studies 7:625–630

Parturition 6:100–102, 105

and genetic mechanisms 15:592

and oxytocin 15:588

effect of luteectomy 15:582–584

effect of ovariectomy 15:582–584

endocrine control 15:530, 579, 586–691

Parvalbumins 11:292

Parvilacerta 20:167

parva 20:300

Parvoscincus 21:399

PAS 6:36, 43, 92, 111, 113, 227, 229, 234, 237, 241, 244, 246–248, 251–252, 265, 271, 280, 283, 287–289, 291–294, 297–299

reaction 3:120–121, 126, 138–139, 141, 144– 146, 149–151, 153–154, 156, 158, 162–163, 166–167, 169–170–173, 175, 178–180, 182–187, 189, 191, 209, 212, 237–238, 245–247, 249, 251, 254, 258, 279, 283, 285, 291, 301, 303; 14:604–609, 611, 620

in limb buds 15:91

of primordial germ cells 15:170

of seminiferous tubules 15:242

of urodaeal epithelium 15:187, 192

Passeriformes 9:248

Passive diffusion of gas 5:225

expiration 5:231–233

inspiration 5:229, 233, 235, 238

Patella 1:81, 91, 93, 107–111; 4:67, 125; 21:152, 340

tibialis 21:150, 153

ulnaris 21:115–117, 264

Patellar tendon 4:58–59, 61–62, 67, 83–84, 96

Patency 5:64

Path (see Tract)

Pathogenicity 5:26

Pathogens 5:26–27; 12:306

Pathological failure of tooth replacement 1:136

Pathology 8:437; 19:346, 493, 516–524

Pathway (see Tract)

cerebellospinal 17:563

geniculotectal 17:310

habenulointerpeduncular 17:648

interstitiospinal 17:551

olivocochlear 17:633

reticulocerebellar 17:531

reticulospinal 17:563

retinohypothalamic 17:177

rubrospinal 17:567

spinocerebellar 17:517, 524

spino-olivary 17:527

spinoreticular 17:523

spinotectal 17:324

spinothalamic 17:523

striatonigral 17:650

striocerebellar 17:534

tectocerebellar 17:516

tectogeniculate 17:282, 534

tectoreticular 17:334

trigeminocerebellar 17:516

trigeminotectal 17:340

uncinate 17:536, 552

vestibulospinal pathway 17:553, 563

Pattern formation 14:587–589

relationships 1:323–327

Pauley reaction 3:41

PDE (see w-Exonuclease)

Peak density area 17:101

Pectinate ligament 2:15, 20, 51, 70

Pectineal process (see also Lateral process of

pubis) 21:146

tubercle 21:144

Pectoral

apparatus 4:12–15, 91–94

girdle 1:203, 254, 271, 275, 281, 314, 337; 4:3, 8, 12–15, 21–22, 24, 26, 28, 30–31, 182; 5:62–63, 93, 235; 11:368; 14:124, 151, 153–155, 312; 20:584–585; 21:59–60, 70, 76, 135, 137, 217

limb 4:2–3

muscles 4:21–51

nerves 4:21–51

shield 1:315, 330

skeleton 4:12–21

Pectoralis 21:29, 31, 207, 212

major muscle 6:333

Pedal plantar flexion 21:42, 48, 163, 177, 353, 362, 365

Pedicel 1:201, 207, 226, 239; 2:35, 38, 43, 45, 58, 60–61, 77, 79

Pedicels of podocyte 6:45

Pedicle 17:29, 33–42

Pedicular foramen (see Lateral foramen)

Pedioplanus 20:167–168, 170

lineoocellata 16:208; 20:300

namaquensis 16:208

Pedler transformation 2:85, 91

Pelagosaurus

eye 2:75

skull 4:273, 278

Pelamis 5:198, 249, 369, 407–408, 421, 431, 433–434; 7:205, 505; 8:29, 63, 73, 98, 106, 198–199, 356–357, 441; 12:133–134, 332, 341, 346, 377, 426, 429–430, 433; 13:2, 7–8, 12–13, 37–38, 40; 16:8, 43, 56, 121, 127, 150, 183, 203–204; 17:45, 71; 19:98, 132, 156, 158, 223; 20:544, 548

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:288

ear 2:272

jaw muscles 4:449–452, 455, 483

nose 2:121, 130, 136, 160, 174, 179

platurus 8:29, 63, 73, 98, 106, 198, 356–357, 442; 19:105–107, 132–133, 150–151 (as P.

bicolor), 199, 299, 328, 356; 20:629

Pelanomodon 9:299

Pelias

berus 20:619

kaznakovi 20:619

seoanei 20:619

Pelochelys 5:395–396; 16:135

eye 2:68

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:154–155

limbs 4:4

nose 2:114

Pelodiscus sinensis 19:547–578

Pelomedusa 5:254, 258, 264; 7:459; 10:203; 13:17–18, 23, 34; 14:81, 102, 177, 212, 215, 665; 16:25, 113, 393, 439

axial muscles 11:369–370

blood cell morphology 3:75–76, 81–83, 87

blood cell numbers 3:103

chondrocranium 11:225

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104–105, 107–108, 110-, 112, 125, 154–157, 176, 180

limbs 4:2–3, 14–15, 24–27, 30, 32, 34–35, 41–42, 45–47, 49–51, 54, 56, 60, 62, 65, 66–68, 71–72, 75, 79–80, 82, 88–90, 100

nose 2:104, 108,111, 113, 177, 181

pituitary 3:188, 190

Pelomedusidae 5:192; 7:459; 9:71; 12:136; 14:80–81, 102, 171, 215, 665; 16:56, 113, 135, 393, 439, 525–526, 551–553; 19:19

axial muscles 11:369–379

axial skeleton 1:211, 215, 219

blood cell morphology 3:76

chondrocranium 11:225

ear 2:265, 270

eye 2:68

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104, 154

internal relief of gut 6:161, 172

limbs 4:2, 55, 91, 100

nose 2:114

pituitary 3:136, 188, 190

shell 1:329, 334, 336

Peloneustes 9:297

eye 2:80

Peltocephalus 14:81; 16:135

dumerilianus 18:315

Peltosaurus, dentition 1:168

Pelusios 8:662, 672; 14:81, 102, 110, 119, 131, 133, 181, 184, 213, 215, 219–220, 226, 231; 16:6, 113, 393, 439

axial skeleton 1:224–225

blood cell numbers 3:103

blood chemistry 3:9

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:86, 89

eye 2:68

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104– 105, 107–108, 110, 113, 118, 123–125, 162–163

internal relief of gut 6:161, 174

limbs 4:3

shell 1:321, 329–330

subniger 19:19, 77

urinogenital system 6:5, 8, 17

Pelvic

apparatus 4:52–90, 94–97

appendages 15:117

canal 16:398

cistern (see Pelvic plexus)

fenestra 21:12

girdle 1:225, 240, 271, 282, 293, 314, 337; 4:3, 52–55, 61–63, 65–68, 70–71, 74, 90–91, 94; 5:235; 11:383; 14:124, 153–154, 156; 20:430, 584; 21:10, 13, 55, 59, 136–139, 191, 320–321, 328–329, 346

musculature 15:123

rudiment 15:117, 119

girdle and appendages, lymphatics of 6:311–350

limb 4:2–3

lymphatic vesicle (see Lymphatic heart)

muscles 4:61–90, 96

nerves 4:61–90

plexus 6:318–320, 331–332, 335–346, 358–359, 379, 393–396, 403, 406, 422, 424, 434–437, 441

rubbing 18:176–177

sinus 6:393

skeleton 1:293

vein 6:30–31, 453

Pelvis 10:24

Pelycosaur(s) 9:63, 68, 125, 297, 299–300; 20:257; 21:84, 118, 121, 171

Pelycosauria 7:6; 19:71, 74

bone 1:59, 70–71, 74–75

chondrocranium 11:21–22

dentition 1:124, 127, 193

eye 2:80

nose 2:150

origin and evolution 1:2, 8, 11, 14–15, 18, 25, 27, 30, 35–39

Penial groove 14:340

Penis 6:106, 407, 443; 10:8, 40–41; 14:144–145, 442

development 15:15, 239, 244, 249, 261

homology with hemipenes 15:238–240

Pentadactylus 17:290, 303

Pentamethylenetrazole 5:51

Pentastomes 5:27; 19:522

Pentobarbital sodium 5:44, 47, 50–51

Pentolium 10:29, 37

Pentonyx (see Pelomedusa)

Pentose shunt 5:199

Pentothal 5:45

Pentylenetetrazole 5:51

Penultimate phalanges 21:133, 186–187, 307

Pepsin 6:263–264, 301; 8:592, 604; 10:25

Pensinogen 8:599, 604, 666

Peptic cell 6:252

Peptidase 8:310, 312, 320, 325–327

Peptide(s) (see also Adrenocorticotropic hormone;

Angiotensin II; Arginine-vasopressin;

Beta-lipotropin; Bombesin;

Calcitonin gene-related peptide; Carrier

peptide; Cholecystokinin; Corticotropinreleasing

factor; Dynorphin; Eledoisin;

Endorphin; Enkephalin; FMRFamide;

Gastric-inhibitory polypeptide; Gastrin;

Kassinin; LANT-6; Melatonin; Mesotocin;

Met-enkephalin; Neurokinin A;

Neuropeptide Y; Neurotensin; Oxytocin;

Pancreatic polypeptide; Prodynorphin;

Proenkephalin; Prolactin; Proopiomelanocortin;

Somatostatin; Substance K;

Substance P; Tachykinin; Vasoactive

intestinal polypeptide; Vasopressin; Vasotocin;

specific amino acids) 8:310

cardioactive 3:23

E 17:629

linkage 5:358

synthesis 19:498

Peptinergic 10:250

Perameles, placenta 15:594

Perch height and activity 7:113

Perchloric acid 5:82

Perennibranchiate amphibians, epiphyses and

sesamoids 1:84

Perforated diaphragms 6:165, 208

Performance 12:27, 29–31, 34–40, 45, 301–302

Performic acid 3:329

Perfusate 5:307

Perfusion 5:53–54, 57–59, 61, 104–105, 196, 241, 248, 277, 306; 19:42, 59, 64–67, 140, 301, 314, 316, 318–319, 326–327, 331, 335, 347, 353, 463, 467, 469–471, 489, 524

fluid 5:60

limited 19:327

medium 5:59

of tissue 5:104

pattern 5:461

pressure 5:276

procedures 5:384

rate 5:494; 19:52

Perfused tubules 5:492, 494

Perhydrohistrionicotoxin 8:463

Periaortic sheath (see Thoracic duct)

Periaqueductal gray 17:600

Periarchicortex 10:327–328

Periarterial mesenchyme 6:456

Periblast 15:540

Pericapillary space 3:326, 338, 341–342

Pericapsular

membrane 20:382

sinus 11:214–215

Pericardial sac(s) 5:59; 14:401, 4–6-407, 409, 411; 19:487

Pericardio-peritoneal septum 6:234

Pericardium 5:59; 6:356; 19:32, 379, 408

Pericaudal trunk (see Gastrohepatoduodenal

trunk)

Perichondrial

bone 21:76

tissue 14:157, 525

Perichondrium 1:82–83, 97, 99, 102, 104, 107; 9:433, 436–437; 21:27

Pericloacal

plexus 6:403–404

sinus 6:321

Peridental oral mucosa 8:87

Periderm 14:531–535, 565

degeneration 15:105

of limb bud 15:64, 70–71

Peridontal

ligament 1:144, 146–147; 14:431

membrane 1:129, 144

Periglandular sinus 6:320

Periglomerular cell 18:441

Peri-innominate lymphatic vessels 6:319

Perikarya, neurosecretory 3:137–138, 141

Perikaryon 6:270

Perilaryngeal net 6:319

Perilymph (see Periotic fluid)

Perilymphatic (see Periotic duct)

aqueduct 11:27

duct 9:13, 15; 11:26–27, 183, 213–214, 222, 246; 20:126, 193, 270, 390

foramen 11:15, 26–27, 43–44, 46, 54, 67, 69, 76, 93, 110, 139, 141, 146, 170, 197, 243; 20:11, 32, 34, 70, 73, 75, 112, 135, 137, 164, 166, 193, 195, 270, 390

notch 20:193

recess 11:106; 20:112

sac 9:15; 11:27–28, 146; 20:11, 72–73, 75, 135, 485; 21:486, 489

system 20:390, 485, 591

Perimacular

area 2:208, 210, 215

cells 2:205

transition zone (see Perimacular area)

Perimasseteric lymphatic ring 6:320, 348, 381–383, 385

Perinatal period 18:478

Perinigral catecholamine cell group 10:277

Periodic Acid-Schiff reaction (see also PAS reaction) 8:45, 47–48, 52, 58, 67, 69, 80, 122, 125; 19:499, 508–509

Periorbital membrane 2:9

Periosteal

bone 1:48, 51–52, 54, 64, 72–73, 77, 83–84, 94, 104, 106–107

cortex 1:54, 60, 68, 76

membrane (see also Periosteum)

reversal 1:59

surface 1:59

tissue 14:525

Periosteum 1:83, 94, 97, 99, 107, 111, 313; 2:200, 215–216, 218; 4:85; 9:433, 436–437

Periotic

channels (see Periotic labyrinth)

cistern 2:196, 199, 218–219, 228–229, 231, 234, 238–239, 242–245, 247–250, 255, 258, 260

duct (see also Perilymphatic duct) 2:261

fluid 2:202, 215, 218, 261

foramen 2:202–203, 216, 220, 234, 237, 242, 246–248, 252–252, 255–256, 259–261

labyrinth 2:202–203, 207, 209, 215–220, 231, 236–239, 242, 245–246, 248–249, 251, 255–256, 258–259, 262–263; 20:384

membrane 2:227

reticulum 2:215–216, 218, 220, 256–257, 261

sac 2:196, 211, 219–220, 223–224, 228–231, 233–234, 237, 239, 242–249, 251, 255, 259, 261–262

trabeculae 2:218

Peripheral

bone 1:224, 312–313, 320–323, 328–330, 333, 337

circulation 12:237, 243–252, 285–286, 296, 432

member of double cell 2:3, 35, 37–38, 45–47, 57, 59–61

nasal chemosensory apparatus 18:425

nerves, venom effect on 8:469–473

nervous system 21:197

plate (see also Peripheral bone) 4:24

reaction system 21:197

resistance 12:243; 19:347

shield (see Marginal shield)

temperature 5:306

vagus 5:309

Peristaltic action 5:28

Peristalsis (see also Gastric contractions) 6:92; 19:497

Peritoneal

canals 15:152

cavity (see also Body cavity) 5:235

epithelium (see Coelomic epithelium)

funnel 6:3, 8–9, 11–12, 16, 50, 52–53, 55, 70

lymphatic net of small intestine 6:416

Peritoneum (see also Coelomic epithelium) 3:266–267, 269, 271–272, 277, 312; 11:383

Peritonitis 14:218

Peritresius, shell 1:325

Peritubular membrane 5:493–495, 498

Peritympanic cavity (see Middle ear)

Perivascular cells 1:55

Perivenous collectors of stomach 6:413

Periventricular

gray 10:237

hypothalamus 18:35, 42

nucleus 18:98

Perivertebral lymphatic system 6:318–319, 321, 323, 325–326, 329, 335–337, 343, 345, 347–348, 352–353, 355–356, 361, 367, 373, 378, 383, 392, 396–406

Perivisceral fluid (see Coelomic fluid)

Perivitelline space 14:62–64

Permanganate oxidation 3:137, 145–146, 151, 163

Permeability (see also Membrane permeability) 5:9, 474–477, 479, 493, 498; 19:347

of skin 1:37, 311; 5:374, 382, 388–389, 395, 423, 436

diffusional coefficient 12:400, 434

hydraulic coefficient 12:400, 434, 451

regulation 12:430–433

to gases 12:400, 428–430

to ions 12:400, 425–428

to water 12:360, 385–386, 399–400, 405–414, 418–419, 424–426, 449–453

skin 14:550–555

Permian 4:267

reptiles 15:337–340, 394

Peroneal

nerve 4:63, 80, 84

trunk 21:35

Peroneus 21:206

brevis 21:324

longus 21:324

Peropus, urinogenital system 6:63, 105

Peroxidase 3:29; 8:128, 362; 14:604–611

Peroxide formation 5:49

Peroxisome 19:494–496, 501, 511

Peruvian Current 5:314

Pes 21:19, 22–23, 42, 47–48, 52–56, 58, 111, 124, 135–136, 154, 157, 162–163, 171, 173, 177–178, 182, 184, 192, 200, 205, 311–312, 319–320, 325, 331, 334–335, 351, 364–365, 368, 370, 378, 384, 386, 388, 392, 394–395

Pest Control 5:27

Pesticides 19:517

Petite tube (see Epididymal tubule)

Petrels 7:241–242

Petrobates, origin and evolution 1:20

Petrolacosaurus 20:257, 268; 21:121, 181, 506

Petrolatum 5:100

Petroleum ether 18:123

Petromyzon

blood chemistry 3:40

urinogenital system 6:2

Petromyzontiformes 19:561

Petromyzontoid 10:11

Petrosaurus 7:51, 275; 12:101; 16:140; 18:382; 20:81, 89–90

eye 2:26, 28

mearnsi 18:362; 20:305

thallassinus 18:362; 20:292, 305

Peyer’s patches 14:631

pH 3:1, 3, 4–7, 13–15, 17–19, 32, 42–44; 5:9, 11, 54, 56–58, 183–184, 193, 225, 238, 241, 256–258, 262, 266, 335, 338–340, 342–343, 348–351, 353–355, 357–359, 478, 481, 486; 8:597–603, 628; 12:363, 371; 13:1, 13, 31–35, 40, 72–73, 91, 178; 19:52, 303, 305–306, 314–316, 319, 342–343

arterial 19:315, 341–343

blood 19:342, 467, 512

option 8:304

plasma 19:333, 341, 343–344

regulation 19:345–346

Phaeochrome tissue (see Chromaffin tissue)

Phagocyte, foamy 3:328

Phagocytosis 3:122, 128; 6:55, 77, 79–80

of oocytes 14:64

Phalangeal

formula(ae) 1:20, 23; 4:20–21, 60, 90, 92, 95–96; 15:115; 21:6, 135, 186–187, 191, 395

length 21:187

Phalanges 1:93, 104; 15:77, 79–80, 86, 116; 21:59, 118, 120, 129, 131, 133, 136, 169, 173, 186–189, 306, 311, 319

development 14:160, 296

Phalanx 4:20–21, 42, 46, 48–51, 59–60, 82, 84–85, 88–90, 94–97

Phallus 6:50, 106, 273

development 15:213–216, 220–241, 244–245

effect of hormones 15:237, 246, 249–251, 253–254, 257, 261, 263

primordium (anlage) 15:120, 194, 197–198, 201, 205–206, 210, 213–216, 218, 220–241, 245, 263

retractor muscle 15:120, 216, 225, 227–228

Phalotris 19:227

bilineatus 19:212

lemniscatus 19:212; 20:655

mertensi 19:212; 20:655

nasutus 20:655

spagazzinii 20:655

tricolor 19:212; 20:655

Pharmacology 8:1, 9, 437–529

Pharyngeal

arches (see also Branchial arch) 14:100, 138–139

cavity 6:234

clefts 14:96, 138–139, 174, 281, 288–292, 515

collectors 6:348, 410

gas exchange 13:38–39

lymphatic net 6:410–411

membranes 5:381

pouch 3:112, 116–118, 210, 235–236, 243, 245–246, 250; 14:136, 138–141, 428, 616, 636

sac 14:434

tonsil 14:434

uptake of oxygen 5:197

villi 3:14

Pharyngohyal 11:239

Pharyngo-tympanic cavity 11:27

Pharynx 2:196–197, 201, 232, 262; 3:15, 112, 116, 118, 201, 210–211, 235, 243; 4:139–140, 154, 158, 168, 182, 188, 225; 5:391; 6:226–234, 382, 397, 410, 431; 11:24, 28, 79, 170, 187, 214, 240; 12:367–368; 14:139, 141–142, 427, 439, 445, 501; 19:112–114, 306

Phascolescoma 8:377

Phase Response Curve (PRC) 18:244, 252

transition 19:349

Phasic

manner 5:7

response 2:287, 293–294

Phelsuma 7:291, 293–295, 307, 468; 8:681; 9:157, 331, 336; 12:123–125; 15:327; 16:51, 115; 17:13, 20, 99; 18:352; 20:52, 118–120, 124, 296; 21:133, 181, 187–188, 397

abbotti 18:352

adrenal 3:279

dubia 18:352

ear 2:271

eye 2:22–23, 32, 38–39, 43, 45, 88

guentheri 20:306

lineata 18:352

madagascariensis 20:59, 296, 306

pituitary 3:192

Phenacosaurus 7:272, 299, 447, 479; 15:329; 16:249, 257

axial skeleton 1:269

dentition 1:155–156

urinogenital system 6:84

O-Phenanthroline 8:321

Phencyclidine hydrochloride 5:45

Phenocopies 15:134

Phenol 5:23; 8:567, 571

concentration test 8:579

red 5:104, 381–382

Phenology 13:59

Phenotypes 14:16, 19

Phenotypic expression 1:316

Phenoxybenzamine 5:237; 10:31

Phenylacetic acid 18:198

Phenylalanine 3:23, 40

Phenylene diamine oxidase 3:29

p-Phenylene diamine oxidase 3:32

Phenylephrine 19:453

Phenylhydrazine 3:38

Phenylmethane-sulfonyl fluoride 8:321, 333

Phenylpropionic acid 18:198

Pheochrome reaction (see Chromaffin reaction)

Pheromone(s) 12:431; 13:212–213; 14:530, 572; 16:210; 18:41, 86–87, 98, 353, 426, 470–474

aggregation 18:477–480

aggression 18:472

alarm 18:118–120, 425, 476–477, 487

chemical cues 18:115, 119, 122, 125, 131, 137–138, 140–143, 145, 147, 149, 158, 166, 169–170, 172, 178–179, 182–184, 186–189, 193–197, 204–206

attractant signals 18:142, 145–152, 155, 158, 199–200, 205, 480

chin glands in turtles 7:419

cloacal glands in turtles 7:419

cloacal secretions in snakes 7:417–418

communication 18:116, 183, 190, 204

contact 18:142

courtship 18:482

courtship inhibition 18:482–483

detection 18:329, 353

femoral pores in lizards 7:419

homing, natal beach 18:197

inhibitory 18:158

male identifying 18:149

mating plugs 18:482

production 18:425

role in agonistic encounters 18:471–472

sex 18:480–483

skin secretions, lizards and snakes 7:417–419

snake, female, source 18:481–482

trail (trailing) 18:115, 124, 131, 134–143, 151, 153, 162, 165, 182–186, 197, 202, 471

conspecific discrimination 18:480

contact response 18:479, 481

trail discrimination 18:480

trail pheromone 18:141, 143, 204

use by predators 18:487

use of in reptiles 7:417, 433

Philippine Islands 2:323

Philochortus 9:339

Philodosaurus 9:82–83

Philodryadini 19:133, 226

Philodryas 5:134, 148; 8:41, 646, 663, 693; 13:308, 310; 15:647; 16:7, 120, 519; 19:227

adrenal 3:281, 296

aestivus 19:212

axial muscles 11:357

baroni 20:655

blood chemistry 3:11

burmeisteri 19:212

chamissonis 19:212; 20:655

ear 2:272

jaw muscles 4:481

mattogrossensis 19:212; 20:655

nattereri 19:166, 212

olfersii 8:41, 663; 19:212; 20:655

patagoniensis 19:212

psammophideus 19:153, 166, 212

reinhardti 8:41

simonsi 19:212

soudotii 20:655

varius 19:212

viridissimus 19:212

Philothamninae(i) 19:140, 231; 20:576

Philothamnus 7:502; 8:440, 663; 16:51, 120, 147; 19:145, 157, 162, 231

angolensis 19:127, 148, 153, 212

battersbyi 19:212

bequaerti 19:153, 212

carinatus 19:212

dentition 1:177

dorsalis 19:127, 153, 212

ear 2:272

heterodermus 19:212; 20:642

heterolepidotus 19:142, 212; 20:642

hoplogaster 19:127, 153, 212; 20:642

internal relief of gut 6:193, 209

irregularis 19:127, 212; 20:642

loveridgei 19:212

macrops 19:212

natalensis 8:440; 19:127, 212; 20:642

neglectus 19:153

nitidus 20:642

occidentalis 19:142, 212

ornatus 19:127, 212

punctatus 19:212

semivariegatus 19:127, 212; 20:642

Phimophis 19:226

guerini 19:212; 20:655

guianensis 19:212

vittatus 19:212

Phlorhizan 8:641

Phloxine 3:329–330

Phoboscincus 21:397

Phobosuchus (see Deinosuchus)

Phoca 5:254

Phocaena 5:254

Phocochoerus 16:194

Phocomelia 15:134

Pholidosauridae, skull 4:266, 277–278

Pholodobolus 7:491; 20:187, 189

montium 20:308

Pholodogaster, origin and evolution 1:23, 32, 37

Pholodosis 15:583

Phosphagen 5:3

Phosphatase 3:46

nonspecific 8:246

p-nitrophenyl 8:246

Phosphate(s) 3:45–46, 52, 235–236, 243, 259; 5:482, 484–485; 8:131, 171, 174; 11:305; 12:351; 13:86–87

buffer 5:240, 357

dietary 14:211

excretion 5:483

groups 6:234

in development 14:314

in eggshells 14:81, 374

ion 5:58

reabsorption 5:482

secretion 5:482–483

Phosphatidal

cholines 8:263

ethanolamines 8:263–264

L-a-Phosphatidal glycerol 8:266

Phosphatide 6:43

Phosphatidic acid 8:266

Phosphatidylcholine 19:350

Phosphatidylethanolamine 19:350

Phosphatidylgycerol 19:350

Phosphatidylinositol 19:350

Phosphocreatine 13:72, 177, 194

Phosphodiesterase (see w-Exonuclease)

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 5:204

Phosphoesterase 8:486, 528–529

Phosphofructokinase 5:204, 207–208; 13:16

Phosphoglucoisomerase 5:204 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase 15:439

Phosphoglycerate

kinase 5:204

mutase 5:205

Phosphoglucomutase 5:205

Phosphoinositide 8:266

Phospholipase 8:166, 188, 232, 234, 257–292, 340

A 8:2, 91, 130, 165–166, 176, 178, 188–189, 192, 233, 261, 263, 269–270, 308, 362, 453–454, 467–471, 473–474, 478–479, 481, 483, 487–492, 498–500, 502–507, 510, 512, 514–517, 519–522, 526–528

A2 8:178, 187, 233, 257–292

activators 8:267–269

amino acid sequences 8:272–285

application 8:287

detection 8:286–287

functional groups 8:285

genetic control 8:273

inhibitors 8:269–271

isozymes 8:271–273

phosphooxidation 8:286

B 8:293

C 8:470, 510

Phospholipid(s) 3:26; 36; 6:43–44, 76, 229, 294; 8:163, 515–516, 571, 621; 12:416; 18:153, 194; 19:497, 513

in oocytes 14:56, 64

Phospholipoprotein 6:101

Phosphomonoesterase (see also w-Exonuclease) 8:244

Phosphoprotein(s) 3:36–37; 14:315

Phosphorolase 13:16

Phosphorus 3:4–7, 36–37; 5:36

acid soluble 8:175

inorganic 8:175

Phosphorylase 5:320; 11:280, 282, 292–293, 323; 17:464–465

Phosphorylation 8:516

Phosphotidylcholines 18:154, 169

Phosphotidylethanolamines 18:154, 169

Phosphotidylinositol 18:154

Phosphotidylserine 18:154

Phosphotungstic

acid 3:331

haematoxylin 6:283

Photic (see Light)

stimulators 5:94

Photobiology 9:376

Photocell 5:75, 77, 83, 85

Photochemical reactions 2:288; 5:7

Photomechanical changes 2:33, 54, 76

Photometry flame 5:67

Photoperiod (Photoperiodism) 5:24, 27–28, 33–35, 105, 167, 169; 12:235, 251; 13:61–64, 71, 74, 96, 99, 207, 212, 215; 18:31–32

and egg laying 14:349

and regeneration 15:381

and reproductive cycle 14:210, 340, 343

Bunning hypothesis 18:270

external vs. internal coincidence 18:270–271

extraretinal photoreception 18:272–273

night-break experiments 18:272

pineal 18:272

resonance experiments 18:271–272

T-experiments 18:271–272

Photoperiodic history 5:137

Photoperiodicity 6:121

Photoperiodism 3:21

Photophase 12:227–228

Photopigment 9:342

Photoptic pigments 2:3

Photoreceptor 9:342, 346, 349, 389–390; 17:3–38, 158, 343

Phototransduction 17:10

Phoxyphrys 9:339

Phrenicotomy 8:453

Phrynocephalus 7:178, 183, 186, 262, 360, 488; 8:678; 9:251, 292–293, 331, 340; 12:107– 108; 15:626, 662, 669, 674; 16:23, 29, 31, 49, 53, 59, 114, 125, 128, 130, 132, 134, 137, 252, 258, 263; 20:45, 92, 94, 96–98, 100, 102–103, 110, 262, 294; 21:91, 222, 224–225, 257, 259, 271–272, 350, 396

arabicus 20:97, 305

axial skeleton 1:258

chondrocranium 11:91

clarkorum 20:306

dentition 1:160

ear 2:271

eye 2:27, 30–31

guttatus 20:96, 294

helioiscopus 20:96, 294; 21:223

jaw muscles 4:477

maculatus 20:306

mystaceus 20:294, 306

theoboldi 20:294, 306

urinogenital system 6:6, 18

Phrynonax, jaw muscles (see also Pseustes) 4:441

Phrynops 10:203; 14:178; 16:11, 112, 114, 533

blood chemistry 3:9, 23, 42

dahli 18:315

hilarii 19:503, 512, 525

zuliae 18:315

Phrynosoma 5:28, 31, 131, 141–144, 160, 162, 164–165, 168–169, 173, 183, 185, 316–317, 389, 453, 456–457, 466–468, 472–473, 475; 7:20, 101, 165, 183, 189, 245, 262, 269, 272, 275, 305–307, 320, 369, 453, 479; 8:52, 683; 10:42; 12:68, 70, 101, 179, 280, 359, 362, 460, 471; 13:61, 63–66, 69–71, 95, 103, 121, 179–181, 207, 218, 220, 237, 311; 14:48, 614; 15:41, 329, 617, 631–632, 669, 674; 16:20, 24, 30, 52–53, 59, 61, 67, 116, 125, 128, 133–134, 140, 256, 461–462, 464–465, 474, 514; 17:99, 515; 18:256, 317–318, 390, 433, 436; 20:40, 45–46, 79–86, 88, 90–91, 292; 21:68, 78, 88, 145, 218, 220, 222–225, 227–228, 230–231, 235, 240, 250, 257, 260, 265, 268–269, 271, 275–276, 279, 292, 338, 347, 350, 35, 361, 375, 378–379, 382

adrenal 3:274, 280

asio 20:305; 21:400

axial skeleton 1:269

blood cell morphology 3:76

blood cell numbers 3:97, 104

blood chemistry 3:9, 28

chondrocranium 11:86–87, 89–91

cornutum 18:254–255; 19:22, 79; 20:305; 21:141, 400

coronatum 18:172, 174, 254–255, 263, 320, 473; 20:305

dentition 1:128, 155–156

douglasii 18:264; 20:46, 292; 21:400

ear 2:221, 223, 238, 265–266, 271

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:95, 102, 110

eye 2:26, 28, 30–31, 41

hernandesi 20:292; 21:225, 246

internal relief of gut 6:177, 179–180, 182–184

jaw muscles 4:319, 340, 407, 415, 419, 477

mcalli 20:292

modestum 18:306–307, 390; 20:44, 292; 21:400

muscle tissue 11:278, 336

nose 2:119, 125, 128–130, 135

orbiculare 19:22, 79

pit organs 2:277

platyrhinos 18:172, 174, 257, 473; 20:46, 84, 87, 90, 292, 305; 21:225, 246

solare 19:550, 552, 554, 579; 20:40, 46, 87, 292

species 18:309

thyroid 3:217, 219, 227

urinogenital system 6:24, 26, 31–33, 35, 37, 45–46, 59, 61, 71, 76, 78, 82, 89, 93, 97–99, 107, 110, 116, 118

Phrynosomatidae 21:12, 49, 65–67, 80, 95, 141–143, 145, 181, 187, 398, 400

Phrynosomatinae(ine) 20:79–82, 84–88, 90, 266, 270, 305

Phthinosuchia 9:68, 127

Phycomycosis 5:27

Phyletic

diversity 5:365

range 5:395

Phyllodactylus 7:69, 82–83, 468; 12:37, 123, 462, 464; 13:308; 16:138, 329, 248, 250, 253–255, 260–261; 19:24, 79; 20:117; 21:142–143

axial skeleton 1:255, 259

blood cell numbers 3:97

ear 2:266, 271

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:101

europeaus 20:296

eye 2:43, 46

histology of gut 6:278

jaw muscles 4:478

marmoratus 18:30

muralis 20:306

nose 2:120, 127, 130

swarthergensis 20:119, 296

tuberculosus 20:306

urinogenital system 6:95

Phyllopezus 16:513; 20:120, 124, 296; 21:189

eye 2:26, 30

jaw muscles 4:478

Phyllorhynchus 7:502; 12:465, 475; 16:147; 17:12; 19:231; 20:565, 571, 578, 642

browni 19:153, 212

decurtatus 19:212; 20:566, 642

ear 2:272

eye 2:63, 84

Phyllurus 7:468; 12:123, 423; 15:328, 344–345; 16:138, 252, 259, 282; 20:118, 122, 296; 21:95, 397

ear 2:271

jaw muscles 4:478

platurus 21:176

Phylogenetic(s) 18:205

analysis 14:3

constraints (see also Caudal autotomy; Life

history traits, constraints) 18:83

degeneration 21:60

patterns 13:166–167, 204–205, 278

positions 5:127, 142, 150

range 5:157

reconstruction 15:633, 635, 638, 657, 660–661

relationships 14:15, 529

status 5:277

tree 5:440

Phylogeny (see also Lizards; Parental care; Snakes;

Turtles) 5:161, 437; 14:17; 16:25; 19:71, 94–95, 97, 136, 169, 353, 375–376, 426, 428, 491, 534, 556, 562, 570–571, 574–577

of fracture planes 15:333–334, 337–341

Phymaturus 15:632, 634, 669, 674; 20:80, 90, 292

eye 2:26

palluma 20:82, 292, 305

Physalaemin 17:638, 641

Physical

environment 12:27, 291–295, 300

training 13:167

Physignathus 5:131, 141–143, 162, 178, 181, 183; 7:488–489; 8:662; 9:431; 13:34, 36–38, 161, 165; 15:343, 375; 16:249, 258; 17:487; 18:437; 20:103

adrenal 3:280

axial muscles 11:385

axial skeleton 1:258

chondrocranium 11:92

cocincinus 19:22, 79

dentition 1:160

eye 2:27

jaw muscles 4:477

lesueurii 19:407, 418; 21:7, 53, 190

nose 2:119, 129

urinogenital system 6:21, 26, 29–30

Physiological

abnormalities 5:24

adaptations 5:225

arrangements 5:387

capacities 5:4, 172

cassette recorders 5:91

changes under anesthesia 5:50

color changes (see Color change)

control mechanisms 5:380

disturbances 5:25

ecology(ists) 12:2, 258–259

evolution of vertebrates 5:127–128

factors 5:371

functions 5:128, 151

homogeneity 5:210

mechanisms 5:312, 365

modifications 5:168

observations 5:398

optima 5:128

parameters 5:27

process 5:70, 383

range 5:461, 464

rhythms 5:27

role 5:383

(salt) solutions 5:53–59, 64, 104

specializations 5:172

stimulator 5:83, 90

Physiology (see also Acid-base balance; Metabolism;

Respiratory gases and embryos; Reproduction;

Senses; Water balance of eggs

and embryos) 18:115, 158–159; 21:205

Phytase 3:46

Phytic acid 3:46, 52–53

Phytohemagglutinin 14:643

Phytosauria 9:66, 78–79, 81, 304

dentition 1:184

nose 2:152

shell 1:311

skull 4:245, 267

Pia 9:23

Picrofuchsin 3:251

Picro-indigocarmine 3:251; 6:226

Picrotoxin 8:475

Pig 7:600–601, 631; 8:633; 21:336

Pigeon (see also Columba) 5:256; 8:378, 590; 17:330

Pigment 19:499, 508, 516, 553–554, 572

cells 2:33, 65, 76, 154, 159160, 164, 181; 14:525; 15:359

epithelium(a) 2:16, 24, 32–33, 40–42, 48, 51, 53–54, 61, 63, 73; 18:158

granula(es) 2:33, 175; 6:70; 14:528

of iris 2:52, 71, 75

process 2:53–54, 62, 76

Pigmentation

body 14:101–107, 188, 196, 298, 407, 409, 450, 511

dermis 14:176, 182

eye 14:102–107, 401–404

integument 14:101, 587

iris 14:132, 294, 296, 401–402

pattern 14:332, 411, 531

plastron 14:294

retina 14:132, 173, 225, 290

scales 14:296–299

scutes 14:296, 299

skin 14:225, 510–511

variation 14:280, 450

Pigments (see also specific pigments) 18:304–311

carotenoids 18:305–306, 308, 343, 367, 398

metabolic cost 18:377

pteridines 18:305–306, 343, 398

purines 18:305–306, 323

vision 18:394

Pila

accessoria 2:7, 9, 11; 9:6–7; 11:15, 20, 22, 24, 43, 52, 93, 98, 110, 112; 20:10, 26–27

antotica 2:7–8; 4:250–252; 9:5–7, 9, 11–12, 126; 11:12, 15, 20–24, 30–32, 43–44, 46, 52–55, 58, 62, 65–66, 68, 70, 74, 90, 93, 95, 97–98, 105–106, 109, 115–117, 119, 124, 132, 137, 158, 188, 190–191, 200, 205–206, 209–212, 217, 223–224, 226, 229–231, 233, 237–238, 241, 243; 20:10, 26–27, 29, 31, 126, 365; 21:518

antotica spuria 11:242

metoptica 4:250–251, 255; 9:6, 10; 11:12, 15, 20–23, 32, 43–46, 52–55, 58, 66, 68, 74, 76, 93, 98, 103, 115–117, 119, 121, 124, 130–131, 158, 168, 199–200, 206, 209–210, 217, 224, 229–231, 233–134, 241, 243; 20:10, 26–27, 204, 231, 238; 21:518

prootica (see Pila antotica)

supraglandularis 11:209–210, 212

Pilar process of prefrontal 4:138

Pilocarpine 8:91, 605; 10:25, 43; 14:218

Piloerection 8:478

Pilzenförmige Wulst (see Mushroom body)

Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) 18:492

Pine oil 5:23

Pineal (see also Epiphysis; Epiphysis cells) 2:279; 3:222–224, 226; 6:121; 9:47, 56, 245–247, 250, 253–273, 275–282, 285–290, 302, 304–306, 314, 323–325, 329, 335–337, 349–353, 356–357, 359–361, 364–365, 367, 369–371, 374, 376, 378, 383, 385, 390; 14:126–127, 130, 308, 433, 514

body 15:14

complex (see also Parietal eye) 12:223, 225, 227–229, 231, 235, 256; 20:6

development 9:250

evolution 9:290

foramen 4:222; 11:22, 60, 62, 71, 82, 107, 125, 134, 155, 219

gland (see Pineal complex)

gland (organ) 18:48, 94, 318

and thermoregulation 18:266–267

biochemical rhythms 18:234–242

effects of pinealectomy 18:246–247, 266–267, 272, 277

embryology and anatomy 18:233

in vitro rhythmicity 18:232, 239

innervation 18:234

multioscillator 18:242

neurophysiology 18:233–234

photoreception 18:233–234, 239, 242

reproduction 18:272

innervation 9:323

organ 12:226–227, 229–231

recess 9:246–247, 259

stalk 9:259, 261, 263

tract 12:227

vesicle 9:263

Pinealectomy 9:387; 12:225–228, 230; 13:216–217

Pinealocyte 9:310–313, 316–322, 348, 350–351, 357–359

Pinocytosis 6:45, 48, 101; 19:494–495

oocyte 14:64

primordial germ cell 14:44

Pinocytotic vesicle(s) 11:315; 17:464

in apical ridge cells 15:65

Pipping 14:78–79, 89, 91, 165–167, 171, 193, 195, 230, 232

definition 14:281

failure 14:305

process 14:361–362

stage 14:101–108, 177, 182, 188–190, 198, 205, 237, 299, 314

Pisces (see Fishes)

Piscivorous habits 1:121, 185, 191

hydrophiines 20:549

Pisciform 1:93, 109; 4:18–20, 41, 45–46, 49–51, 94; 15:86; 21:111, 115–117, 119, 121, 123–126, 282, 289, 299–300, 314

Pistosaurus 9:297

Pit

membrane 2:280–285, 287–289, 291, 293, 306

organ(s) 2:277–314; 9:407; 10:169, 225–226; 17:368, 370, 372, 379, 385, 436; 20:495–496, 509–510, 517

Pitangus 16:188

Pitfall traps (see Capture methods)

Pithed mammals 5:158

Pithing 5:40

Pitocin 12:247

Pitressin 5:464; 6:117; 12:247

Pits on palate for replacement teeth 1:191–192

Pituicytes 3:138–139, 141–142

Pituitary (see also Hypophysis) 3:135–199, 202, 210, 212, 222–224; 6:2, 44, 78, 80, 84, 91, 101–103, 114–121; 8:646, 667; 15:588; 17:589; 19:515–516

and regeneration 15:383

anterior 17:601–602, 609, 616

development 14:128–130, 305, 420, 434, 445, 515, 681–716

embryology 3:159–163

extract 3:213

fenestra 11:11–12, 20, 41–42, 74, 93, 98–99, 115–117, 137–138, 140, 144, 153–154, 158, 160, 163, 166, 170, 173, 179, 194, 206–207, 209, 211, 219, 223–224, 230, 236; 20:10, 360–361, 473

fossa 2:8–9, 75; 11:11, 13, 15, 23–25, 41, 52, 54, 62, 66, 76, 81, 110, 112, 127, 154, 158, 168, 217, 224, 229, 237, 245; 20:399, 427; 21:518

gland 11:7, 11–12, 22–23, 32, 124, 187, 212, 237, 240, 245; 12:247, 254; 13:92

gland (hypophysis) (see Gland, pituitary)

hormones 14:220, 346, 681

pars intermedia 17:602

posterior lobe 17:537, 590, 601

powder 5:198

region 20:25–27, 30, 205

stalk 3:143, 147, 159, 181, 183, 196

-thyroid axis 13:216–217, 220

thyroid feedback 14:545

vascularization 3:163–165

vein 11:21, 115–116, 121, 124; 21:515–516, 518

vein foramen 21:517–519, 532–533

Pituitrin 6:117; 8:646, 667

Pituophis 5:3, 44–46, 134, 147–149, 167, 178–181, 194, 249, 260, 264, 266, 367, 373, 377–379, 453, 456–457, 466, 474, 488, 491; 7:204, 207, 217, 219, 222, 225, 227, 389–391, 393, 399, 502, 617, 625; 8:591, 602, 611, 629, 663, 693; 9:373; 12:34, 40, 45, 129, 288, 335, 339, 465; 13:78, 82, 105, 111, 115–117, 122–123, 128–131, 161, 163, 166, 183; 15:8; 16:11, 18, 23, 39, 48–49, 52, 68, 120, 123–124, 126, 130, 134, 147, 197, 286, 295, 305, 482–483, 519, 531, 534, 546, 566, 568; 17:162; 19:116, 118, 145, 156–157, 212, 232; 20:552, 558–559; 21:577

blood cell numbers 3:98, 104

blood chemistry 3:5, 51

catenifer 18:442; 19:127, 167, 212; 20:554, 642

deppei 19:212

ear 2:269, 272

lineaticollis 19:212

lymphatics 6:351

melanoleucus 19:49, 52–55, 57, 81, 117, 119, 127, 212, 356; 20:642

melanoleucus deserticola 18:130

melanoleucus melanoleucus 18:161–162

pit organs 2:295

sayi 19:109, 127, 212

Pitvipers 20:488, 494

pK 19:342–344

Placenta 5:12; 6:101, 103; 13:257, 274–275; 19:473

blood flow 15:540

chorio-allantoic 15:531, 534, 539–546, 548– 549, 555–556, 558–564, 575, 593–594

chorio-vitelline (see Placenta, yolk sac)

definition of 15:531

epithelochorial 15:559

evolution of 15:559, 609

gas exchange 15:529, 561–566, 575

membranes of 15:536–540

omphalo (see also Placenta, yolk sac) 15:540– 549, 552, 559, 562, 564, 575, 594

oviducal 6:1

syndesmochorial 15:559

yolk sac 15:529–530, 534, 540, 563–564, 593

Placental relationship 15:48, 607

Placental transmission 15:540

amino acids 15:568, 570–573, 575–578, 587, 594

carbon dioxide 15:561

electrolytes 15:569–571, 594

nutrients 15:529, 561, 564, 592, 607

oxygen 15:561–562

protein 15:594

radioactive material 15:569–574, 576–578, 587

steroids 15:575, 594

tritiated water 15:570

urea 15:565, 568

water 15:529, 561, 563, 565, 571, 585

Placentation 14:18

Placochelyidae, dentition 1:192

Placodont 9:67, 122, 138, 297, 298, 304

Placodontia 7:6

axial skeleton 1:207

dentition 1:192

Placodontidae, dentition 1:192

Placodus 9:67, 122–124, 297–298, 304

dentition 1:123–124

Placoid scale 14:586

Placosaurus 15:331

Plagiopholis 16:147; 19:212, 236

nuchalis 19:212

styani 19:212; 21:503

Plagiosauria, origin and evolution 1:23

Plane-polarized light 12:224

Planocephalosaurus 20:65, 250, 273

robinsonae 20:291

Plantar

aponeurosis 4:62, 71, 76–77, 87–89; 21:202, 353, 364, 373, 378, 391

flexion 21:184

head of M. flexor digitorum longus 21:324, 421

sesamoid 21:166

Plantigrade foot posture 21:44, 47

Plants 12:357, 361, 415, 452

ribosomal crystals in 14:69

Planum

antorbitale 4:250; 9:10, 16; 11:15–19, 22, 45–46, 48–55, 57, 65–66, 72, 76–78, 82, 88–89, 93–94, 96, 98, 103–104, 109–110, 115–117, 119–120, 124, 127, 138–140, 142, 155, 158, 160, 162–163, 166–167, 169–171, 173, 176, 178–182, 195, 197, 202, 208–209, 212, 231–234, 240

semilunatum 2:206–207

supraseptale 2:6–7; 4:250–251, 254–255; 9:3, 6, 33; 11:12, 15–16, 18, 20–22, 24, 32, 42–46, 50, 5255, 62, 66–68, 74–78, 83, 87, 90, 93–94, 96–98, 103, 105–106, 110, 114–117, 119, 121, 124, 130–132, 168, 192–195, 197, 199–201, 203, 206, 208–212, 217, 220–222, 224, 226–227, 229–231, 234, 236–237, 240–241, 245; 14:125–127, 172; 20:10, 16, 25–26, 361–362; 21:534

Plaque forming cells 14:631, 638, 644, 660–661

Plasma 5:10–11, 34, 66, 202, 239, 341, 344, 346, 348, 350, 355, 360, 383, 394–398, 400, 408, 414, 422, 447, 458, 460, 469, 475, 497; 8:566; 19:341–344, 346, 511, 514–515, 549–550, 554, 569

bicarbonate 19:343–344

calcium 5:36

cells 3:74, 87, 103, 123; 6:268; 14:601–603, 612, 616, 624, 627–628, 631–632, 634, 661

collection 8:566

components 5:67

concentrations 5:60, 347

digestion 8:570

electrolyte concentrations 5:458

electrophoretic pattern 5:36

filtration 19:463, 467–468

lactate dehydrogenase activity 5:210

LDH 5:209

lemma (see Plasma membrane)

membrane 2:35–36, 180; 5:413, 425, 435; 6:45–47, 74; 19:493, 495–496, 507–508

osmolality 5:451, 456–458, 474; 19:316

osmoreceptors 5:429

osmotic pressure 5:53

pH 5:257, 353; 19:333, 341, 343–344

proteins 5:69, 358, 458; 12:340; 19:347

prothrombin 8:340, 440

sodium 5:61, 436

sodium chloride concentrations 5:470

solutes 12:326–333, 348, 486

ultrafiltrate 5:482

urate concentrations 5:493

urea concentrations 5:489–490

volume (PV) 5:66, 68–69, 255, 366; 12:336–342, 350; 13:88, 90

Plasmacytoma 14:665–666

Plasmalemma, of eggs 14:118–119

Plasmalogens (see Phosphatidal cholines)

Plasma-thromboplastic factor 8:492

Plasmodium, blood cell morphology 3:75, 88

Plasmolemma 6:241, 289

Plastral hinge 1:329–330

Plastron (see also Shell) 1:312, 314–315, 318–321, 325, 327, 329–331, 333–334; 3:2; 4:12, 14, 26, 28, 30–31, 53, 61, 65, 71, 75–76, 91–95, 174; 5:41, 62, 65, 94, 234–235, 284, 380, 395; 6:358; 11:371; 14 :151, 153–155, 157–158, 165, 279

development 14:292–294, 299

ossification 14:158, 176, 312–314

Plate ending 17:467, 472

Plateau 12:22, 41

Platecarpus 9:75–77, 296

dentition 1:171–172

Platelets 8:491–492, 496, 498, 500, 522, 526

Platemys 10:203, 221; 14:102, 158, 178–180, 194, 215, 220–221, 226; 16:134; 19:19, 77

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:154

internal relief of gut 6:161, 166, 172, 174, 219

limbs 4:14

shell 1:328

Plateosaurus 9:67, 78, 98

bone 1:74

eye 2:80

Plates (see Dermal armor)

Platinum 8:174

Platurus 8:73

fasciatus 20:623

Platybasic 20:10, 239–240

condition (see Platytrabic condition)

Platychelys, shell 1:333

Platycoely 1:300

Platycraniellus 9:299

Platydactylus 5:132; 15:239

epiphyses and sesamoids (see also Gekko) 1:101, 104

Platyhelminthes 10:248

Platynota 8:147, 659; 15:333, 341–342; 19:2, 30, 32, 37, 70–75; 20:196, 252–253, 258, 266, 272–273; 21:564

chondrocranium 11:108–114, 149, 156

jaw muscles 4:405

origin and evolution (see also Varanoidea) 1:6

Platyplectrurus 19:218; 20:403, 408–409, 411

ear 2:271

jaw muscles 4:480

madurensis 8:695; 19:186; 20:402–403, 412–413, 601

pancreas 3:323

trilineatus 8:695

Platypeltis (see Trionyx)

Platypsaris 16:13

Platypus, lymph nodes 14:632

Platysaurus 7:495; 10:203, 228; 15:614, 629; 16:138; 20:152, 154–156

axial muscles 11:357

capensis 20:299

dentition 1:168

ear 2:246

eye 2:27, 31

imperator 20:299

intermedius 20:299, 307

mitchelli 20:152

nose 2:120

Platysternidae 12:136; 14:80; 16:392, 412, 438

shell 1:334

Platysterninae

axial skeleton 1:215, 225

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104, 153

limbs 4:14, 20, 53

nose 2:184

Platysternon 7:463, 465; 14:16, 92; 16:25–26, 133–134, 392, 438

eye 2:68–69

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104– 105, 107–108,113–114, 126, 153, 156

limbs 4:4, 67, 70, 76, 82, 89

megacephalum 18:315

nose 2:114

Platytrabecular skull 9:8

Platytrabic 21:533

braincase 20:360–362, 588

condition 11:11, 41, 114, 116, 131–132, 144, 200–202, 206

Platytraby 17:216

Plectrurus 16:151, 232; 19:218; 20:403, 416, 601; 21:474, 476

aureus 19:186

canaricus 20:404, 601

ear 2:271

perroteti(i) 19:186; 20:405, 407, 413, 601

Pleiosaur(s) 9:67, 119, 121, 297–298; 13:5

Pleomorphy 19:541, 574, 577–578

Plesiochelyidae, shell 1:334, 336

Pleisomorphic 18:10

Plesiomorphy 19:2, 31, 33, 37, 66, 69

Plesiorhineura tsentasi 21:685

Plesiosauria

bone 1:92

dentition 1:121, 191–192

eye 2:80

origin and evolution 1:2–3

Plesiosaurus (Plesiosaurs) 5:437

dentition 1:191

eye 2:80

Plestiodon 21:7, 143, 220, 223, 226–228, 232, 235–236, 238, 240, 249, 252, 259, 265, 268, 275–276, 278

multivirgatus 21:61

reynoldsi 21:404

Plethodontidae 14:614; 19:65, 298

Pletholax 20:130–134, 136

gracilis 15:329; 20:135–136, 297, 307

nigriceps 20:132

Pleural

bone (see Costal bone)

cavity 5:235

membrane 19:59

plate (see also Costal bone) 4:24, 55, 65

shield 1:314–315, 329–330, 333–334

Pleurapophysis 1:208, 233, 238–239, 263–264, 266, 268, 280, 288, 294–295, 297

Pleurocentrum (see also Centrum) 4:249; 11:36–38, 192

Pleurodeles, effect of temperature on sex 15:281, 286

Pleurodira 19:19

axial muscles 11:362, 368–372, 424, 426

axial skeleton 1:210–211, 213, 215, 219–222, 224–225

blood cell morphology 3:75

blood chemistry 3:48, 50

chondrocranium 11:216, 225

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:105, 107, 116, 124, 160

internal relief of gut 6:161

limbs 4:2, 14, 20, 24–26, 28, 30–31, 34–35, 45, 49–50, 53, 55, 60, 62, 65–67, 71, 75–76, 79–80, 82, 84–85, 88–90, 94

origin and evolution 1:2, 8

pancreas 3:321–322

pituitary 3:136

shell 1:315, 333–334

Pleurodire 9:71, 74

Pleurodont teeth 20:17, 54, 76, 81, 89, 91, 94, 97–98, 102, 104, 109, 118, 120, 149, 158, 166, 173, 270, 276–277, 287, 377, 384

Pleurodonta 20:78–79, 258, 288

Pleurodonty 1:126–127, 136, 143, 150, 154, 157, 161, 163–164, 167–170, 271; 11:95, 135

Pleurohyale

I (see Cornu hyale)

II (see Cornu branchiale I)

III (see Cornu branchiale II)

Pleurokinensis 20:48, 53–54, 60, 269, 273, 280, 285–286, 288

Pleuroperitoneal cavity 21:72

Pleurosphenoid 11:23, 58, 95, 191, 216, 241–243, 245; 20:27

Pleurosternidae, shell 1:314, 321, 336

Pleurosaurus 9:297

Pleurosternum, shell 1:333

Plexiform

bone 1:50, 74–75

layer, external 18:445

layer, internal 18:441, 444–445, 447

networks 6:315

Plexus

brachial 10:9, 20, 30, 62

cardiac 10:8

limb 10:8, 11

lumbosacral 10:62

marginal 10:117

myenteric(us) 6:280, 284; 10:2, 24, 26

of dorsum of the foot 6:334

prevertebral 10:3

pulmonary 10:8

submucosus 6:269; 10:8

subpial 10:78, 118

Plica

cutanea 6:383

tubae 15:180

ventralis 10:239

Plica 7:140, 480; 12:44, 105–106; 20:84, 88, 90

axial muscles 11:357

ear 2:271

plica 20:305

umbra 20:305

Plicidentine 20:378

Pliocene 4:274

Pliocercus 7:502; 15:337–338; 16:147, 165, 185, 187, 190, 230, 259; 19:100, 229

axial skeleton 1:299

ear 2:272

elapoides 19:212

euryzonus 19:212; 20:651

Plioplatecarpus, chondrocranium 11:114, 149

Pliosauroidea, skull 4:245

Pliosaurus 9:298

eye 2:79–80

Plocederma 20:53, 63

stellio 20:294

vulgaris 20:294

Plotosaurus 21:574

Plotosid catfish 5:413

Plurisegmental innervation 11 :279

PMSF (see Phenylmethane-sulfonyl fluoride)

PMSG (see Pregnant mare serum gonadotropin)

pN 5:11

Pneumatization of skull 4:223–225, 244, 265, 377–378

Pneumococcus 8:372

Pneumography 5:95

Pneumotachography 19:338

Podarcis 12:34, 62, 110, 174, 184, 235, 462; 13:34, 39; 14:11, 29, 46, 48, 50–52, 56–57, 60, 66–69, 502, 514, 532, 588, 604, 606–607, 609, 613–615, 617–618, 620–623, 625, 629, 636, 712; 15:5, 7, 27, 29, 43, 48–49, 61–62, 70, 74, 80, 85, 151–152, 164, 170, 183, 212, 240, 243, 306–307, 320–322, 348, 350, 369–370, 374–375, 378–379, 385, 387–389, 617; 16:117, 141, 243, 248–249, 261, 463–465, 516; 17:99, 184–185, 209, 596, 622, 640; 20:63, 167, 170, 300; 21:34, 332–333, 337–338, 340, 342, 346, 349, 352, 355, 359

hispanica 18:443–444, 446, 450, 468

muralis 18:236, 238, 252, 254, 395, 454; 19:410, 418; 21:28, 49, 84, 137

sicula 18:46, 243–244, 252, 254, 261, 276, 447, 450; 19:13, 27, 60, 79; 20:44, 300, 307; 20:12, 300, 307

taurica 18:386; 20:300

Podocnemis 5:336, 349–350; 7:642–643, 655; 8:613, 672; 9:74–75; 10:203, 292, 296, 313; 13:34, 39; 14:124, 152, 156–157, 177, 183, 228; 16:112, 135, 393, 401, 403–404, 439, 552; 17:189, 193, 199

axial skeleton 1:219–220

blood chemistry 3:17, 42

bone 1:52

chondrocranium 11:225

ear 2:265, 270

erythrocephala 18:315

expansa 1:219–220; 2:108, 111; 4:104; 18:315

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104– 105, 107, 110, 113–118, 124–125, 154, 156, 162–163, 168–170, 172, 176, 178, 180–181

internal relief of gut 6:161–162, 172

madagascariensis 4:104; 9:74

nose 2:108, 111

pancreas 3:321, 325

unifilis 2:265; 4:104; 18:315

Podocyte 6:45–46

Podophis descouensi 20:595

Poecilia

clonal reproduction 15:492–494

meiosis 15:478

triploids 15:478

Poeciliopsis 13:260

clonal reproduction 15:493, 498, 505

meiosis 15:478

triploids 15:478, 507

Poecilopholis 19:221

cameronensis 19:195

Pogona 20:58, 92, 94, 96–98, 100–101, 103; 21:190, 192, 357

barbata 19:22, 79, 519, 525; 20:294, 306; 21:7, 190–191

henrylawsoni 19:517, 519–520, 525

vitticeps 19:350–352, 355, 377, 418; 21:7

Poikilothermic 8:590, 615, 665; 19:486

metazoans 5:156

reptiles 5:127

state 5:5

Poikilotherms 5:12, 128, 159, 163, 169, 187, 191, 209, 238, 259, 343, 350, 358, 360, 459, 469; 14:654, 664

Poikilothermy 12:4, 21–22, 170

Poison apparatus 4:288

Poland 2:322

Polar

cartilage 11:11, 167–168, 229–230; 21:514

lipids 18:153–155

region 17:469

Polarized light 1:49–50, 57; 2:85–86; 12:224; 18:137

Polarographic electrodes 5:79

Polemon 19:121, 221; 20:522–524, 526–532; 21:580, 585

acanthias 19:195; 20:620

barthi(i) 19:195; 20:620

bocourti 19:152, 195

christyi 19:152, 166, 195

collaris 19:123, 152, 195

fulvicollis 19:142, 195

gabonensis 19:141, 195; 20:620

gracilis 19:195

griseiceps 19:195

neuwiedi 19:123, 142, 195

notatus 19:142, 195; 20:620

robustus 19:195; 20:621

Polknorpel (see Polar cartilage)

Pollution 5:23

Polyanhydromanuronic acid sulfate 5:61

Polybrominated and polychlorinated biphenyls 19:517

Polychridae 21:12

Polychroides 16:257

Polychromatophily 3:75

Polychrotids 21:184

Polychrotinae(ine) 20:44, 50, 4, 87–90, 271, 304

Polychrus 7:140, 299, 480; 8:661; 12:102; 15:329; 16:116, 140, 249, 257, 464–465, 473–474, 514; 21:76, 87, 184

axial skeleton 1:261–262, 269

dentition 1:155–156

ear 2:271

eye 2:26, 30–31

jaw muscles 4:319, 477

marmoratus 20:304

Polycryptodira 19:19

Polydactly 15:129, 136

Polyestrus species 15:37–38, 40, 51–52

Polyglyphanodon 20:176

sternbergi 20:300

Polyglyphanodontine(onts) 20:174, 176, 273; 21:625

Polymorphism 15:490

Polyneuronal innervation 11:279, 286, 297, 325, 327, 332, 335

Polyodon, thymus 3:127

Polypeptide 8:7

chains 11:297

Polyphydonty 1:120, 136, 194

Polypterus 19:563

Polyribosome(s) 6:48, 75, 111

primordial germ cell 15:170

somitic cell 15:68

Polysaccharide(s) 3:238, 291; 6:36, 234, 252; 19:495

urodaeal epithelium 15:197

Polysomes 6:263

Polyspermy 14:112

Polystyrene 8:472

Polysynaptic

cells 2:38, 61, 84–85, 88, 92

pedicles 2:77–78, 85, 91

retina 2:92

rods (see Polysynaptic cells)

Polyvinal resin 6:317

Ponceau d’xylidine 3:329

Pons 10:201

Pontine flexure 14:129

Pontosaurus, epiphyses and sesamoids 1:108

Popliteal

anastomosis 6:338

fossa 21:150

plexus 6:392–395

Population (see also Deme) 13:58, 296

density(ies) 13:234; 14:209, 272; 18:178, 193

geographic variation of lizards 7:164–167, 171–173, 217–218

indices of 7:160–161, 203–204

intraspecific variation, lizards 7:169–171

intraspecific variation, snakes 7:216–217

long-term changes in 7:218

methods of estimating 7:158–163, 201–204, 228–229, 234–236

observed in crocodilians 7:229–231, 234–236

observed in lizards 7:163–173, 262–263

observed in rhynchocephalians 7:241

observed in snakes 7:204–218

problems of estimating 7:209–216

related to body weight 7:200–201

related to home range 7:168–169

related to interspecific interactions 7:171– 172, 241–142

dynamics 7:157–264

future goals in reptiles 7:244–247

procedural problems 7:243–244

value of reptilian studies 7:244–247

energy budget 13:234, 261–262

regulation

density dependent 7:194–199, 288

density independent 7:194–195, 199–200

effect of social behavior 7:195–198, 288

in lizards 7:194–201, 288

size (see Life history methods)

Porcupine quills 14:529

Poromera fordii 20:307

Portal

blood vessel 17:601

fibrosis 19:517

vein 5:100

Porthidium 19:220

hyoprorum 19:192

lansbergii 19:192

nasutum 19:192; 20:616

ophryomegas 19:192; 20:616

Positive

goal 7:659

pressure pumping 5:229, 238

Postacetabular region 1:233

Postaxial centrale 21:121

Postbranchial body (see Ultimobranchial body)

Post-bronchial extension 19:175

Postcardinal vein 6:9, 456

Postcaval vein (see Posterior vena cava)

Postcentral shield (see Marginal shield)

Postcloacal bones 11:73

vertebrae 1:241, 288, 294–296

Postconcha 2:103, 145–150, 173–174

Postconchal cavity 2:145–147, 149–150, 174

Postembryonal changes in skull 4:253

Posterior

accessory process of columellar apparatus 11:33–34, 46–47, 54–55, 58, 76, 79, 93, 100, 196

accessory process of extrastapes 2:198–200, 233

ampulla 2:199, 204, 206, 217

ampullary crest 2:204

ampullary expansion 20:278

ampullary prominence 20:33, 183

ampullary swelling 20:11

auditory foramen 11:209, 211

basicapsular commissure 11:99; 20:11, 33

cerebral vein 11:27, 32

chamber of eye 2:52–53

clinoid process 21:518

cloacal canal 6:272–274, 297–300, 302

collector of anterior limb 6:322, 324

collector of posterior limb (see Dorsal collector

of posterior limb)

colliculi 17:296

commissure 12:227; 17:176, 191, 256, 314, 533, 535

concha 2:103, 116–118, 158, 166, 170–171; 11:234–235, 240

coracoid process 21:274, 277

dentigerous process 21:601–602, 610

division of vestibulocochlear nerve 2:204, 206, 208

gastric collector 6:349

hyoid horn (see also Cornu branchiale II) 11:363

hypothalamus 12:219

intestinal portal 14:117, 138, 288, 290, 292, 294, 438–439

labial foramen 21:614

limb, lymphatics of 6:391–396

lobe of adenohypophysis 3:159

mandibular foramen 20:413, 511

maxilla 20:478–481

maxillary process 11:12, 15, 17–19, 51, 54–55, 62, 66, 72, 76, 82, 88, 94, 98, 103, 106, 110, 117, 119–120, 137, 142, 145, 169–170, 173, 176, 178, 181–182, 194, 202

mylohyoid foramen 21:604

naris (see Choana; Nasopharyngeal duct)

nasal chamber (see Cavum nasi proprium)

nasal concha 11:117, 119–120, 122

nasal pouch (see Postconchal cavity)

nasal tube 5:101

necrotic zones 21:26

orbital cartilages 11:3, 21, 40–43, 74, 116, 195, 205–206, 210

osseous ampulla 2:202–203

parasphenoid 11:219, 224

peduncle of ovary 6:349

position (see M. adductor mandibulae posterior)

process of prootic 11:112

process of septomaxilla 11:59

rectus muscle 2:7–9, 11–12, 49–50, 67, 74–75

semicircular canal 2:202–203; 11:45, 110, 112, 117, 119, 140, 195

semicircular duct 2:206; 20:382, 578

thymic lobe 3:112, 117–118, 160–161

to the prefrontals 21:591

trigeminal foramen (see Foramen for mandibular

branch of trigeminal nerve)

turbinal (see Postconcha)

vertical semicircular duct 20:384

vena cava 6:30–31, 83, 96, 325, 352, 356–357, 421

vesicam oblongam 19:148

vestibulocochlear foramen 2:202, 216

vidian foramen 20:389–391, 399, 408, 427, 431–432, 434, 441–442, 445, 447, 453, 455, 463, 465–467, 471, 473, 477, 484, 497, 502–503, 507, 509, 511, 525, 527, 538, 540, 543, 562, 569

Posterodorsal (conchal)

process of septomaxilla 20:453

process of dentary 20:412

process of rib 1:253, 278; 11:392–393, 428

Posterolateral recess 2:145–146, 150

Posteromedical collector of leg 6:395

Postfrontal 4:105, 108–109, 111–113, 116–117, 139, 170, 202, 209, 278, 290–291, 293, 297, 305, 320–321, 324, 329–330, 341, 346, 349, 374, 386, 388, 395–397, 401, 404, 406, 440, 442, 451; 11:24, 60, 63, 68, 70, 73, 81, 85, 91, 95, 100, 106, 111, 119, 155, 164, 175, 184, 209, 214, 220, 231, 233; 20:14, 16–17, 19, 42, 56, 68, 74, 76, 84, 86, 91, 99–100, 104, 115–116, 121–122, 132, 137, 144, 149, 154, 158, 166–168, 170, 173, 178, 186, 189–190, 194, 202, 209, 217, 221, 225, 237–238, 240, 244, 254, 259–260, 275, 278–282, 284, 287, 356, 382, 398, 408, 432, 491; 21:583, 587–588, 590–591

bone 2:9, 48, 66

process (see Postorbital process)

Postganglionic cell 10:2, 8–9

fiber 10:5, 8–9, 11

Postjunctional folds 11:270

Post-optic descending processes of the frontals 21:538, 541

Postorbital 4:204–205, 209–211, 213–222, 228, 232–234, 236, 244, 247–251, 254–257, 293, 296–297, 301, 342, 63, 374, 387, 439, 453–455, 459; 11:60, 63, 71, 85, 101, 106–107, 111, 119, 125, 134, 153, 155, 164, 175, 184, 237, 244; 20:14, 16–17, 19, 21, 42, 68, 74, 76, 78, 84, 86, 91, 96–101, 103–104, 108, 110, 115–118, 121, 130, 132, 136–137, 140, 144, 149, 151, 154, 157–158, 166–167, 170, 173, 175, 178, 184–185, 190, 194, 198, 202, 209–210, 217, 221, 225, 238, 240–241, 244, 248, 260–261, 268, 275, 280–281, 284, 288, 356–357, 365, 369, 371, 373, 379– 380, 382–383, 392, 415–416, 418, 420, 431–432, 434, 439–441, 445, 447, 450, 453, 455, 457–458, 463–467, 472–473, 478–479, 485–486, 491–492, 497, 499, 501–509, 511–513, 522–523, 526–527, 539–541, 543, 559, 562–564, 566–571, 576; 21:512, 587, 589–592

arch 11:63–64, 91, 95, 100, 104, 111, 114, 134

bar 4:203, 205, 211, 214, 217, 219, 221, 233–234, 236, 244, 255, 277, 296, 312, 329, 335, 363, 397, 402; 20:44, 56–57, 110, 118, 128, 143, 165, 170, 178, 180, 208, 218–219, 224, 227–228, 233, 235, 240, 251, 254, 261, 590

bone 2:9, 48, 73, 81; 8:105; 20:363, 437, 456, 491, 519, 549, 561–563, 565, 567, 588–589

braincase 20:363, 437, 456, 491, 519, 549, 561–563, 565, 567, 588–589

ligament 21:588

-parietal bone 8:106

process 4:374, 452, 458; 20:519

process of frontal 20:382

process of parietal 20:398, 416, 420, 459, 470, 502, 540, 542, 563, 565, 570, 578

region of maxilla 20:435, 573

Postorbitofrontal 20:19, 42, 44, 54, 56, 106, 110, 120–121, 128, 131–132, 136, 143–144, 149, 160, 162–163, 166, 178, 180–181, 185, 190, 210, 213, 217, 219–221, 230, 234, 244, 259–261, 282, 287

Postorbitomaxillary ligament 20:508

Postotic fenestra 11:219

Postparietal(s) 1:15; 4:227, 253, 278; 11:244; 20:48, 257, 285, 287, 374; 21:507

process 20:16–17, 20, 67–68, 86, 119–120, 128, 131, 142, 160, 167–168, 176, 180, 189, 194, 196, 200, 202, 206, 212, 217, 220–221, 229, 236, 255–256, 262, 275, 284

Postsacral vertebrae 21:354

Poststernal rib 1:236–237, 262

Postsynaptic (α-bungarotoxin) faction 8:449

dyad 2:39

site 8:455–464, 513

Post-temporal

arch 4:297, 309

fenestra 4:202, 205, 211, 214, 217, 219, 221, 223–224, 226, 233, 255, 266, 317–318, 415, 434; 20:14, 106, 108, 147, 194, 247; 21:503

fossa 4:334, 388, 467; 11:112

passage 4:233

Post-terminal segment of uriniferous tubule 6:34–36, 38

Post-tetanic potentiation 10:311; 11:285

Post-turbinal sinus 2:145–147, 149–151, 174

Posture in mammals 5:159, 190

Postvestibular ridge 2:105–107, 110, 112, 117, 122, 124, 126–127, 133–134, 144, 170, 177

Postzygapophyses(is) 1:202, 207, 210–211, 213, 219, 222, 227, 229, 231, 236, 245, 250, 284–286, 288; 11:362–363, 371, 373, 376, 380, 396–398

Potamophis, urinogenital system 6:97

Potassium 3:4–7, 13–14, 16, 45; 5:11, 54, 68, 102, 366, 370, 383, 387–388, 390–392, 394, 399, 405, 413–414, 422, 427–430, 441, 477–479, 491, 494–495; 12:327–335, 341–349, 351–357, 363–366, 368–370, 375–379, 383–385, 427; 13:85–87

acetate 5:428

bicarbonate 5:429

bichromate 3:298, 303

chloride 5:56–58; 12:384

dichromate 6:284

excretion 5:478–480

iodate 3:303–304

iodine 3:215

ion 8:168–173

permanganate solution 5:55

reabsorption 5:480

secretion 12:366, 368, 371

succinate 5:428

thicyanate 5:69

urate 5:10, 494

Potency assays (see Antivenin, potency assays)

Potential difference (PD) 8:645–646

Povidone-iodine scrubs 5:98

solutions 5:98

Power 11:308–309

input (see Metabolism)

Praescutata 19:223

viperina 19:199; 20:546, 629

Prairie dog burrows 13:106

Prasinohaema 15:639, 643, 670, 675; 21:397

Preacetabular process 21:138–139, 143–144

Preadaption (see Protoadaptation)

Pre-amplifiers 5:84, 89–90

Preanal

area 18:166

organs 14:537, 572–574, 578, 580, 584–585, 588

pore 18:167

shields 15:481

Prearticular 4:104, 107, 112, 239, 391–393; 11:24, 59, 63–64, 73, 80, 106, 124, 146, 151, 156–157, 179, 187, 211–212, 214, 220, 244; 20:36–37, 46, 74, 103, 114–115, 166, 194, 196, 208–209, 216, 224, 226, 232, 235, 247, 249, 356, 423, 465, 519; 21:603–604, 606, 611, 614

crest 20:357, 401, 418, 433, 441, 445, 452, 460– 461, 465, 468, 471, 474, 481, 493, 507, 509, 513, 519–521, 531, 550, 569, 579–581

process of compound bone 20:418, 435, 487

Preaxial centrale 21:121

Precardiac

plexus 6:319, 325–326, 347, 354, 378–381, 389, 396–397, 434, 446

sinus 6:317–331, 333, 345, 348, 353–358, 362–363, 375, 377–379, 381–387, 398, 413, 429, 431, 433–434

Precartilage 14:159

Precaudal vertebrae 1:241, 248, 282, 290, 294, 296

Precentral shield (see Cervical shield)

Prechordal plate 14:122, 128, 684–685, 687, 713

Precipitate (usually precipitin) lines 8:346, 355, 359, 576

histochemistry 8:359

Precipitation 5:58, 398, 496

bands 8:357, 575, 578

of urates 12:370–371, 497

Precipitin reaction 3:52

Precision of temperature regulation (see also

Eurythermy; Stenothermy; Temperature

conformity) 12:49, 56

Precloacal

gland 18:166

vertebrae 1:203, 241–242, 249, 271–272, 274–280, 282–283, 293

Preconcha (see also Anterior concha) 2:103, 145–151, 173–174, 179

Preconchal recess 2:145–147, 149, 151, 173–174

Precondylar constriction 1:247, 284

Precostal bone 1:188–189

Predation (see also Caudal autotomy; Crocodilians;

Eggs; Embryos; Injuries; Lizards;

Mimicry; Nests; Parental care; Snakes;

Turtles) 5:24; 12:5, 7, 29–30, 46, 54, 65, 144, 146, 306; 13:132, 234, 304–305; 14:530; 15:611, 614, 616–617, 622, 651, 666, 672, 676–679; 16:4–14, 16–17, 60, 397, 476, 499; 18:118, 120, 149, 157, 159, 161–164, 170, 177, 300–301, 303, 323, 333, 344, 372–373, 377, 381, 385–387, 391, 394, 399

antipredatory mechanism 18:198–199, 387

avoidance 18:115, 300, 347, 382

context 16:15–16

definition 16:4

detection 18:182

deterrent 18:192

evidence of (see also Caudal autotomy; Injuries) 16:11–12, 239–242

odors 18:470, 475–476

of nest sites 14:10, 20, 199, 201, 230, 272, 358

recognition 18:424–426, 470

defense postures 18:475

innate sense 18:475

snake 18:476

risks to predators 16:53–54, 164–170, 216, 291, 307, 309, 315, 352

sexual differences 16:21

unsuccessful (see also Caudal autotomy) 16:52

Predator

deterrent 8:5–6

escape 21:57

pressure 5:315

prey ratios 5:191

Predators of reptiles

amphibians 16:8–9, 39

arthropods 16:7–8, 39

assemblages of 16:7, 60

birds 16:6–7, 10, 13–14, 25, 31, 37, 39, 41, 53

characteristics of 16:13, 15

detection by prey 16:15–16, 18

experiments 16:12, 15–16, 49, 67

fishes 16:8, 25, 51

generalizations 16:12–14

humans 16:60–61, 418–419

mammals 16:6–7, 10–11, 13–15, 25, 27, 30–31, 33, 37, 39, 41, 51–53, 57, 60

reptiles 16:6–7, 9–10, 13–14, 25, 31, 33–34, 37, 39, 41–42

regional patterns 16:5–7, 12

stimuli 16:13, 15

Predentine 1:142, 144, 146

Predictive movements 12:142

Predorsal bundle 10:136, 139, 141, 143, 147, 149, 151, 155, 157–158, 163–164, 176, 191; 17:262

Prefacial commissure 9:12; 11:4, 12, 15, 26, 32, 54, 116, 138–140, 145, 150, 173, 186, 189, 194, 207, 211, 217; 20:11, 31

Preferred

body temperature 5:9, 127, 161–163, 165–166, 178, 180–181, 185, 188, 208, 311, 397, 399

levels 5:128, 179, 317

temperature 5:5, 24, 28, 316, 459; 12:22, 168, 218

thermal levels 5:180, 198, 210

Preformed water 12:325, 353–355, 466

Prefrontal 4:138–139, 204–205, 209–213, 216–221, 225, 231–232, 247, 250–251, 254–256, 265, 269, 272, 274–275, 374, 439; 11:17, 49–50, 60, 63, 68, 72, 81, 84–85, 95, 106, 110–111, 119, 122, 124, 133, 143, 152–153, 155, 163, 165, 170, 175, 179, 181, 209, 212, 218, 224, 231, 235, 240; 20:14–16, 18, 24, 42, 44, 54, 67–69, 76, 78, 82, 84, 91, 94, 101, 104, 106–108, 110, 115, 118, 120–121, 128, 130–132, 136, 140–142, 144, 152, 154–155, 157, 160–161, 168–169, 178, 184, 188–190, 200, 202, 211–213, 217, 220–221, 225, 229–230, 234, 237, 240, 242, 244, 247–248, 252, 254, 258–259, 281–282, 284, 356–357, 368–373, 375–376, 379–380, 382–383, 386–387, 389, 391–392, 394, 398–400, 405, 407–410, 415–417, 421–422, 424–425, 427–429, 431–434, 436, 439, 441, 445, 447–448, 453, 455, 457–459, 461–465, 467–468, 471–473, 476–477, 479–480, 484–485, 491–492, 494, 496–498, 501–507, 509–514, 516–517, 523–524, 526–527, 531, 533, 536, 538–544, 546, 548, 558–560, 562–571, 573–576, 584, 589–590; 21:539, 556–563, 565, 575, 581–586, 588, 592

bone 2:9–10, 48–49, 66–67, 73, 81

fontanelle (fenestra) 20:41, 44, 46, 106, 108, 110, 115

-frontal attachment 21:586

-frontal joint 20:426, 433, 438, 504, 506, 510, 516, 540, 542, 570

lateral lamina 20:559–560

-maxillary joint 20:417, 506, 510–511, 542, 572, 574

medial lamina 20:510

ossification 14:126, 312

-palatine joint 20:466

pillar 4:231–232, 235, 252, 274

process of of frontal 20:472, 485, 511

-septomaxilla contact 20:387

Prefronto-maxillary ligament 20:479

Prefrontomandibular ligament 20:392

Prefrontomaxillary ligament 20:417

Preganglionic cell 10:78

fiber(s) 8:654; 10:3, 5, 7–9, 29, 41, 45, 117

Preglottal keel 19:116–117

Pregnancy

and corporal lutea 15:579, 585

duration of 15:585

effects of 3:104

thyroid effects on 3:219, 222

Pregnant mare serum gonadotropin 13:218–219

Pregnant mare’s serum 6:116

Pregnenolone 6:76, 84; 15:588

Prehensile

limbs 15:86

tail 1:295, 297

Prehension 1:124

Premandibular arch 11:30

Premaxilla 1:12, 119–120, 124, 139, 148–149, 152–153, 156–157, 159–164, 166–169, 171, 173, 179–180, 182, 184–192; 2:118, 146; 4:124, 139, 202, 204, 209–210, 212–213, 216–218, 220, 225, 229–230, 234, 241–243, 247–248, 250–251, 253–256, 258, 272–274, 280, 374; 11:17, 22, 39, 59–60, 68, 70, 79, 81–82, 85, 88, 97, 106, 119, 122–123, 126, 129, 133, 135, 143, 151–153, 161, 167–169, 175, 178, 181, 208–209, 212, 218, 224, 231, 233, 235, 240, 244; 20:14–15, 17–18, 23, 40–41, 44, 46, 54, 65, 67, 69, 74, 76, 78, 81, 91, 94, 96–97, 104, 108–110, 115, 118, 120, 122, 131–132, 134, 136, 142, 145, 149, 152–153, 158, 160–161, 166, 168, 170, 173, 178, 185, 188–189, 194–195, 200, 205, 211–212, 214, 217, 220–221, 225, 228, 230–231, 234, 236–237, 240, 243–244, 248, 252, 257, 275, 278–279, 283, 288, 355, 357, 367, 369, 371–372, 375, 379–381, 386–389, 391–392, 397–399, 401–405, 407, 409–410, 412, 414–415, 417–419, 421, 424–425, 427, 431–432, 434–437, 439, 441, 445–448, 453–456, 461–463, 465–467, 469, 473, 476–477, 479, 483, 490, 497, 499–503, 505–507, 509, 511, 513, 522–523, 527, 529, 533, 536, 538–541, 543, 552–553, 557, 559–560, 562, 564, 566, 568–569, 571; 21:571, 579–581

Premaxillary

dentition 14:457

gland 8:50, 67, 113

-maxillary suture 1:137

teeth 20:432, 437, 589; 21:580

Premaxillomaxillary ligament 20:389, 392, 417

Premeiotic restitution 15:478

Prenasal process (see Rostral process)

Preneural

bone 1:332–334

region 1:324

Preoccipital

arches 11:10, 12, 14, 42, 205–207, 213; 20:10–11, 28, 33

rib 11:222

Preocular

scale 2:281

scute 21:561

Preoptic

area (see also Brain study) 9:235, 341; 18:35, 42, 48, 97–101, 445

area of brain 5:306, 311

descending process of the frontal 21:538

medial 18:98

recess organ 10:258, 265

region (see Hypothalamus)

Preorbital

bump 4:212

crest 4:212

Pre-ovipositional arrest 14:15, 183–185

Preparation of solutions 5:55

Preplastral bone 4:13

Presacral vertebrae 1:202–204, 209, 232, 235–236, 241–243, 248–249, 266–267, 281, 300–301

Preskeletal axis 21:19

Presphenoid 4:138; 11:23, 242

bone 2:67

Prespleen 19:575

Pressor reflex 12:246–247

Pressure

blood 19:438, 449

changes 5:96

diastolic 19:451

gradients 5:75

hydrostatic 19:352

hydraulic 19:436

intraaortic 19:430

pulmonary 19:440, 442, 453

sensor 5:78

systolic 19:397–398, 440

transducor 5:77, 79

Presternal

plate 21:268

rib 11:384

Presternum 21:62–63, 65, 68, 73, 86–88, 96, 234, 236, 238–240

Presynaptic (β-bungarotoxin) fraction 8:449

site 8:465–467

Pretectal geniculate complex 9:225

Pretectum 9:178, 221–222, 226–228, 238, 241; 10:263, 268, 291; 17:310, 323

Preterminal swelling 2:307

Preventative medicine 5:25

Prevertebral lymphatic duct 6:456

Prevomer(s) (see also Vomer) 11:61; 20:23

Prey 5:172; 18:124, 134, 139

capture 21:57

effects of anosmia 18:494

chemicals

chemical analysis 18:492–494

earthworms, cuticle collagen 18:493

earthworms, electric shock-induced secretions 18:493

earthworms, glycoproteins 18:493

preference 18:484–486

responses to, absence of 18:468–469

responses to, innate 18:468, 483–486

detection 18:115, 182, 300, 424–425, 467–468, 483–492

vibratory cues 18:468

visual cues 18:469, 488

localization 18:467

odors 18:158, 163, 468–470, 483–494

responses to, factors affecting 18:486–487

trailing 18:487

preference, genetics of 18:484

preference, innate 18:484–485

recognition, and vomeronasal organ 18:496

transport 20:493, 550, 577, 585–588, 590, 592

Prezygapophysis 1:202, 207, 211, 213, 222, 227, 229, 236, 245, 249–250, 171, 274, 276, 279, 284–285; 11:362–363, 376, 384, 387, 389, 391, 393, 398–400, 414, 421, 428, 431

Prim network analysis (see Statistical analyses)

Primaderma 20:218, 220, 225

nessovi 20:302

Primary

afferent fiber 10:82–84, 137, 166

anterior vidian foramen 20:416, 427, 432, 484

bony armor (see Thecal shell)

canal (see Primary vascular canal)

center of ossification 1:81, 83

coracoid fenestra 21:73–74, 78, 82, 271, 274

germ cell(s) 6:50, 53, 79, 81, 107–113, 120

girdle 21:278, 282

nasal chamber (see Cavum nasi proprium)

osteone 1:61, 75

palate 2:102, 113, 123, 138, 141142, 168, 170, 172–173

perilymphatic foramen 21:488

vascular canal 1:46–47, 50, 53, 55, 62, 72–74, 76

vidian canal 21:520, 532, 535–536

Primate(s) 9:166, 248; 10:308; 14:7

Primers, definition (see also Priming mechanisms) 7:406

Priming mechanisms

copulation and female receptivity 7:431

definition 7:424

hormones and aggression 7:431–433

hormones and receptivity 7:431

social contact 7:427–430

social distance 7:430

social familiarity 7:427–430

social status 7:424

Primitive

condition 19:127, 141, 161

groove 14:27, 386

plate 14:113

streak 14:381, 386, 398, 500–501, 505–506, 512–513; 15:3, 9, 188–189

“Primordeal fossa” 21:613

Primordial

cranium (see Chondrocranium)

germ cells (see also Primary germ cell) 14:29, 43–50, 149, 307, 311, 441, 505–506; 15:158, 170–171, 247, 254, 256, 258, 260, 269

ameboid movement 14:43, 45, 58

annulate lamellae 15:159, 171

liposomes 15:170

location 15:21, 24

migration 14:43–46, 48–50, 307, 311, 515; 15:3, 154

nucleolus 15:170

origin 14:46–48

polyribosomes 15:170

rough endoplasmic reticulum 15:170

yolk granules 15:170

Principal

cavity (see Cavum nasi proprium)

cells 5:414–415, 418, 424–425, 433, 438–439

cells of pituitary 3:148, 155

components analysis (see Statistical analyses)

lymphatic of the neck (see Paratracheal trunk)

lymphatic trunks (see Main lymphatic trunk)

nasal chamber (see Cavum nasi proprium)

Principle of conservation of mass 16:554

Principles approach 5:1

Priodonophis 16:204

Prionodactylus 12:115

Priscagama 20:78, 101

gobiensis 20:293

Prismatic cells 6:233, 236

Pristichampsidae, skull 4:268

Pristichampsus, skull 4:270, 272

Pristurus 7:292, 468; 12:123–124; 16:245, 250, 260; 20:15, 20, 118, 120, 126, 128, 274, 296

carteri 20:296

eye 2:23, 26

Pro-atlas 21:543

Pro-ischiadic bar 21:136

Proablepharus 21:397

Proactive inhibition 7:634

Proamnion 14:168, 285, 386, 503; 15:18

Proatheris 19:219

superciliaris 19:192; 20:499, 618

Proatlas 1:204, 226–228, 235–236, 255, 288, 300–301; 4:249–250; 11:36–38, 56, 121, 144, 192, 213, 226, 238, 240; 14:495; 20:28, 30

arch 11:38–39, 121, 238, 241

Proaulacocephadon 9:299

Probability

learning 7:631–632

Crocodilia 7:631–632

Testudines 7:631

Probenecid 5:497

Probes 5:32

Problem box learning

comparison with other taxa 7:591

box learning, Testudines 7:590–591

Procaine 5:53; 8:473

hydrochloride 5:45, 47

Procartilage cells 15:356

Proccelerin 3:34

Proceptivity (see Sexual, female behavior)

Processus

alaris inferior 11:15–16, 19, 52, 54–55, 66, 72, 76, 88, 93, 98, 103, 106, 110, 117, 119, 138–141, 163, 166, 173, 176, 180–181, 202, 208; 20:364

alaris superior 11:15–16, 19, 55, 75, 88, 93, 110, 119, 122, 138–141, 152, 163, 166, 173, 208

anterior tecti 20:113

articularis of arytenoid cartilage 4:180–181

ascendens 20:12, 17, 23–24, 30, 50, 52, 67, 72, 76, 78, 83, 91, 101, 104, 113, 115–116, 119, 126, 128, 135–137, 142, 147, 149, 152, 160, 164, 166, 168, 177, 183, 185, 189, 192, 194, 200, 206, 220, 223, 229, 232, 234, 236, 240, 246, 255–256, 275–276, 278, 286–288

ascendens of arytenoid cartilage 4:181

asscendens of the suprooccipital 21:510

basioccipitalis 4:225

cultriformis (see also Basisphenoid rostrum) 20:30

descendens of parietal 21:504

dorsalis of columella 4:251

dorsalis of stapes 21:476

entoglossus (see also Lingual process of hyoid;

Processus lingualis) 4:310

epiglotticus 19:117–118

interfenestralis 21:484, 489, 492, 496, 499

internus 21:476–477, 484, 497, 502

lateralis anterior 4:156

lateralis intermedius 4:156

lateralis posterior 4:156, 158

lateralis pubis 21:34, 138, 144–146, 148

latissimus dorsi 21:100

lingualis 4:154, 156, 158–160, 170, 172–173, 179–181, 184, 250, 427, 430

muscularis of arytenoid cartilage 4:179–181

paroticus 11:15, 33–34, 46–47, 52, 54–55, 57, 66–67, 80, 93, 109–110, 118–119, 149, 192, 196

postoccipitalis 4:227

squamosus inferior 4:170, 174

styloideus 21:113

subcapsularis 4:249–250

tuberculiformis (see Pseudotuberculum)

vocalis of arytenoid cartilage 4:181

Procheneosaurus, nose 2:152

Procion yellow 10:77

Procoagulant factor 8:489, 500

fraction 8:333

Procoelocryptodira 19:19

Procoely 1:205–206, 210, 213, 215, 219, 222, 225–226, 243, 245–247, 255, 274, 283, 300–301

Procolophon 9:296

Procolophonia 9:296; 19:74

Procolophonidae 9:57, 65–66

dentition 1:121, 150

origin and evolution 1:9–11, 39

Procolophonoidea, origin and evolution 1:2

Procolpochelys, shell 1:324

Procoracoid (see also Acromion) 4:12–13, 15; 21:76, 83–84

Procricoid (see also Cricoid cartilage) 4:180

Proctodaeum (see also Posterior cloacal canal) 15:185, 191, 193, 200–201, 207–208, 219, 234, 245; 18:116, 118, 178

Proctoporus 20:186, 188–193; 21:299

?anatolorus 20:308

apodemus 20:301

axial skeleton 1:252

ear 2:271

striatus 20:301

unicolor 20:301, 308

ventrimaculatus 20:308

Proctotretus doellojuradoi 20:85, 292

Procurement 5:20, 25

Procynosuchus 9:299

Procyon 16:403–404

Production 13:234, 236, 238, 241, 246–249

Prodynorphin 17:614, 634

Proenkephalin 17:614, 622, 624, 634

Profundus branch of the trigeminal (see also

Nerve, opthalmic [V1]) 21:519

Proganochelydia

axial skeleton 1:210

origin and evolution 1:2, 9

shell 1:332

Proganochelyidae

axial skeleton 1:209, 217

shell 1:336

Proganochelys 14:155

axial skeleton 1:209, 212, 222

limbs 4:12

origin and evolution 1:4, 9

shell 1:332–333

Progesterone 6:76, 80, 84, 101–103; 12:231; 13:217, 219; 15:277, 579, 581, 585, 587–591, 594–595; 18:33–35, 37, 39, 41, 48, 54, 93, 339–340, 365–370, 373–376, 399

binding (see also Brain study, autoradiography) 18:35–36

R5020 18:93

Progestin receptors 15:592

Proglyphodonty 1:176–178

Proinvasin 1 8:247–248

Proischium 21:138, 141, 145

Prokinesis 20:49, 394, 501; 21:572, 574, 585

Prokinetic 21:573

joint 20:355, 361, 367–368, 370–371, 397, 405, 414, 428, 438, 450, 462, 466, 475, 477, 489, 498, 500, 523–524, 532, 535–536, 555–556, 584

Prolacerta 9:296; 15:338; 20:1, 4, 71, 249, 257, 259

broomi 20:290

eye 2:80

origin and evolution 1:4, 7

Prolacertidae, origin and evolution 1:7

Prolacertiforms 20:249–250

Prolacertiformes, origin and evolution 1:2

Prolactin 3:221; 6:44, 84, 115; 8:667; 12:258; 13:92, 220; 14:702; 15:383, 587–588; 17:656

Proline 3:40; 8:194, 196

Promegadonty 1:176, 178

Promesonephric duct (see Wolffian duct)

Prominentia coracoscapularis 21:78, 94

Pronation 21:111–114, 283

of the forelimb 4:20, 47

of the hindlimb 4:89

Pronator

accessorius 21:213

profundus 21:206, 213, 324

teres 21:213

Pronephric

chamber 6:8, 11–12

crest 6:18

duct (see also Wolffian duct) 14:148–149

-mesonephric duct (see Wolffian duct)

tubule 6:3, 5, 8–9, 11–13, 15–16, 18–19; 15:175

vesicle 6:55; 15:174

Pronephros 6:1–17, 19–21, 54–55, 120; 14:148, 175, 311, 440–441; 15:152, 179

Pronethalol 5:308

Proneural bone (see Nuchal bone)

Proniochelys, shell 1:328

Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) 17:614, 616–620; 18:316–317

Prootic 4:105, 108–109, 111, 113–115, 205, 211, 214, 217, 219, 221, 224–228, 236–238, 252, 257, 292, 300, 303–304, 307, 314, 318, 320–321, 323–324, 326–327, 334–335, 340–342, 345, 349–350, 352, 354, 356, 358–359, 362–363, 365, 367, 374–381, 383–386, 389, 391–392, 395–396, 402, 404–406, 409–411, 416–417, 420, 437, 440, 443, 469–471; 11:5, 22, 29, 58–60, 68, 81, 85, 90, 99, 106, 112, 124, 131–133, 148, 150, 153, 155, 185–186, 189–190, 216, 218, 224, 242–243; 20:14, 23, 27–28, 30–31, 33–34, 44, 46, 70, 72–73, 75, 89, 102, 104–105, 108, 113–116, 126–128, 135, 137, 148, 150, 154, 156, 162, 164, 172, 174, 180, 183, 185–186, 192–193, 195–196, 203, 206–207, 209, 214, 216–217, 222–223, 225, 229–232, 234, 236, 239–240, 243, 246, 248, 272, 282, 284, 355, 357, 361, 363, 365, 369, 371, 373–376, 379, 381, 387, 389–391, 398–399, 403–405, 409, 411, 415, 418, 421–422, 431, 434, 438–439, 442, 445, 447–448, 453, 455, 458, 463, 465–467, 471, 473, 477, 479, 484, 486, 497, 501–503, 505–509, 511, 513, 519, 523, 525–527, 529, 531, 533, 538–641, 543, 561, 564–566, 568–569, 571, 578, 589, 591; 21:512, 530, 543

bone 2:202, 227; 21:495, 536

incisure 21:480

notch 11:15, 21–22, 26, 30, 116, 131, 138–139, 163, 186, 188

Prootic-sphenoid 20:282

Pro-ovarian ciliary tract 6:93

Propagated action potential (see Action potential)

Propelanomodon 9:299

Properdin system 8:497

Prophase (see Meiosis)

Prophylactic measures 5:25–26

Propodials 21:39, 59

Proportional controller 12:214–216, 218–219

Proportionality

surface area 5:149

weight 5:149

Propranolol 5:237; 10:29–31; 18:318–319; 19:453

Proprioception 10:228, 292

Propylthiouracil 3:215

Prorubidgea 9:299

Prosaurolophus, eye 2:80

Prosauropod 9:67, 78, 98

Prosauropoda, dentition 1:187

Proscelotes 15:636

aenea 21:401

arnoldi 21:401–402

eggeli 21:402

Prosencephalon (see also Forebrain) 9:174, 221, 234, 236; 10:192–193, 201, 259; 14:128, 131, 287

Prosimian 9:160

Prosquamosal 20:20

Prostaglandin(s) 8:521–522; 12:229; 14:220; 18:48–49, 56, 158

arachidonic acid 18:155

behavioral effects 18:56

in brain 18:48

F2α 18:49–52, 158

hormonal role 18:50, 56

PGE1 18:49

PGE2 18:48–50

production 18:50

Prosthetic replacement 5:99

Prosymna 7:502; 8:658, 693; 16:120, 131, 147, 234; 19:225; 20:554, 558, 579

ambigua 19:153, 212; 20:642

angolensis 19:212

bivittata 19:212

meleagris 19:212

putnami 19:212

ruspolii 19:212

somalica 19:212

sundevalli 19:212; 20:642

Protamine 8:566

Protean defense (see Antipredator mechanisms)

Protease 8:2, 91, 94, 148, 165–166, 178, 188–189, 248, 309, 314–315, 320, 322–323, 329, 331–332, 362, 499, 502–505

activator 8:311

activity 8:315–316, 340

inhibitors 8:311

pH optimum 8:309, 311

specific activity 8:312

thermostability 8:311

Protected basking 12:124

Protein(s) 3:8–13, 23, 25–30, 32–33, 36, 45–50, 52–54, 156, 202, 239, 250, 295, 327–328, 331–333, 335; 5:36, 66, 69, 80, 170, 357, 433; 6:36, 43, 92, 101, 234, 237, 246–247, 252, 265, 268, 271–272, 280; 8:7, 45, 167–169; 12:287, 341, 353, 364; 13:73–74, 82, 90; 16:257; 18:123, 155, 168–170, 186, 192, 194, 199, 205; 19:46–47, 49, 342–343, 349, 494–495, 499

as energy source 14:377

blastocyte 15:565

carbohydrate-containing glycoprotein 8:45

catabolism 13:70, 79, 89

concentration 8:131, 167–169

conformation 5:358

electrophoretic patterns 14:332

enamel 14:431

from follicle cells 14:62

in eggs 14:315–316

in eggshells 14:375

ingestion 5:170

iodinated 3:213

ionization 19:342–343, 345

liver protein 13:90

metabolism 5:81; 14:240; 19:514–515

nitrogen 13:89–90

nitrogen content test 8:579

of epidermis 14:527–528

of scales 14:526

pK 19:342

plasma 3:9–13, 23, 25–30, 33, 36, 45–50, 52–54

solution 5:385

specific activities 5:206–208

synthesis 5:31; 8:131; 13:72; 19:498, 503

apical ridge 15:89, 92–95, 124

chorionic ectoderm 14:551–552

epidermal 14:527–528, 536, 539, 555–556, 565, 578

gonad development 15:157

limb bud mesoderm 15:124–125

liver 14:64

oocyte 14:69–70

primordial germ cell 14:46

in wound healing 14:570

transport 3:30–33, 52

yolk 15:566

Proteinase (see Protease)

Proteles 16:162

Proteolysis (see also Protease activity) 6:43

Proteolytic

activity 8:604, 666

enzymes, apical ridge 15:124

Proterochampsa

origin and evolution 1:4, 8

skull 4:280

Proterochersidae, shell 1:336

Proterochersis, shell 1:332–333

Proterodonty 1:177–178

Proteroglypha (see also Elapidae) 8:111, 563; 21:554, 564, 610

Proteroglyphous 20:488, 534

Proteroglyphy 1:177–178, 182

Proteromonas, blood cell morphology 3:88

Proterosuchia

dentition 1:184

skull 4:264

Proterosuchus 9:57, 78; 20:257

Prothrombin 3:34; 8:334, 338–339, 491–493, 496, 498; 13:92; 19:514

activating principle 8:333

time(s) 5:61; 8:439

Protoadaptation 8:7; 15:563, 665, 668, 672–673, 677–678

Protobothrops 19:220

flavoviridis 19:114 (as Trimeresurus), 168, 192; 20:616

jerdoni 19:192; 20:616

mucrosquamatus 19:124, 152, 192

Protoceratops 9:54, 61, 64, 114–115, 117; 12:289

eye 2:80

urinogenital system 6:114

Protoceratopsid 9:115

Protochepsydrops, origin and evolutiom 1:14–15

Protohaversian canal 1:313

Protoplacenta 5:12

Protopterus 19:535, 564

amphibius 19:37, 572

dolloi 19:572

urinogenital system 6:3

Protorosauria 1:190–191; 15:339, 394

Protorosauridae, dentition 1:190

Protorosaurus, dentition 1:190–191

Protorothyris, origin and evolution 1:4, 15–16, 27

Protosaurus (see Protorosaurus)

Protosphargis 9:72

Protostegidae, shell 1:321, 334, 336

Protosuchia

chondrocranium 11:246

eye 2:73

origin and evolution 1:2, 8

skull 4:264–267, 272–274, 276–279

Protosuchus, skull 4:276

Protothecodonty 1:121, 127, 129, 150–151, 163–164, 184, 190–191, 193

Protothyris 9:296

Proto-vertebrae 11:355

Protozoa (see also Parasitic disease; Pathology) 8:618, 620, 627; 19:517, 521

Protraction

of the forelimb 4:5, 9, 16, 24–26, 28, 31

of the hindlimb 4:65–66, 68, 70, 95

of the jaw 4:126–127, 146, 148–149

Protractor 21:535

laryngeus 21:595–596

pterygoideus 21:480–481, 528, 530, 534, 551

pterygoideus behind it 21:529

quadrati 21:524

quadrati foramen 21:525

Proventriculus 6:244

Provertebra 6:14

Provertebral cavity 6:6, 8, 14

Proximal

carpal row 21:136

centrale 1:30; 21:166

convoluted tubule (see Proximal segment of

uriniferous tubule)

segment of uriniferous tubule 6:22–23, 33–36, 45–48

tarsals 21:163, 172

tubules 5:467–469, 473, 492–494, 497–498

Proximate environmental cues 18:29, 55

Prussian blue 6:317

Psammobates 7:349, 463, 465; 12:361; 14:604; 16:113, 392, 439

blood cell morphology 3:83

blood cell numbers 3:95, 102

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:154, 180

Psammodromus 7:492; 8:686; 9:157, 332; 12:110; 14:606, 617, 628, 632; 15:306–307; 16:249; 20:44, 167, 170, 300

adrenal 3:280

algirus 20:300, 307; 21:49

blood cell morphology 3:76, 84–85

blood cell numbers 3:97

dentition 1:167

ear 2:245, 267, 271

eye 2:41

hispanicus 20:300, 307

internal relief of gut 6:177

pituitary 3:173

thymus 3:113

thyroid 3:207, 227

Psammodynastes 7:502; 15:647, 661, 671; 16:123, 147; 19:232; 20:534, 546–547, 573; 21:488, 500–501, 509, 554, 577, 592

ear 2:272

pictus 19:213; 20:648

pulverulentus 19:213; 20:572, 575, 648

Psammophiinae 19:225; 20:578, 645

Psammophiini 19:158, 171

Psammophilus 16:258–259; 21:396

Psammophis 8:41, 74, 94, 594, 663, 694; 12:407; 16:120, 147; 19:213, 226; 20:581; 21:600

aegypticus 19:127, 213

angolensis 19:213; 20:578, 645

axial muscles 11:357

biseriatus 19:213

blood cell numbers 3:103

bocagii 20:645

chondrocranium 11:136–159, 164, 168, 186

condanarus 19:168, 213

crucifer 19:213

ear 2:272

elegans 19:213; 20:646

jallae 19:213

jaw muscles 4:482

leightoni 19:153, 213

leithi 19:213

lineolatus 19:153, 213; 20:646

monilifer 19:213

nose 2:179

notostictus 19:153, 213; 20:646

phillippsii 19:153, 213

pulverulentus 20:646

punctulatus 19:213

rukwae 19:213

schokari 8:41, 94; 19:213, 554, 556, 579; 20:646

sibilans 8:41, 594, 663, 694; 19:112, 213; 20:646

subtaeniatus 19:153, 213; 20:646

tanganicus 19:213

trigrammus 19:213

Psammophylax 7:502; 8:43, 94; 15:648, 651, 662, 671, 675; 16:120, 147, 287, 307; 19:226

asimilis 20:652

ear 2:272

jaw muscles 4:482

rhombeatus 8:41; 19:213; 20:646

tritaeniatus 8:42; 19:213; 20:646

variabilis 19:213

Pseudablabes 19:227

agassizii 19:213

Pseudacontias, axial skeleton 1:242, 253, 267

Pseudacris 13:127

Pseudagkistrodon 21:509

rudis 21:503

Pseudanosteira, shell 1:326

Pseudapistocalamus, ear 2:272

Peudaspidini 19:225

Pseudaspis 7:502; 14:653; 15:651; 16:17, 149, 197, 287, 483–484, 520; 19:225; 20:565

cana 19:213; 20:634

eye 2:62

Pseudechini 19:222

Pseudechis 7:224, 388–389, 394, 505; 8:24, 167, 189, 193–196, 250, 257, 262, 293–296, 301, 309, 316, 323–326, 328, 335, 358, 369, 444, 456, 471, 486, 498, 519, 663, 695; 9:407, 435; 12:132; 13:31, 34, 308, 310–311; 15:46, 569, 651, 653–654, 662, 671, 675–676; 19:156–157, 222; 20:518, 542, 545

adrenal 3:281

australis 8:24, 250, 262, 293, 296, 313, 315, 325–326, 456; 19:198; 20:629

blood cell morphology 3:78, 84

chondrocranium 11:162, 185–186

colletti 8:24, 189, 196, 250, 262, 296, 301, 316, 323–324, 444

ear 2:272

guttatus 8:24; 19:198; 20:629

jaw muscles 4:483

mortonensis (?) 8:193

papuanus 8:24, 262, 369; 19:198

pituitary 3:150, 152

porphyriacus 8:24, 167, 250, 257, 262, 293–296, 309, 335, 358, 444, 456, 471, 486, 498, 519, 663, 695; 19:99–100, 109, 127, 146, 149, 151, 158–159, 198; 20:629

Pseudelaps 20:626

muelleri 20:626

Pseudemoia 21:397

Pseudemydura 14:212

Pseudemys (see also Chrysemys scripta; Trachemys) 5:8, 35, 39, 41, 45–46, 53, 60–61, 135–136, 152–154, 177–178, 180, 183, 187, 192, 194, 196–201, 203–206, 228, 238–243, 249, 264, 284–287, 301, 303–306, 310, 318–319, 321–325, 327, 336, 338, 342, 344, 347, 349–353, 358–360, 368, 373, 377, 379–380, 385–387, 389, 391, 393–396, 451–452, 455, 460, 466, 470, 473–474, 477, 480, 487, 490, 492; 8:602; 9:31–33, 164; 10:12, 15, 32, 167, 175, 178, 181, 191, 254, 262; 12:138–139, 190–192, 194, 223, 235, 238, 240–241, 247, 250–251, 288–289, 32, 350–352, 363, 429, 433, 459, 473; 13:8–8, 15–16, 18–19, 22–23, 33–36, 39, 65, 81, 84, 86, 89–92, 96, 98, 103, 120–121, 125–126, 129, 133, 161, 166, 181, 187–188, 209–210, 295–298, 304, 307, 310; 14:27, 62–63, 77–79, 90, 95–96, 105–106, 112–113, 118–120, 127–130, 159–160, 165–167, 179, 181, 195, 206–207, 209–210, 212–213, 219–220, 229, 231, 278, 529, 632, 656, 662, 688–691; 15:61, 89, 91, 264, 283; 16:17, 57, 68, 112, 135, 278, 301, 337, 341, 354, 356, 362, 365–367, 391, 393, 398, 400, 403–404, 411, 416, 419, 543–544, 552; 17:6, 8, 13–16, 20, 23–25, 28–32, 34–35, 37–38, 41–42, 45–46, 49, 51, 54–60, 66, 70–71, 74–75, 79, 81–82, 84–85, 89–90, 92, 94, 100, 102–106, 108, 110, 112, 137–139, 141, 143–146, 148–149, 151–152, 155–156, 159, 161–163, 185–187, 193, 204, 245, 253, 255–256, 259–263, 268, 270, 272–273, 277, 280–281, 286, 297, 299, 302–304, 308, 314, 318, 321, 324, 330, 339, 341–342, 456–457, 477, 497, 500–502, 505, 507–515, 520–526, 528, 530, 533–534, 537–540, 543, 546, 548, 550–551, 553, 556, 566, 606, 611, 624, 628, 642, 664–665; 18:245

adrenal 3:270, 275

axial skeleton 1:223

blood cell numbers 3:95, 99, 102

blood chemistry 3:4, 8, 13–14, 17–21, 23–26, 30, 32–35, 37–39, 42–45, 48–50

bone 1:52, 56, 60

concinna 18:327

concinna suwanniensis 18:197

ear 2:265, 270

eye 2:68, 72

floridana 18:327; 19:355, 428, 474

floridana peninsularis 18:465

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104, 114, 118, 121, 123, 153, 178

histology of gut 6:278

internal relief of gut 6:160, 162–163, 167–168, 175

limbs 4:1–2, 4, 12, 14–22, 24–27, 30–31, 34–35, 38–42, 45–53, 55–56, 58–62, 65–67, 70–71, 74–77, 79, 82–85, 87–90

lymphatics 6:317, 323, 333, 335, 345, 354, 357–358, 374–376, 388, 393, 404, 412–413, 417, 434, 448–449, 452

muscle tissue 11:272, 278–279, 283–286, 288, 290–292, 294, 296–297, 301–305, 310, 314, 317, 335–336, 338

nelsoni 18:195, 315, 331, 465

nose 2:104, 114

pancreas 3:320–322, 329, 333–335

parathyroid 3:237–238, 243

scripta 19:78, 417

shell 1:316, 318, 325

thymus 3:118, 124

thyroid 3:208, 214–215, 217, 224, 226

urinogenital system (see also Chrysemys) 6:32, 58–59, 64, 93, 97, 100, 106, 113

Pseudoboa 8:663; 16:231; 19:226; 21:531

coronata 19:213

ear 2:272

eye 2:54–56, 91

haasi 19:213

neuwiedii 19:213; 20:655

nigra 19:213

Pseudoboini 19:226

Pseudoboodon 19:225

gascae 19:213

lemniscatus 19:213

Pseudobronchi 19:26–27, 37, 70

Pseudocerastes 8:32; 15:658; 16:152, 198; 19:219

fieldi 8:32

jaw muscles 4:482

persica(us) 19:192; 20:619

pit organs 2:280, 297

Pseudoconcha (see Concha; Postconcha; Postvestibular

ridge)

Pseudocopulation 15:459–460

Pseudocordylus 15:629; 16:115; 20:152, 154–157

axial skeleton 1:258

capensis 20:299

dentition 1:168

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:101

microlepidotus 20:299, 307

Pseudocoronoid process 20:532

Pseudocruciate femorofibular ligaments 21:150

Pseudoemoia 12:113

Pseudoeryx 19:227

plicatilis 19:213; 20:526, 655

Pseudoficimia 19:232

frontalis 19:162, 167, 213

urinogenital system 6:107

Pseudofollicle 3:154, 157, 173, 188

Pseudogecko 21:95

Pseudohaje 7:505; 8:24, 663; 16:150; 19:146, 221

goldii 8:24, 663; 19:142, 197; 20:625

nigra 8:24; 19:197; 20:625

Pseudohermaphroditism 6:105–107

Pseudoheterodonty 4:241, 245–246

Pseudoisocyanin 3:329

Pseudolacerta 20:157

lamandini 20:298

“Pseudolamellar” bone 1:58

Pseudolaticauda 19:101

Pseudoleptodeira 19:229

latifasciata 19:213; 20:651

Pseudonaja 7:389, 394; 8:24, 251, 262, 295–296, 334, 369, 694; 12:132; 15:654; 16:150, 181, 205, 233, 287; 19:222

affinis 8:24; 19:198

guttata 8:24; 19:198

ingrami 8:24

modesta 8:24; 19:198

nuchalis 8:24; 19:198; 20:629

textilis 8:25, 251, 262, 295–296, 334, 369, 456, 493, 694; 19:152, 198; 20:629

Pseudonajini 19:222

Pseudoplectrurus 19:104, 218

canaricus 19:186

Pseudopod 6:112

Pseudopodia, primordial germ cell 14:44–45

Pseudopronation 21:112

Pseudopus

bone 1:46

eye 2:41

Pseudorabdion 19:213, 228

albonuchalis 19:213

collaris 19:153, 213; 20:631

ear 2:272

eiselti 19:213

longiceps 19:213; 20:631

mcnamarae 19:213

montanum 19:153, 213

oxycephalum 19:213

Pseudorhineura 21:685

minuta 21:685

Pseudosexual behavior (see also Courtship;

Mating) 18:13

pseudocopulation 18:28, 37–39, 91

Pseudosphinx 16:173

Pseudosuchia 9:79, 81

chondrocranium 11:246

dentition 1:184

skull 4:264

Pseudotemporalis 20:60; 21:481

Pseudotemporal tendon 4:132, 141, 146

Pseudotomodon 15:647; 19:227

trigonatus 19:164, 213

Pseudotrapelus 16:258

Pseudotuberculum 1:209, 252–253, 287

Pseudotyphlops 19:218; 20:403, 411

philippinus 19:162, 186; 20:395, 402, 405–406, 601

Pseudoxenodon 7:502; 16:148; 19:213, 236

bambusicola 19:213

inornatus 19:213

karlschmidti 19:213

macrops 19:213

nothus 19:213

stejnegeri 19:162, 213

Pseudoxenodontinae 20:551, 561; 21:577

Pseudoxyrhophini 19:225, 236

Pseudoxyrhopus 19:225; 20:573; 21:605

heterurus 20:642

oblectator 20:642

quinquelineatus 19:213

tritaeniatus 20:642

Pseustes 7:384, 502; 16:129, 134, 148; 19:127, 161, 213, 231

dentition 1:177

pit organs 2:295

poecilonotus 19:127, 213; 20:642

shropshirei 19:127, 213

sulphureus 18:160; 19:127, 142, 213; 20:642– 643

Psittacosaurus, eye 2:80

Psomophis 19:227

joberti 19:153, 213; 20:655

Psychrometers 16:559–562, 586

Psychophysics 17:159–166

Ptenopus 7:292–294, 469; 12:121, 123; 16:6, 16, 59, 115, 260; 20:118; 21:128, 141, 186, 397

carpi 21:397

ear 2:266, 271

eye 2:14, 22, 30

garulus 20:296; 21:57, 397

kochi 21:397

Pteranodon 9:88, 304

dentition 1:189

eye 2:80

Pterinosome(s) 9:408; 18:305–306

Pterodactyloidea, dentition 1:189

Pterodactylus 9:86–88

dentition 1:189

eye 2:79–80

Pterodactyloidea 9:85, 88, 304

Pterosaur 9:43, 53, 56–60, 66, 85, 167, 304

Pterosauria 7:6–7; 19:74–75

dentition 1:189

eye 2:80

origin and evolution 1:2

Pterygoid(s) 1:18, 25, 27, 30–31, 120, 129, 150, 165, 167–168, 170–171, 173, 179–181, 190, 193; 4:105, 115–117, 125, 132, 138–140, 145–147, 202–205, 209–214, 216–221, 223–225, 228–229, 231, 234–238, 246, 250–256, 258–259,265, 272–276, 290, 292, 305, 313, 316–317, 320–321, 326–327, 335–337, 340–341, 343, 345, 349–352, 355–356, 359, 362–363, 368, 371, 375, 377–378, 383–385, 391–392, 394–396, 407–408, 411, 413, 421, 436–439, 442–443, 457; 11:6, 11, 15, 22, 24, 32, 39, 56, 58–60, 62, 68, 70, 81, 85, 97, 100, 106, 112, 117, 119, 124–125, 127, 129–130, 135, 142, 146, 151–154, 163, 179, 187, 190, 195, 199, 209, 211–212, 214, 216, 218, 220, 224, 233, 237, 240, 243–245; 20:12, 14–15, 21, 23–25, 30, 41, 44, 46, 48–57, 59–61, 68–70, 75–76, 78, 88, 91, 94, 100–101, 104, 106, 112, 113–115, 124–125, 134, 137, 146, 150, 155, 163–164, 166–167, 171, 173, 180–182, 186, 191, 194, 196, 204, 214–215, 219, 222, 225, 228, 231, 234, 240, 244–246, 248, 263–264, 266–268, 276, 278–280, 283–284, 286–288, 356–357, 359, 361, 369–371, 575–576, 379, 383–384, 389, 391, 393, 399–400, 402, 405, 407, 409– 412, 415, 417–418, 421–422, 425, 427–429, 431, 434, 438–439, 441–447, 451–453, 455, 457, 459, 463–465, 467–469, 472–474, 478, 480–483, 485–487, 496–497, 499, 501–503, 505–507, 509, 511, 513–518, 523, 527–530, 532–533, 538–543, 545, 547–550, 562, 566, 568–569, 571, 573–578, 588–592, 596; 21:516, 529–530, 534, 545–546, 551–552, 565–567, 569–570

bone 2:9, 48, 74, 223; 14:421, 427; 19:117; 21:516, 520

bulla 4:214, 216–217, 236; 11:244

canal 4:117

cartilage 11:244

flange 20:25; 21:568–569

lamella of quadrate 4:292, 305–306, 313

lappet 20:42, 144, 149, 154, 162, 166, 173, 180, 185, 191, 194, 214, 217, 221, 238, 244, 248, 282, 288

movements 20:496

muscle 6:232

process 20:12, 263

process of palatine 20:442; 21:570

process of pterygoquadrate 11:12, 32, 41–42, 44–46, 56, 61–62, 74, 76, 78, 96, 106, 115–117, 119, 123, 145, 172, 192, 204, 206–207, 209, 216, 233, 238, 245

process of pterygoquadrate cartilage 20:364

process of sphenoid 11:62

teeth 20:400, 422, 440–441, 450, 459, 468, 472, 474, 482, 529, 548, 576–577; 21:568

tooth row 20:42, 46, 88, 104, 112, 146, 156, 158, 171, 173, 181, 185, 192, 194, 204, 209, 238, 240, 269

vein 11:105

walk 20:497, 588

Pterygoideus 21:513, 562, 565, 568, 572

superficialis 21:566, 613

-tendon aponeurosis 4:132, 139–141, 148, 187, 189–190, 239–240, 248

Pterygo-mandibular joint 4:148

-palatine bulla 4:236

-quadratal process 4:235

Pterygoid-quadrate joint 20:516

Pterygomaxillary ligament 20:400

Pterygoquadrate 11:4, 10, 12, 18, 30, 32, 42, 44–46, 56, 74, 82, 116, 137, 142, 145, 169, 172, 188, 190, 192, 203–204, 207, 214, 226, 237–238

cartilage 20:364

PTH (see Parathyroid hormone)

Ptilopody 14:7

Ptyas 7:277, 389, 393, 502; 8:41, 663, 694; 16:120, 123, 148, 287, 295, 305, 307; 19:146, 231

carinatus 19:166, 213

dhumnades 19:213

dipsas 19:213

ear 2:272

fuscus 19:213

korros 19:128, 213, 236; 20:643

luzonensis 19:153, 213

mucosus 8:41, 663, 694; 19:120, 123, 125, 127, 213, 415–416, 419; 20:643

nigromarginatus 19:214

nose 2:179

thyroid 3:221, 227

urinogenital system 6:30, 81

Ptychoglossus 20:45, 186, 190, 192, 301

festae 20:301

stenolepis 20:193, 301

Ptychophis 15:647

Ptychozoon 7:469; 8:633, 681; 14:28; 16:32, 51, 57, 138, 249; 21:132, 141, 223, 312, 397

dentition 1:162

ear 2:271

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:101, 103

eye 2:26

internal relief of gut 6:177, 182, 190

jaw muscles 4:478

kuhli 18:386; 21:84

lionatus 21:7

lymphatics 6:453

Ptyodactylus 7:292–293, 469; 10:203, 228; 12:123; 14:28; 15:7; 16:116; 20:117, 126, 296; 21:141, 166, 338, 361, 397

chondrocranium 1:73–77, 80–81, 83

ear 2:271

eye 2:26, 31

guttatus 21:37

hasselquisti(i) 18:254; 20:296, 306; 21:122, 124

jaw muscles 4:478

Pubic

angle 21:145

apron 21:144–145, 358

cartilage 14:447

symphysis 4:53, 62, 74, 90; 21:144, 358

tubercle 21:142, 144–145, 358, 361

Pubis 1:8, 225; 4:52–55, 65, 70–71, 74, 95–96, 266; 6:336–337, 339, 394–395; 11:384; 14:15621:12–13, 15–16, 34, 136–141, 144–146, 191, 346

rudiment 15:119

Puboischiadic

formaen (see Thyroid fenestra)

ligament 4:52–53, 55, 62, 67–68, 70–71, 74–77, 79; 21:34, 322, 326, 360

plate 4:95

symphysis 21:19

Puboischiofemoralis

externus 21:323

internus 21:323

Puboischiotibialis 5:9; 21:206, 323, 335

Pubotibialis 21:323, 335

Puerto Rican gecko (see Hemidactylus)

Pugnacity (see Irritability)

Pulmonary

alveoli 6:431

arch 5:278, 280, 289–291, 324

arterial pressure 5:285–286, 291, 323–324

arterial resistance 5:281

arterial system 5:309

arterial trees 5:324

artery (arch or aorta) 3:203, 238, 240, 246, 249, 253, 256; 5:57, 245, 276, 278, 281–282, 285–286, 289–290, 305, 309–310, 324–325; 6:429, 431–434, 446; 19:11, 100, 126, 132–135, 138, 149, 154, 162, 165, 169, 329, 348, 378–379, 381, 384–391, 394–398, 400, 405–406, 408, 414, 427–431, 434, 437–440, 443, 445–447, 449–451, 453–454, 457, 460–461, 467, 469, 471

beds 5:276

blood flow 5:247–248, 285, 297, 301, 303–305; 19:323, 333, 449

blood pressure 19:442, 453

bulb 19:112–113

bypass 5:291, 324–325; 13:26; 19:376, 390–391, 439–440

capillary beds 5:277

capillary filtration 19:346–348

circuit 5:7–8, 276–277, 282–283, 286, 289, 291, 316, 323, 326

circulation 13:8, 18–22; 19:63, 389, 397, 431, 435–436, 439–440, 442–443, 451, 453–454, 456, 466, 469, 471

collectors 6:356, 411, 413, 429, 431–434

compartments 13:8

components 5:372

conditions in genera of snakes 19:219–236

design 19:348

diffusing capacity 19:59, 323–324

evaporation 5:374

function 19:297–356

gas exchange (see also Gas exchange) 5:240, 245, 249; 13:30; 19:298–300

gas tension 13:22

groove 19:113

ligament(s) 6:411; 19:39

losses 5:104

lymphatic net 6:429–434

lymphatics 6:322, 326, 357, 429–434

mechanisms 5:365

outflow 19:387

output 19:388

oxygen 5:259, 265; 19:304, 325

oxygen saturation 5:195

pressure 19:440, 442, 453

receptors 19:303–304, 320

research, future directions 19:353

resistance 5:276, 282, 287, 292, 304–306, 324

respiration 19:300

returns 5:278, 280–281

shunts 13:26

surface area 5:228

system 5:387

terminology 19:173–180

tract 5:371–372, 375

trunk 6:321, 330–331, 429; 19:387, 389, 393

valve 19:440, 443

vascular bed 5:286

vascular capacity 5:280–281

vascular resistance 5:8, 277, 304, 310, 316

vasculature 19:453–454

vein 5:245, 341; 6:331, 356, 429, 431; 19:11, 132, 149, 165, 169, 325, 378, 381, 390, 394, 406–410, 414–416, 431, 452–453

venous blood 19:300, 385

venous input 19:388–389

venous return(s) 5:275–277, 281–282, 284–285, 287; 19:387

ventilation 5:231

volume 13:6–9; 19:50, 67

water loss 5:372, 374–375, 378, 380

Pulp cavity 1:141–142, 144–145, 147, 149, 151, 175, 181

Pulpal sinus (see Digital collectors, lymphatic sac)

Pulse generator 5:90

Punishment 7:559

Pupil 2:5, 19–23, 30, 52, 65, 71, 75–76, 83, 89; 10:43–44

Pupillary

margin of iris 2:4, 6, 17, 21–23, 41, 51, 65, 70–71, 75–76

size 5:50

sphincter (see Iris sphincter muscle)

Purine metabolism 15:565

Purines 12:244

Purkinje cell 9:192–193

fibers 19:401–402

Pushups 18:383

Putamen 10:185, 276, 330

Putrefaction 8:6, 665

of food 13:118

Pycnosis 3:209, 309–310; 6:72–73

Pygal

bone (see also Suprapygal bone) 1:312–313, 320–321

plate 4:55

vertebrae 1:267; 21:354, 356–357

Pygopodidae(ids) 5:145; 7:9, 467; 8:489, 500; 9:335, 337–338; 12:99, 472; 15:326, 329; 333, 346, 367, 664, 667–668; 16:31–34, 69, 117, 205, 294, 454; 19:27; 20:116, 129, 360; 21:9, 12, 89

adrenal 3:280, 283

axial muscles 11:357, 380, 385–386

axial skeleton 1:209, 241–242, 246–247, 253, 259–260, 262, 266–267, 269

blood cell morphology 3:76, 78

chondrocranium 11:58, 67, 80, 83–85

dentition 1:163

ear 2:222, 240–244, 266, 271

eye 2:14–15, 20, 26, 29, 42, 83–84, 87–88, 90

histology of gut 6:229, 232, 298

internal relief of gut 6:177

jaw muscles 4:289, 315, 317, 350–351, 368, 370, 374, 402, 415–416, 418, 478

nose 2:120, 127, 132, 139–140, 143

parathyroid 3:255

pituitary 3:135, 145, 151, 154, 168, 193–194

taxonomic literature 2:320

thyroid 3:204–205

urinogenital system 6:26

Pygopodinae 20:126, 130, 133–134, 136, 252–253, 256, 259, 266, 270–272, 306

Pygopus 7:359, 470; 15:327, 329; 16:205, 534; 20:130–132, 134, 136; 21:142

axial muscles 11:357, 378, 382–383, 387–388

axial skeleton 1:242, 253, 259, 266–267, 269

chondrocranium 11:83

dentition 1:163

ear 2:242, 266, 271

eye 2:14, 26

internal relief of gut 6:177, 183

jaw muscles 4:350–351, 353–354, 407, 414, 417, 478

lepidopodus 19:27; 20:130–131, 135, 297, 307

nigriceps 20:130–131, 135, 297, 307

Pygoscelis 5:254

Pyloric

gizzard 8:608

glands 6:227, 229–231, 244, 255–256, 265–268, 270, 282, 301; 8:605

region of stomach 6:165, 179, 182, 191, 199–202, 214, 241, 243–244, 255–256, 265–269, 272, 301, 413–414

Pylorus 3:320–322; 5:254; 6:163, 165, 169–170, 175, 179, 181–182, 186, 191, 218, 220–221, 242–243, 269, 273–274, 279, 350, 413, 419, 446; 14:439; 19:150, 169

Pyramidal system 10:95

Pyramidalis muscle 2:67, 74, 82

Pyramus-et-Thisbetrabic 21:534

Pyranometer 12:283

Pyrhaemocyton

blood cell morphology 3:75, 88

blood cell numbers 3:100, 104

Pyribenzamine 8:473

Pyridine 3:41

Pyriform

cell(s) 6:82, 101

of granulosa 14:57–62, 64, 69

membrane (see Palatal membrane)

recess 4:320; 20:15, 180

Pyrogen test 8:580

Pyroglutamic acid (Pyrrolidonecarbolic acid,

Pyroglutamine) 8:194, 196

Pyronin 3:86; 14:606, 665

Pyrotheria, skull 4:281

Pyroxylin solution 5:99

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids 19:517

Pyruvate 3:18; 5:67, 207; 19:511–512

kinase 5:205, 208

UV 5:67

Pyruvic acid 13:72, 177

Pythocholic acid 8:625; 19:513–514

Python(s) 10:5; 21:556, 596–599, 601

Python (see also Liasis; Morelia) 5:20, 28, 33, 71, 82, 134, 148–149, 157, 164, 169–170, 173, 180, 190; 7:116, 227, 393–395, 498; 8:605, 625, 655, 663, 691; 9:30, 158, 368, 413, 426–427, 434; 10:59, 61–66, 68, 70–71, 73–76, 78, 80, 82–85, 88–90, 92–93, 97, 99–101, 133, 135– 137, 155, 157–159, 169, 172–176, 179–180, 182–187, 190, 192–193, 204, 325; 12:126, 198–202, 465; 13:167, 190; 14:11, 531–532; 15:3–4, 14–15, 26, 117–121, 123, 132, 212, 662, 672; 16:6, 54, 119, 143, 285–286, 289–291, 294, 300–301, 303, 529, 534, 538, 545–546, 568; 17:372–375, 379–382, 385– 388, 392–395, 397–400, 402–404, 406–408, 410–418, 420–426, 428–429, 431–436, 438, 497, 501, 504–507, 509–510, 513, 524, 540, 543, 551–552, 558, 560, 566; 19:98, 111, 160, 187, 234, 428; 20:435–436, 438; 21:499, 501, 512, 515–516, 519, 521–522, 529, 532, 534–535, 564, 568–570, 572–573, 580, 585, 587, 590, 593–594, 603–606

adrenal 3:281, 285

amethistina 20:605

axial muscles 11:357, 400, 407

axial skeleton 1:250, 286–288, 293

blood cell morphology 3:75

blood chemistry 3:3, 33

boeleni 20:605

chondrocranium 11:171–172

curtus 19:187; 20:605

dentition 1:173–175, 177, 179

ear 2:269, 271

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:82, 106

eye 2:50, 52–53, 55–56

histology of gut 6:235, 269

internal relief of gut 6:193, 195–198, 203–204, 209–210, 221

jaw muscles 4:446–448, 481

lymphatics 6:412, 455

molurus 18:460; 19:118, 121, 123, 143, 147, 166, 187, 462, 475; 20:443, 605; 21:602

muscle tissue 11:278, 292, 323, 336

nose 2:120, 122–123, 136

pit organs 2:290–291, 301, 303–305, 308

regius 18:446; 19:187; 20:441, 605

reticulatus 19:51, 81, 118, 154, 160, 187, 382, 384, 413–415, 419, 554, 556, 579; 20:606

sebae 19:146, 152; 20:435–437, 442, 444, 606; 21:602

spilota 20:605

thymus 3:113

thyroid 3:209, 221–222, 224, 227

timorensis 19:187; 20:606

urinogenital system 6:37

Pythonid phylogeny 20:435

Pythonidae 19:33, 64, 116, 151–153, 186, 214, 234; 20:354, 420, 430, 432–433, 435–440, 442–443, 445, 448–450, 452, 456, 458–460, 464–466, 468–469, 472, 474, 476, 480, 482, 491, 538, 570, 591, 595, 604; 21:479, 483, 493, 496, 502, 516, 529–530, 545, 550, 555, 565, 575, 578–579, 582, 588, 590–592, 594, 606

Pythoninae (see also Boidae) 19:513; 20:430, 435, 477

blood chemistry 3:51

chondrocranium 11:175

dentition 1:211, 215

internal relief of gut 6:193

jaw muscles 4:422, 440

taxonomic literature 2:320

Pythonini 20:435

Pythonodipsas 19:225; 20:576

carinata 19:153, 214; 20:634

Pyxicephalus 16:9

Pyxis 7:349, 463

axial skeleton 1:211, 215

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:154

shell 1:329–330

 

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