Biology of the Reptilia: Index R

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R0 (see Net reproductive rate)

r (see Instantaneous rate of increase)

r-selection 7:194

r- and K selection (see also Life history traits) 13:242–243, 260–261, 303

R waves 5:89–90, 93

R5020 (see Progesterone)

Rabbit 7:600; 8:103, 244, 356, 359–360, 378–379, 381, 456, 474, 477, 479, 486, 522, 525–526, 631, 633

Rabdion 19:228

forsteni 19:214

Raccoon(s) 7:237; 14:10

Radial

collector (see Dorsal collector of anterior limb)

condyle 21:101–102, 105–110, 113, 116

epicondyle 4:16–18, 25, 33, 36, 38–41, 50

fibers 2:39, 46, 73, 77

fins 2:35, 44, 57–58, 73

lamella 2:22, 52, 75

nerve 2:294; 4:16

styloid process 21:113

tendon of M. pectoralis 4:33, 51, 94

Radiale 1:100; 4:18–20, 32; 15:79–80; 21:25, 111, 115, 117–126, 164, 282, 286–287, 291, 297–298, 318

-centrale 4:19–20, 46–47

Radiant energy

heat receptors (see Pit organs)

solar 12:283, 319–320

thermal 12:167, 232, 283–285, 291–293, 407

Radiation (see Thermal balance)

damage 19:517

Radioactive proline 1:77

Radioactively 19:328

Radioautography 3:47, 128, 224; 8:1

Radiocarbon 13:72

Radiocarpal joint 21:283

Radiographs 16:245

Radiography 1:92–93, 103, 135, 137, 139–141, 165, 185, 205, 271

Radioimmunoassay 17:590

Radioiodine 12:340

Radioiron citrate 5:68–69; 12:340

Radiotelemetry 5:28, 32, 90; 12:96, 117, 132, 135, 143, 493; 13:12; 18:135

Radioulnar

fossa 21:101–102

ligament 21:115, 125

Radius 1:82, 86, 93, 100, 103; 4:16–20, 23, 30, 32–35, 39, 41, 46–48, 51, 58, 92, 94; 15:74, 77, 86; 21:21, 25, 31, 44, 59, 105, 110–116, 118, 124–125, 132, 135, 280, 282–283, 286, 292, 296, 298–299, 302–303

ossification 14:313

-radiale joint 21:10

Rajoid chondrichthyan fishes 20:528

Rami

communicantes 10:3, 8

lienalis 19:536

Ramming 18:193, 426

“Ramphiophis” (see Rhamphiophis)

Ramphotyphlops 15:417, 429–430, 455, 656; 19:125, 140, 182, 235; 20:386, 599

acuticaudus 19:130, 181

affinis 19:181; 20:599

albiceps 19:181

angusticeps 19:181

australis 19:132, 181; 20:599

becki 19:136, 181

bituberculatus 19:181; 20:386, 390, 599

braminus 19:132, 181, 413, 419; 20:369, 388, 390, 599; 21:589

broomi 19:181

centralis 19:181

chamodracaena 19:181

cumingii 19:181

depressus 19:100, 181

diversus 19:181; 20:599

endoterus 19:181

erycinus 19:181

flaviventer (“flaviventris”) 19:100, 181; 20:599

grypus 19:182

guentheri 19:182

hamatus 19:182

leptosomus 19:182; 20:599

ligatus 19:132, 182

lineatus 19:182; 20:369, 371, 373, 390, 599; 21:543, 601, 608

minimus 19:182

multilineatus 19:182

nigrescens 19:192; 20:599

nigroterminatus 19:182

olivaceus 19:182

pinguis 19:182

polygrammicus 19:132, 182, 413, 419; 20:599

proximus 19:132, 182

silvia 19:182

subocularis 21:612

tovelli 19:182

unguirostris 19:182

waitii 19:182

wiedii 19:182

Ramus

accessorius nervi vagi (see Accessory, nerve)

ad labium 4:120–122

ad linguam 4:120–122, 144–145

ad mucosam 4:120–122, 144–145

ad M. intermandibularem oralem 4:120–122, 144–145

alveolaris 4:119–120, 138

alveolaris inferior (see Ramus alveolaris)

basilicus 6:390

cephalicus 6:390

communicans 2:12; 4:226

cutaneus 4:120–122, 144–145, 417, 424

cutaneus externus 4:120–122, 144

cutaneus recurrens 4:120–122, 144

hyomandibularis nervi facialis 4:166

intermandibularis caudalis 4:120–124, 143–145

intermandibularis medius 4:120–124, 144–145

intermandibularis oralis 4:120–124, 144–145

intramaxillaris (see Ramus alveolaris)

lateralis nasi of ethmoidal nerve 2:176

mandibularis nervi trigemini 4:103, 115, 120, 134, 136–138, 142, 144–145, 229, 241, 285–287, 303, 306–307, 319, 325, 345–346, 354, 364–365, 367, 369, 371, 378, 380–381, 390–391, 395–396, 402, 406–407, 411, 417, 424–425, 437–348, 443, 462, 468–469

maxillaris nervi trigemini 4:114–115, 120–122, 130, 137–138, 142, 144, 285–286, 295, 298, 302–304, 307, 323, 333–334, 345–346, 354, 357, 366–367, 369, 371–372, 376, 378, 380–381, 390–391, 396–396, 400–401, 403–404, 406, 410–411, 416, 424, 431, 434, 437–438, 444–445, 460, 466

ophthalmicus nervi trigemini 4:119, 229, 286, 320, 326, 385

paralingualis 4:122, 144–145

ventralis of cervical nerve 4:162, 173–175

Rana 5:342–344, 358; 8:2, 377, 458, 462, 464, 616; 10:78–79, 95, 173, 220, 278, 280–281; 13:127, 180; 14:7, 616; 16:9, 214; 17:13, 566, 568, 675; 19:21, 324, 568

blood cell morphology 3:86

catesbeiana 19:316

chromosomes 15:497

clamitans 18:485

clonal reproduction 15:414, 493, 495, 505

effect of temperature on sex 15:282

eye 2:35, 86

histology of gut 6:252

hypophysectomy 15:282

limb regeneration 15:362, 390

muscle tissue 11:273, 285, 287–290, 292, 298, 300–310, 312–314, 338

sylvatica 18:486

thyroidectomy 15:282

triploid species 15:507

urinogenital system 6:22, 45

Rankinia

adelaidensis 21:398

chapmani 21:398

diemensis 21:400

Raphe 17:612, 633, 651

Rat (see also Rattus) 7:241–242, 560, 600, 620, 622–623, 631; 8:104, 439, 452, 455–457, 464, 466, 468, 473, 480, 487, 504–505, 518, 522–523, 525, 590, 593, 633; 9:156; 10:93, 95, 276; 12:401–402

Rate

constants 11:314

controller 12:214–215, 217

of tooth replacement 1:141, 154, 167

-temperature curve 5:29–30

Rates, birth and death (see Life history traits)

Rathke’s gland 18:191–192, 195

Rathke’s pouch 3:159–161; 14:128, 400–401, 420, 515

Ratites 14:7

Rattlesnake(s) (see also Crotalus; Sistrurus) 8:96, 98, 348–349; 12:251

antipredator mechanisms 16:45–48, 69, 130, 214

evolution of rattle 16:46–48, 59, 214

mimicry of 16:197, 199

uses of rattle 16:46–48

Rattus (see also Rat)

blood chemistry 3:23, 32

muscle tissue 11:285, 301, 306, 318

norvegicus 19:51, 53, 58

urinogenital system 6:32, 45, 80, 118

Ravetto, method 8:48

Razi Institute 8:561

Re-acclimation 5:31

Reactive movements 12:142

Real-time 5:90

Rear maxillary fang 20:575

Rear-fanged 20:488, 534, 547

Reassuring limb contact 5:41

Recapitulation 15:367

Receptive field 9:409; 10:298–299, 301, 312, 316; 17:84–96, 149, 152, 154, 205, 280, 298, 344, 380, 402, 423, 426–429, 432–434

Receptivity (see Sexual, female behavior,

receptivity)

Receptor 18:54

alpha adrenergic 10:31–32, 37; 18:317–319, 344–345

beta adrenergic 10:18, 29, 31–32, 37, 40; 18:317–319, 344–345, 347

D1 17:157

D2 17:157–158

delta 17:612, 622

estrogen 18:33, 36–37, 41–43, 54

infrared 17:368, 370

joint 17:454, 486–487

mu 17:616, 622

muscarinic 10:25, 43–44

muscarinic binding 18:446

nicotinic 10:44

potential (see also Generator potential) 11:330

progesterone 18:35

testosterone 18:37

Recess

in nasal bone for olfactory process of frontal 20:405

of nasopharyngeal duct 2:105–107, 113

Recessus

cavi tympani 2:230–232; 11:215, 219, 226

inferior (see Ventral recess)

intraconchale (see Subconchal recess)

medialis (see Dorsal recess)

oticus externus 4:204, 210, 213, 216, 218, 233, 244, 266, 277

piriformis 3:113

scalae tympani 2:197, 202–203, 220, 222, 226–227, 230–231, 233, 242, 244, 246–247, 251–252, 255–256, 259, 261; 9:16; 11:26– 29, 45, 55, 57, 66–67, 69, 76, 99, 105, 112, 121, 138, 140, 145–146, 159, 168, 173–174, 195, 197, 204, 213–214, 222, 226, 233, 238, 241; 20:9, 11, 28, 32, 34, 112, 115–116, 126, 135, 156, 164, 183, 186, 195, 231, 246, 249, 255, 270–271, 390, 416, 439, 485; 21:485–486, 493

superior (see Dorsal recess)

superior anterior (see Dorsal recess)

superior posterior (see Olfactory region)

supracribosus 9:10

Reciprocal relationship 10:318

Recognition

individual 18:468

kinship 18:474

mate 18:424

sexual 18:468

Recombination 15:480, 504, 507

Recording

bioelectric 5:84, 86

equipment and accessories 5:89

Recovery from activity 5:187

Rectal

collectors 6:424

intubation 5:47

plexus 6:406

salt glands 5:413–414, 439

temperature 5:51

Recto-urethral sinus 6:338, 437

Rectum 6:88, 93, 175, 209, 277, 332, 338, 344, 346, 349, 407, 421–422, 424–425, 437

Rectus

abdominis 21:61, 267, 269

abdominis muscle 6:334

capitis ventralis 21:490, 492, 499

superficialis 18:165

Recurved teeth 1:124, 152, 163, 166, 168–171, 173, 179, 186, 191, 193

Red blood cell(s) (see also Erythrocytes) 2:282; 5:255, 266; 14:162

organic phosphates 5:251

Red rod 2:84

Reducing substance 3:19 5-α Reductase 18:92

Reduction 8:226

of eye 2:83–84, 87, 89

of inner ear 2:235

of limbs 1:204, 240, 253, 265–266, 271, 281

of middle ear 2:223, 242

of nasal apparatus 2:128, 133, 135–136, 142, 159

of numbers of vertebrae 1:204

of semicircular canals 2:226

of shell 1:328

Reed-Muench method 8:581

Reference venom 8:571, 573, 581

Reflectance (see Temperature regulation, color

change)

Reflecting platelets 18:305–307

Reflex intersegmental 10:96

Reflexes, embryonic 14:195

Refractory

period 13:100, 208, 213–214, 217, 220–221

zone 12:218

Refringent body (see also Paraboloid) 2:60, 85–86, 90–91

Regaud’s fluid 3:279, 282–283, 285, 287, 299, 301; 6:226, 252

Regeneration (see also Caudal regeneration) 14:3, 14, 530, 537, 567; 19:491, 493, 568

and hyperinnervation 15:363, 389, 391

and nutrition 15:382

antler 15:303

capacity 15:374–382, 384–388, 393

carapace 15:394

caudal 15:350–386

definition of 15:303

embryonic 15:384–386

in fossil reptiles 15:394

integumentary appendages 14:571

jaw 15:303, 392

lens 15:392

limb(s) 14:558; 15:303, 362–363, 386–392

of limbs 3:259

of nerves 15:367

of shell 1:323

of the tail 13:233, 299

partial 15:387

physiological 14:551

role of nerves 15:350, 360–365, 378, 389–391

scutes 15:394

tail 14:558, 563, 571, 583; 15:350–386

territories 15:373

testudinine shell 15:303, 393–394

Regenerative membrane 11:284

Regina 7:204, 222, 502; 12:129, 346, 359, 426–427; 13:308; 15:568, 652; 16:8, 21, 120, 148, 483, 519; 19:234; 20:554, 572

alleni 19:214; 20:648

blood chemistry 3:5, 49

grahami(i) 19:214; 20:648

regida 19:214; 20:648

septemvittata 18:270; 19:214; 20:648

Regional

development 9:177

heterothermy 12:179–189, 187, 192–193, 197–199, 248

Regression

calculations 5:152, 156

equations 5:137, 140, 154, 159, 163; 14:394–395

line 5:137, 157, 174, 260

Regulation 5:12

Regulator

-effector systems 12 :216

functions 5:13

Regulatory capacities 5:128

systems 5:498

Regurgitation 8:591, 593, 647

Rehydration 5:400, 474

Reinforcement

air 7:619

conditioned 7:615

continuous 7:615–616

delayed induced illness 7:588–589

escape 7:590, 595–596, 604, 609–610, 620

fixed interval 7:616

fixed ratio 7:616

food 7:566–567, 576–577, 585, 587, 601, 603, 607–608, 611, 613, 618–623, 626–629, 631, 633, 636, 641, 646–648, 652–653, 655–657, 659–661

mechanical 7:573, 580

shock 7:575–576, 580–586, 592–593, 603, 641, 654–655, 660

temperature 7:567–568, 604–607, 623–624, 630, 637, 663

variable interval 7:616

variable ratio 7:616

vibration 7:594

water 7:605, 607–608, 610, 624–627, 633, 654

Reissner’s fiber 9:246

and autotomy 15:324

regeneration 15:360

Rejection behavior 18:24–25, 28

Relative

alkalinity 5:340–341, 344, 349–350, 353, 355–356, 359–360

clutch mass (see Life history methods; Life

history traits)

humidity 16:558–559, 586

minute ventilation 5:352

ventilation 5:348–349

Relaxation times 11:268, 285, 288

Release call (see also Sexual, female behavior) 18:48

releasing mechanism 18:425

releasing stimuli 18:73

Releasers

definition 7:406

mechanisms in reptiles

auditory 7:419–420

color 7:406–409

designs for study 7:434–435

olfactory (see Pheromones)

tactile 7:420–424, 434

visual (see also Display) 7:406–417, 433,

use of head 7:416

Releasing mechanisms (see Releasers, mechanisms)

Relic populations 15:441

Remodelling of bone 1:45–80

Renal

advehentes (see Renal portal system)

arteriole 6:29–30

artery 3:273; 6:29–31, 113

beds 5:323

calculi 5:483

collectors 6:346, 434

effects 5:451, 461

excretion 5:10, 382, 385, 394, 489

failure 8:508–509; 19:521

function 5:413, 423, 447, 450–452, 455, 459, 461, 470–471, 480, 492, 498; 8:440; 12:325

mechanisms 5:482

parenchyma 6:453, 455

pelvis 6:21

portal system 5:69, 100; 6:30–31, 352, 448, 450, 453–455; 14:147, 149

portal vein 3:274

pyramid 6:21

sex segment 18:53, 155, 157, 495

secretion 18:158

studies 5:42

tubular cell carcinoma 19:523

tubule(s) (see also Uriniferous tubule) 5:11, 385, 389–390, 401, 448–450, 465, 468, 470–471, 475, 478, 481–483, 486, 490, 494, 496; 17:595

vein 6:29–31, 434

Reniform process 11:109

Renin 8:527

-angiotensin system 5:394; 12:244

Renules 6:27

Reoxygenation 5:262

Repellant 18:118, 120, 123

Reperfusion 19:465

Repetitive variants 1:316–317, 325

Replacement

cells 8:68, 125

fangs 20:497, 499, 501, 503, 533

osteone (see Secondary osteone)

teeth 1:120, 129–130, 134, 136–139, 141–145, 147, 150, 164–169, 171–173, 176–177, 184–186, 189–191, 193

Repolarization pathway 5:93

Reporting temperatures 5:31

Reproduction (see also Hibernation and reproduction;

Eggs; Embryos; Life history

methods; Life history traits; Nests; Parental

care) 5:35; 12:27, 29–30, 144–145, 222, 230–232, 237, 241, 251–252, 286, 302, 306, 340, 431; 13:75, 78, 234–235, 246–248, 276, 295, 303; 18:158, 171, 177; 19:298, 455, 512

activity 18:140, 145, 171, 187

ages 16:353–356, 443

and for fat reserves 15:347

and tail loss 15:347

annual cycle 18:261, 267

atretic follicles 16:360

behavior 18:39, 57, 119, 139, 140, 143, 146–147, 170, 178, 467

brooding 18:181, 189–190, 204

maternal care 18:356

biennial 7:187, 225–226

caudal autotomy 16:250, 264–266

coloration 18:364

condition 18:181, 188, 344, 361–370

constraints, male preference 18:10

constraints, sexual selection 18:10

corpora lutea 16:359–361, 365–366

cost of 15:614–615

costs and benefits 16:398, 419

cues 18:140

effects on defensive mechanisms 16:21

energy requirements 15:347, 365

environmental effects 16:400, 402–403, 419

fertilization 16:312–313, 315

gonadal cycles 16:356–360, 395, 399–400, 418–419

investment 18:157

isolating mechanism 18:185, 188, 394

levels of complexity 18:10–11

maturity criteria 16:354–356

migration 16:401

mode (see Life history traits, mode of reproduction)

non-breeding season 18:131, 133

ovulation 16:359

parental care 16:303–305, 309–310

paternity 16:312

periodicity 16:367–368

physiology 18:158

refractoriness 18:157

reproductive isolation 18:331, 340, 383–384, 394, 397, 399

reproductive pattern

associated 18:14–15, 29, 55

constant 18:14–15, 29, 31

dissociated 18:14–15, 28–30, 55, 75, 82, 88, 93–97

reproductive success 18:28

secondary sex characters 16:354–356

senescence 16:353, 356, 498

stimuli

climatic 18:11

physical 18:11

social 18:11

synchrony 16:412

triennial 7:187, 225–226

Reproductive

behavior 14:199, 343

bimodality 15:633, 660–661

changes 5:36

conditions 5:9

cycle(s) (see also Reproduction) 12:222, 307; 13:93, 201–222; 14:9, 11, 21, 209, 336–349; 15:3, 37, 41–46, 50–52, 462

amphisbaenians 13:206

biennial 15:39

crocodilians 13:205–206, 209

endocrine and neural mechanisms 13:216– 222

endogenous rhythms 13:213–216

environmental factors 13:202, 207, 213

lizards 13:202–204, 207–208, 213–214, 216–217

snakes 13:204–205, 208–209

tropical vs. temperate zone forms 13:202– 206, 210–211, 213

tuatara 13:206

turtles 13:205, 209

effort 13:233, 235, 241–244, 248, 255–261

frequency 15:673, 677

isolation 15:511

patterns 5:12

period 5:36

physiology 5:39

strategies 5:12

Reptilase 8:333, 494–495

Reptile(s) 12:8, 10, 170, 228, 233–234, 239, 246, 251, 295, 307, 325, 340, 353, 385, 398–399, 466, 493; 13:129, 155–156, 159, 162, 182, 274–275

adaptation 18:17

as “higher vertebrates” 18:17

as model systems 18:8–10

captive breeding programs 18:10–11

cladistic schemes 18:9

cleidoic egg 18:17

costs 18:10–12

diversity 18:17

evolution, emergence onto land 18:18

mammal-like 18:425

model systems 18:4

multiple disparate conditions 18:9

patterns of change 18:17

practical benefits 18:10–12

reintroduction into the wild 18:10

use in behavior neuroscience 18:17–18

why study? 18:8–10

Reptilia 7:12–13, 15, 29–30

ancestry of living 1:3–11

definition 1:37–39

early environment 1:35–37

Lower Permian and Carboniferous 1:11–18

Middle and Upper Permian 1:10–11

origin 1:1–44

Reptilian

brain 18:17–18

nonmammalian brain 18:18

triune brain 18:17–18

grade 5:13

function 5:19

niche

and age structure 7:120

and generation time 7:120

and individual growth 7:120

and metabolism 7:115–117

and moisture sensitivity 7:117–118

and reproductive behavior 7:119–120

and sterotype 7:119

and temperature sensitivity 7:117

and trophic level 7:118–119

system 5:2

Reptiliomorph amphibians 19:68

Research

grade material 5:20

interdisciplinary approach 18:5

laboratory versus field 18:5

strategies 18:3–5

Resegmentation 15:311

Reserpine 10:250

Residual bodies 6:80

reproductive bodies 13:243

Resins 5:60

epoxy 5:99

Resistance 11:284, 287, 289; 19:323, 347, 352, 389, 436, 470

change 10:33

mechanical 19:17, 65

pulmonary vascular 19:456–458

to change 19:49

to duffusion 19:58, 323

to gas transfer 19:70

vascular 19:389, 392, 397–398, 440–444

Resonance 18:231, 272

experiments 18:271

Resorption

canals 1:46–47

cavity 1:164–165, 168

of bone 1:46, 101

of teeth 1:129, 132–133, 135–136, 139, 146–148, 158, 163, 168, 171, 173, 186, 190, 193

pit 1:136–137, 150, 167, 169

Resorptive surface 1:56

Resource overlap 7:39–40

partitioning 7:68–70, 85–87

among lizards 7:68–70, 85–86

among snakes 7:70, 86

among turtles 7:68, 86

utilization and competition 7:61–62, 73

Respiration (see also Ventilation) 1:311; 5:225, 228, 236, 238, 255, 266, 303, 305–306, 353, 365, 372, 378; 13:236

anaerobic 6:293

chorio-allantoic-pulmonary transition 14:362

cutaneous 14:527

embryonic 14:121, 169, 199, 221, 236–240, 315

Respiratory

adaptations 5:318, 335

arrest 5:52

arrhythmias 5:90

capillary net 19:12

chamber (see Vestibulum)

circulation 19:375

circuit 5:277

cycle 5:229, 231, 238, 247, 297, 304–305

cytochromes 19:497

depression 5:51

disturbance 8:449–451, 477, 480–481

enzymes 8:516

epithelium 2:108, 110, 112, 118, 131, 133, 135, 151, 154–156, 158–160, 164, 180, 182; 5:225; 6:432; 19:24, 28, 116, 147

evaporation 5:375, 379, 401, 407, 451, 456

exchange ratio 5:247; 19:344

gases 5:66, 277, 365

gases and embryos

factors influencing exchange 16:532–535, 558–559, 573–575

Fick equation 16:573

interactions 16:578

mechanistic models 16:573

metabolism 16:575–576, 581

nests (see Nests)

physiological effects 16:527, 577, 586

pores 16:528

soils 16:575

thermal dependence 16:577

-heart rate response 5:248, 303

measurements 5:228

metabolism 5:172

movements 4:4, 13, 182

muscle(s) 5:85, 229, 232–235; 19:306, 311

neuron 19:312

parenchymal layer 19:18, 55

pigments 5:3

properties of blood 5:226, 250, 254, 264–266

pump 5:284, 286, 291

quotient (RQ) 5:74, 79, 103, 129, 169, 172; 13:246

rate 5:229, 296, 378; 12:446–447, 472

receptors 5:358

response 5:243, 245

state 5:280, 288, 296, 303–304, 306

surface area 19:13, 49, 52–55, 57, 60, 323

surfaces 19:65, 70

system, development 14:436

system, lymphatics of 6:428–434

tracts 5:48, 370, 377

water loss 12:290–291, 325, 384, 445–449, 469, 472

Respirometer response 5:176

Respirometry 5:71

Respondent conditioning 7:558, 560, 562, 578–589

apparatus for 7:586

comparisons among vertebrates 7:589

definition of 7:558–559

for determining dark adaptation 7:581

for determining sensory abilities 7:581–582

“free animals” 7:582–585

in Sauria 7:585–587

in Serpentes 7:587–589

in Testudines 7:579–585

problem in using 7:560

secured animals 7:579–582

Response time

effect of reward 7:622, 629

waning 7:572–573

vs. motor fatigue 7:572

vs. sensory adaptation 7:573

Resting

animals 5:129, 151, 186, 210, 298, 319

heart rate 5:298, 300, 303

lizards 5:138–139, 294, 298

lung volume 5:228

metabolic rate 5:156, 158, 161, 169, 176, 179, 198, 208, 209

metabolism (see Aerobic metabolism, maintenance

levels)

oxygen 5:227, 250

potential 11:286

reptiles 5:90, 130–136, 151–152, 157, 172, 177, 180, 184, 250

ventilation 5:230

Restlessness 8:439

Restraint 5:39, 43, 360

Restraining reptiles 5:40–42

Restriction enzymes 15:440

Restrictor aperturae internae 21:489

Restus 20:209–210

rugosus 20:302

Rete

canal 6:49

cords 6:50–53, 69–70; 14:441; 15:155–156, 165, 171–172, 174

lamina 6:52

mirabile 2:75

ovarii 6:50, 52; 15:158, 163

testis 6:50, 65, 67, 70; 15:158, 160, 162, 173

tubules (see Rete cords)

Retention of sperm in oviduct 6:94–96

Reticular

formation 10:65, 122, 133, 167, 172, 181, 183, 193, 210, 224, 236, 327; 12:220, 242, 247, 255–257; 17:257, 262, 273, 325, 332, 333, 409, 422, 438, 529, 536, 546, 550, 552, 558, 610, 621, 664

ascending 10:185

lateral 10:180, 183

magnocellular 10:91, 192

mesencephalic 10:91, 192, 233; 17:262

paramedian pontine 17:334

rhombencephalic 10:91, 128, 192, 213

tissue 19:541, 567, 569

zone of adrenal cortex 3:295

Reticulin 19:548–551, 553–554, 556, 559, 562, 565

Reticulocytes 3:32, 45

Reticulocytosis 3:38; 8:488

Reticulo-endothelial system 3:74; 19:544, 577

Retina 2:1,3–6, 16, 18, 24–25, 32–48, 51, 53–63, 65–66, 72–73, 76–79, 84–86, 88, 90–92; 10:174, 289, 291; 11:17, 24, 143, 179; 14:495; 17:342; 18:325, 328

afferent 17:317–318

arbors 17:303

cones 18:325–327

oil droplets 18:325–328

rods 18:325

ganglion cell 17:293, 309, 692

Retinal

ganglion cell 10:289–290

structure 20:522

veins 2:53

Retinohypothalmic fiber 9:390

pathway (RH) (tract) 18:247

Retinotectal projection 10:289

Retinotropic organization 10:300

Retracted nares 20:196, 218

Retraction

of the forelimb 4:5, 8–9, 13, 16, 20, 30–31, 33–34

of the head 4:163

of the hindlimb 4:55, 67, 70, 72, 74–75, 78–79, 88, 95–96

of the jaw 4:126–127, 146, 148–149, 186

Retractor

bulbi 21:518, 552

bulbi muscle 2:7–9, 11–12, 14, 49, 63, 67, 74, 81–82, 87; 9:11

maxilla 21:508, 567

palatini 21:513

pit 20:246, 248

pterygoidei muscle 2:49

pterygoideus 21:530, 553

vomeris 21:513, 530, 553

Retraherence (see Hibernation)

Retroarticular

aponeurosis (see Pterygoideus-tendon aponeurosis)

process 1:93, 106; 2:195–196, 198, 224; 4:139, 182, 184, 186, 203–205, 210–211, 213, 215–219, 221, 239–240, 247–248, 251, 254, 258, 266, 279, 287, 309, 319, 335, 343, 359, 361, 392, 394, 419–420, 439–440; 11:45–46, 57, 137, 147–148, 151, 170, 218, 231, 233, 239; 20:8, 37, 47, 74–75, 90–91, 103–104, 115–116, 128, 130, 136–137, 149–150, 157–158, 165–166, 173–174, 184, 186, 194–196, 198, 208–209, 216, 218, 224, 226, 233, 235, 239, 241, 247, 249, 357, 377–379, 383, 385, 389, 400–401, 412–413, 417–418, 423, 460, 481, 487, 502, 505, 507, 519, 530, 541, 543, 562, 566, 569, 580, 592; 21:453, 611–613

Retrobulbar formation 10:309; 18:443

Retrocardiac sinus 6:355

Retrohypophyseal vein 3:165

Retromandibular sinus 6:321

Retroorbital space 3:3; 5:61

Reunient duct 2:204, 209, 217, 234, 238–239, 242, 246–250, 252, 256, 260

Reverse acceptor control 8:515

Review articles 8:163

Reward 7:559

Reynolds number 12:281–282; 19:436

Rhabderemias 16:141

Rhabdophis (see also other natricines) 7:207, 215, 217–218, 220, 224–225, 502; 8:41, 94, 694; 14:653; 16:52, 148, 231, 287, 304–305, 307; 17:605; 18:122; 19:104, 233, 236; 21:497

auriculatus 19:153, 214

barbouri 19:214

callichromus 19:214

celebicus (see also Amphiesma) 19:214

ceylonensis 20:646

chrysargoides 19:153, 214

chrysargus 19:153, 214

conspicillatus 19:199 (as Amphiesma), 214

himalayanus 19:214

lineatus 19:153, 214

murudensis 19:214

nigrocinctus 19:214

nuchalis 19:214

sarasinora (see also Amphiesma) 19:214

spilogaster 19:214

stolata 20:646

subminiata(us) 8:41; 19:151, 153, 214; 20:648

swinhonis 19:214

tigrina(us)(um) 8:41, 94; 18:47, 122; 19:115, 164, 214; 20:648

Rhabdops 16:148; 19:150, 214, 233; 21:542

bicolor 19:214; 21:541

olivaceus 19:214

Rhachidelus 19:226

brazili 19:166, 214

Rhachitomi, origin and evolution 1:11, 23, 27, 35–36, 38

Rhacodactylus 15:630, 662; 20:124, 296, 669; 19:25

axial skeleton 1:244, 259

dentition 1:162

eye 2:26

leachianus 19:12, 15–16, 44, 47, 79, 355

Rhadinaea 7:277; 16:148, 205, 259; 19:229

calligaster 19:214

decorata 19:214; 20:651

dentition 1:177

ear 2:272

flavilata 19:214

gaigeae 19:214

godmani 19:214

guentheri 20:651

hempsteadi 20:651

jaw muscles 4:449, 481

kinkelini 19:214

lachrymans 20:651

laureata 19:214

merremii 20:654

montechristi 19:214

occipitalis 20:651

poecilopogon 20:651

taeniata 19:214; 20:651

vermiculaticeps 20:651

Rhadinea (see Rhadinaea)

Rhadinophanes 19:229

monticola 19:153, 214; 20:651

Rhagiochrome cells 3:303

Rhamnophis 19:146, 232; 20:578

aethiopissa 19:214; 20:643

Rhamphiophis 7:502; 8:663; 16:120, 148, 197; 19:226

acutus 19:214; 20:646

oxyrhynchus 19:214; 20:558, 646

rostratus 20:558, 646

rubropunctatus 19:153, 214

Rhampholeon 7:471; 8:679; 15:492, 503, 514; 20:46, 105–106, 108, 110–111, 113–114, 295

brachyurus 20:110, 114, 295

chondrocranium 11:95–96, 99–101

ear 2:223, 271

kersteni 20:106, 108–110, 114, 295, 306

nchisiensis 20:108, 295

nose 2:119, 142

platyceps 20:108, 295

spectrum 20:106, 108–109, 112–113, 115, 295, 306

Rhamphorhynchoidea 9:85, 87–88

dentition 1:189

Rhamphorhynchus, eye 2:80

Rhamphrophis 8:83, 85–86, 90–91

Rhamphotyphlops 16:121, 151, 288

Rheodytes 13:39; 14:80, 177

leukops 18:315

Rheumatic fever 14:623

Rhinencephalon 10:308

Rhineura 8:690; 10:204; 12:125, 460; 15:625; 16:114, 136; 19:557; 21:140, 624, 633–635, 676, 678–679, 683, 685, 689, 695, 699, 706

amblyceps 21:683–684

attenuatus 21:683

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:209, 271–273, 275–278

blood chemistry 3:28

chondrocranium 11:126, 132, 135

ear 2:225, 268, 271

eye 2:24–25

floridana 21:626, 634, 679–680, 682–684, 707, 732

hatcheri 21:623, 626–627, 632, 683–684

hibbardi 21:683–684

marslandensis 21:683–684

minuata 21:685

minutus 21:626, 685

muscle tissue 11:283, 336

nose 2:120, 122, 127, 140, 143

sepultura 21:683–684

steinbergi 21:626, 683–684

wilsoni 21:683, 685

Rhineuridae 8:689–690; 15:337; 16:114, 136; 21:624, 676, 679, 729

chondrocranium 11:126

Rhineurinae 21:624, 676, 687

Rhineuroidea 21:624

Rhinobothryum 19:229

bovallii 19:214

lentiginosum 19:214

Rhinocheilus 7:227, 502; 12:129; 16:14, 120, 122, 148, 230; 19:232

blood chemistry 3:5, 10, 51

ear 2:272

eye 2:63

lecontei 19:143, 145, 214; 20:552–554, 643

Rhinoclemmys 7:463; 14:78–79, 85, 89, 107, 120, 171, 180, 187, 190–191, 212, 215–216, 220–221, 230; 16:112, 135, 202, 341, 391, 409, 412, 437

limbs 4:4, 70

pulcherrima incisa 18:467

Rhinoderma, mooth brooding 15:529

Rhinokinesis 20:394, 501, 559

Rhinokinetic joint 20:436, 490, 554

Rhinoleptus 19:218

koniagui 19:185

Rhinophis 7:498; 8:695; 16:122, 151; 19:96, 186, 218; 20:403, 411, 601; 21:549, 590–591

axial skeleton 1:289, 291–292, 296

blythii 19:186; 20:601

chondrocranium 11:178–180, 182–183, 202

dentition 1:179

drummondhayi 19:186; 20:601

ear 2:227, 268, 271

eye 2:50–51, 54

homolepis 19:186

internal relief of gut 6:209

jaw muscles 4:480

melanogaster 20:602

muscle tissue 11:283, 336

nose 2:120, 126, 179, 182

oxyrhynchus 19:159, 186

philippinus 19:152, 186; 20:602

sanguineus 20:402, 404–405, 602

trevelyanus 19:186

Rhinoplocephalini 19:222

Rhinoplocephalus 8:25; 15:654; 19:198, 222

bicolor 8:25; 19:198

boschmai 19:198

gouldii 19:131

nigrescens 19:166, 198

nigrostriatus 19:152, 198

pallidiceps 19:198

Rhinotyphlops 16:39, 151, 288; 19:132, 147, 182, 235

acutus 19:100, 182, 413–414 (as Typhlops), 419

anomalus 19:182

ataeniatus 19:182

boylei 19:182

crossii 19:182

debilis 19:182

gracilis 19:182

graueri 19:182

kibarae 19:182

lalandei 19:182; 20:387, 599

lumbriciformis 19:182

newtoni 19:182

pallidus 19:138, 182

praeocularis 19:139, 182

rufescens 19:182

schinzi 19:182

schlegelii 19:122, 129, 131–132, 140, 182; 20:386, 394, 599

scorteccii 19:182

simoni 19:182

somalicus 19:182

stejnegeri 19:182

sudanensis 19:182

unitaeniatus 19:182

Rhipeosaurus, origin and evolution 1:11

Rhipidistia, origin and evolution 1:20, 25, 30

Rhodesia 2:324

Rhodona, ear 2:271

Rhodopsin 2:45, 61, 72, 76, 84, 90–91; 17:6

Rhodospirillum 8:292

Rhombencephalon (see also Hindbrain) 9:16, 173–174, 183–184, 186, 191, 196, 221, 236–237, 240; 10:133, 139, 141, 147, 149, 151, 155, 157, 161, 163, 170, 173, 176, 179, 181, 192–193, 201, 223–224, 227, 232, 240; 14:128, 133; 15:14; 17:296, 498, 501, 506, 524, 528, 531

Rhomboidal sinus 4:224–225, 257

Rhoptropus 16:116

afer 12:123–124; 20:306; 21:396

boultoni 7:292

eye 2:22, 30

Rhynchocalamus 16:231; 19:230

melanocephalus 19:214

satunini 19:153, 214

Rhynchocephalia (see also Sphenodon; Tuatara) 5:2, 54, 135, 151–152, 209, 365, 369, 377, 383, 436, 451, 454, 457, 467–468, 475, 479, 481, 487–490; 7:6, 240–242, 399–400, 456, 571, 609; 8:589, 676–677; 9:9, 19, 22, 57, 66, 75, 248, 252, 283, 296, 370, 372; 10:134, 203; 14:10, 17, 27, 48, 495, 537, 603–604, 693– 694, 712; 15:3, 48, 334, 339–341; 19:21, 66, 379, 387, 390, 579; 20:1, 4, 14, 54, 64–65, 71, 250–252, 254, 258, 260, 262, 264, 269–270, 272–275, 277, 280, 285, 287; 21:9, 10

adrenal 3:269, 275

axial muscles 11:356, 376–380, 425, 427, 429

axial skeleton 1:204–205, 234–240, 243–245, 254, 301

blood cell morphology 3:76, 83

cardiac structure 19:405–406

chondrocranium 11:114–125, 192

dentition 1:152–153

ear 2:229–230, 236–237, 265, 270

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:104–106

eye 2:63–66, 87, 90

histology of gut 6:227–229, 273

internal relief of gut 6:175–177

jaw muscles 4:285–313, 422, 467, 476–477

lung evolution 19:69–70

lymphatics 6:453

nose 2:103, 116–119, 170–171

origin and evolution 1:1–5, 7, 10, 39

parathyroid 3:245–248

pituitary 3:136, 140, 166, 193

spleen 19:550

thyroid 3:210, 227

urinogenital system 6:15, 66

Rhynchoedura 7:20; 12:123; 21:398

Rhynchoelaps 8:25–26

approximans 8:25

campbelli 8:25

ear 2:272

roperi 8:25

Rhynchophis 19:231

Rhynchosauridae 15:339

dentition 1:120, 127, 153

origin and evolution 1:2, 5

Rhythm generators 19:312, 314

of tooth replacement 1:137–138, 166

Rhythmic processes 5:34

Rhythmicity of discharge 2:287, 292, 309

Rhythms (see Cycles)

Rib(s) 1:10, 30, 32, 201–311, 313–314, 322–324, 328, 332, 337; 4:13, 52, 71, 251, 426; 5:62; 6:355, 361, 397, 454; 11:240, 355–356, 358–361, 366, 370–371, 375, 378–380, 382–384, 386–387, 390–391, 393–394, 400, 402, 405, 407–414, 417, 421, 423, 428, 430–431; 19:32, 38, 46, 67, 150, 155; 20:584, 586; 20:584, 586; 21:30, 59, 61, 69, 218, 236

development 14:154, 294, 405, 435, 514

facet 11:37

numbers of (see also Anteroventral process of

rib; Intercostal segment of rib; Intermediate

segment of rib; Posterodorsal process

of rib; Sternocostal segment of rib; Vertebrocostal

segment of rib) 1:260–262

relation to carapace 14:151–152, 156–157

single headed 14:495

Riboflavin 3:3, 33

Ribonuclease (see Endonuclease)

Ribonucleic acid (see RNA)

Ribonuclear protein 6:263

Ribonucleins 3:295

Ribonucleoprotein 8:83

Ribosome(s) 2:33; 3:121–122, 125, 318, 327; 6:48, 75, 79, 111, 241, 263–264, 284, 289; 14:61; 19:498–499, 503

apical ridge cell 15:65

crystalization 14:43, 66–69

somatic cell 15:68

synthesis 14:68

testicular cell 15:157

Rictal

fold 4:295, 329, 397, 432; 21:614

plate 4:293, 295–296, 387, 409, 415

Rictis oris 18:180

Riechfeld (see Nasal placode)

Riechgrübchen (see Nasal pit)

Riechgrube (see Nasal pit)

Riechplakode (see Nasal placode)

Riechplatte (see Nasal placode)

Right atrium 3:112

bulboventricular sulcus 19:410

Righting reflex 5:50

Rima glottidis 4:179–180, 193

Rimorphin 17:635

Ringer’s solution 5:54

Ringvein 2:6, 51, 53, 90

Ringwulst (see Annular pad)

Riopa 7:263

axial skeleton 1:251, 270

bowringi 20:146, 298

ear 2:271

guentheri 19:418

jaw muscles 4:478

RISA 5:69

Ristella 9:339; 21:400

Ritualization, definition 7:446

Ritualized behavior, evolution 7:446–447

Rivanol 3:27, 30, 32, 35

Rivulus, effect of temperature on sex 15:281–282

RNA 3:289, 304–305; 6:80, 92, 112, 229, 237, 246, 252, 265, 271, 275, 280, 294; 8:131, 137, 472; 12:341; 19:497–499, 503, 514

and limb development. 15:89

apical ridge 15:74, 89–90, 94

cytoplasmic 14:117

distribution in embryos 14:117–118

from folic cells 14:62

nuclear 14:117

oocyte 14:56

primordial germ cell 14:46

synthesis 14:55, 70

apical ridge 15:92–93, 95, 124

limb bud mesoderm 15:108, 124–125

RNAase (see Endonuclease)

Roaches 5:27

Roccal 5:98

Rod(s) 2:34, 54–55, 58, 61–62, 65, 72–73, 76–77, 79, 84–87, 91–92; 17:86, 91, 138, 157, 215

Rodent(s) 9:160; 12:353, 496–497; 13:182, 189, 238–240; 14:7, 585

burrows 5:245

regeneration 15:303

Rodentia, muscle tissue 11:279, 289

Rolling 18:163

Romania 2:322

Romeria 9:296

origin and evolution 1:15

Romeriidae 19:74

origin and evolution 1:11, 14–16, 18, 20, 25, 27, 30

Romeriscus, origin and evolution 1:18–19, 36

Roof plate 9:179

Root effect 19:316

(of teeth) 1:118, 188

Rosette 17:515

Rostral

cartilage 11:223–224

gland 8:67; 20:436, 446

pit 2:289, 292

process 11:86, 88–89, 108, 110, 120, 163, 166–167, 169, 173, 176–180, 200, 223, 232–233, 235

scale 2:289, 302–304; 20:446, 554

Rostralium 21:571–572, 574, 577, 585

Rostrum 14:13

of the sphenoid 21:530, 533

(or cultriform process) of the sphenoid 21:528

Rotameter flowmeter 5:103

Rotation 21:43, 48

of the hindlimb 4:58–59, 68

Rough endoplasmic reticulum 6:259

Rouleaux formation 8:488

Round window (see Cochlear window)

Route defense 7:282, 284–285, 290

factors affecting 7:314–315

RQ (see also Respiratory quotient) 12:444, 447–448, 487; 13:246

Rubbing (see also Pheromone) 18:163

Rudimentary limbs 15:3, 100–134

Ruffini endings 11:333

Rugae of stomach 6:163, 165, 179–181, 196–197, 202, 213–214, 218–219

Ruminants 8:631

Runaway selection 18:356

Russelophiidae 20:597

Rutiodon 9:66, 79

Ryanodine 11:290

 

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