Biology of the Reptilia: Index T

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T3 (see Triiodothyronine)

T4 (see Tetraiodothyronine)

T-1824 5:68–69

T-cell zone 19:540

T-component 5:293

T-cycle experiments 18:271–272

lighting protocols 18:272

protocol 18:271

T-junction 17:467

T-lymphocytes (T-cells) 14:601–602, 627–628, 637, 642–644, 661, 664

T-system 17:464

T-tubles (see Tubular system)

T-wave 5:87, 90–92, 294

Tables of development (see also Normal tables) 15:3, 5–9

Tabular (see also Squamosal; Supratemporal) 1:15, 18, 20, 22, 27, 30, 38; 11:63, 80, 156, 184; 20:19–20, 48, 122, 257, 272, 287, 377; 21:473, 477, 484, 491, 497, 503, 597, 509

bone 21:506

Tachycardia 5:8, 37, 51, 283, 310–311, 316, 322; 8:439, 482; 10:13; 12:242; 13:19; 19:452, 455

Tachydromus (see Takydromus)

Tachyglossus 21:331

Tachygyia 21:398

Tachykinin 17:638–639, 641, 652

Tachymeniini 19:227

Tachymenis 8:41; 15:647, 671, 675; 16:148; 19:227

chilensis 19:215; 20:656

ear 2:272

peruviana 8:41; 19:215

Tachymetabolism 12:21

Tachyphylaxis 8:469, 473; 10:34

Tactile stimulation 18:132, 170–171, 182

Tadjikistan 2:322

Taenia

intertrabecularis 11:223–224

marginalis 4:250–251, 254–255; 9:6–8; 11:12, 15, 20, 22, 24, 28, 32, 43–45, 50, 52, 54, 65–69, 76, 90, 93–94, 97, 103, 105–106, 110, 112, 115, 117, 119, 121, 124, 131, 209–210, 223–224, 226, 229–231, 233–234; 20:10, 16, 26, 31, 55, 89, 101, 361–362; 21:510

medialis 4:250–251, 255; 11:15, 20, 22–23, 43–44, 52, 54–55, 65–66, 68, 70, 76, 90, 93, 98, 105–106, 110, 112, 115, 117, 119, 229, 231, 233–234; 20:10, 26, 231, 362

parietalis media (see also Taenia medialis) 9:2, 6, 10

Taeniophallus 19:167, 229

brevirostris 19:215

Taeniopygia guttata castanotis 18:31

Tagging (see Marking methods)

Tail(s) (see also Mating; Rattlesnakes) 3:2; 5:40– 42, 50, 61–63, 101, 200, 204; 21:50, 54

abnormalities 14:454

adhesive pads 16:249

amputation 5:62; 14:15, 558, 566; 15:321–322, 359, 383, 385–386

and locomotion 15:346

as weapon 15:342–343

autotomy (see Caudal autotomy)

bifid 15:371, 373

-break 15:330, 349, 374, 376

break frequencies 7:181

break frequency (see Caudal autotomy, frequency)

caudal luring 16:47–48, 212–214, 259

caudal plugs 16:40

coloration 16:207–208, 210, 212, 252–254, 263–264, 267

defensive uses 16:247, 251–253, 256

development 14:13, 26, 398–404, 419, 446–449

displays 16:20, 23, 29, 31–32, 35–39, 41–48, 52–54, 130, 186, 188–189, 197, 200, 202, 205–206, 210–212, 249–250, 252–254

diversion 16:54, 253–254, 263

explanted 15:385

fat 15:315–317, 328, 346–347

fat deposits 16:250, 260, 262

gliding 16:249

harvested by predators 16:251

injuries 16:37, 47, 55, 67, 208, 239–243

lashing 16:28–29, 31, 35–36, 256

lipid 16:250, 253

locomotor/balance functions 16:248–249, 255–260

longitudinal septa 15:317–321

loss 13:233, 299

lymphatics of 6:402–406

muscles (see also Muscle, caudal) 15:315, 317, 325–326, 331, 336

nutritional role 15:346–347

prehensile 15:331, 342, 344–345, 643

regeneration (see also Caudal regeneration) 14:558, 563, 566, 571, 583; 16:11–12, 22, 28, 208

reinforcement 16:54, 60

scales 15:328

search copulatory attempt 18:146

secretions 16:20, 32–33, 56, 251

segmentation 15:315–317

size 16:192–253

social importance 16:249–250

spines 16:39, 129, 247, 251

trifid 15:370–371

unpalatable 16:256

vertebral fusion 16:244–245

vibrating 18:146

waving 16:252–254

wipe 18:174

withdrawal 5:50

Taiwan 2:323

Takydromus 7:176, 179, 189, 492; 13:74, 76–77, 308–309, 311; 15:323; 16:117, 249, 464–465, 474, 516; 20:167–168, 170

ear 2:271

khasiensis 20:308

septentrionalis 20:308

thyroid 3:218, 227

urinogenital system 6:32, 38, 42, 99

wolteri 20:169, 308

Talpa 17:213

wogura 19:569

Talpid mutant 15:107

TAME (see Tosylarginine methyl ester)

Tameness 16:12

Tantalophis 19:229

discolor 19:166, 215; 21:524

Tantilla 5:3; 7:225, 503; 12:129, 131, 465; 15:647; 16:120–121, 148; 19:215, 233; 21:497

coronata 20:644

ear 2:269, 272

gracilis 18:120, 139; 19:215; 20:644

hobartsmithi 20:644

melanocephala 19:215; 20:644

nigriceps 19:215

schistosa 19:215

semicincta 19:215

taeniata 19:215

urinogenital system 6:90

vermiformis 19:215

wilcoxi 19:215

Tantillita 19:233

lintoni 19:215

Tanycyte 9:259

Tanystropheus 15:338–339

dentition 1:190

Tanzania 2:324

Tape recorder 5:91

Tapedum lucidum 2:76–77, 85

Taphrometopon (“Taphrometon”) lineolatum 7:207

Tapinocephalia 9:304

Tapioca 8:566

Tarbophis 7:503

eye 2:62

fallax 20:644

obtusus 20:644

Tarbosaurus 9:93, 98

Tarentola 5:132, 193–194; 7:292, 294, 469; 8:52, 57, 681; 9:20, 151–152, 143, 157, 251, 430, 433; 10:203; 12:462, 471; 14:712; 15:80–84, 115–116, 326, 328; 16:350; 17:208, 596; 20:117, 119, 126, 296; 21:27–28, 122, 132–134, 185, 187, 285, 307–308, 312, 368, 370, 388–389, 393–394

adrenal 3:279, 283

annularis 18:254; 19:24, 79; 20:306; 21:7, 50, 176, 287–288, 396, 400

blood cell morphology 3:75, 88

blood cell numbers 3:97, 104

chondrocranium 11:73, 77–78

delalandii 21:7, 396

dentition 1:162

ear 2:271

ephippiata 20:306

eye 2:13–14, 21–22, 26, 46

histology of gut 6:237, 278, 288

internal relief of gut 6:177

jaw muscles 4:350–351, 355, 378

mauritanica 18:438; 19:506, 525; 21:7, 56

muscle tissue 11:274, 336

nose 2:120

pituitary 3:167

thyroid 3:207, 227

urinogenital system 6:21, 23, 37, 78, 96, 98

Taricha 18:484

Tarsal

facet 21:168, 171

lymphatic ring (see Tarsal plexus)

plate (see Tarsus, of eyelids)

plexus 6:392–394

Tarsale 4 21:4, 120, 189, 365 5 21:185

proximale 21:164, 369

Tarsals 1:15, 38; 15:79–81, 86; 21:26, 29, 119–120, 122, 136, 162–164, 166, 169, 173, 182–183, 395

Tarsometatarsal joint 4:59

Tarsometatarsus 21:136, 173–174, 182, 186, 191

Tarsus 4:58–59, 85, 88–89; 6:394

of lower eyelid 2:9–10, 13, 63, 67, 74

of upper eyelid 2:74

ossification 14:313

Tartar formation 8:7

Taste 8:2; 18:178

bud(s) 6:232; 14:428; 18:178

papilla 8:2

Tattooing (see Marking methods)

Taurine 12:256, 342; 13:95

conjugates 19:514

Taurocholate 8:624

Taxidea 16:14

Taxonomic characters

constraints (see Caudal autotomy; Life history

traits, constraints)

indicator 18:123

literature 2:315–333

of hybrids 15:472

patterns (see Phylogeny)

Taxonomy 19:32, 95, 103, 161, 165, 168, 170

Tayassu 16:5, 187

TBE 5:45

TCT (see Thyrocalcitonin)

Tears 5:415, 422

Techmarscincus 21:398

Tectal ablation 10:299, 313–315

stimulation 10:310

Tectorial body 2:244

membrane 2:210,212–213, 215, 217, 236–239, 243, 245–250, 254–255, 258, 260

Tectoseptal process 14:404–405, 420, 422, 427

Tectum 12:227; 17:414, 420, 422, 600, 630

mesencephalic (see also Optic tectum) 9:31, 176, 193, 221

posterius 4:249; 9:3; 11:12, 29, 53, 121, 166, 197, 213, 226, 238; 20:30

synoticum 4:249–250, 252; 9:3; 11:3, 12, 15, 28–29, 52–53, 56, 76, 100, 117, 121, 138, 140–141, 144–146, 151, 159–160, 166, 170, 173–174, 179, 197–198, 204, 209, 211, 214, 218, 222, 224–226, 231, 238, 242; 20:11, 30, 361

Teeth (see also Dentition) 1:12, 15, 18, 20, 117– 200; 4:202–203, 212, 229–230, 239–244, 246, 253, 267, 270, 280, 330, 374, 421, 436, 453, 457; 11:17, 31, 39, 59, 61–64, 95, 104, 113, 122, 125–126, 129, 135, 143, 151–152, 154, 162, 164, 170, 175, 178–179, 184, 187, 235; 20:6–7, 24–25, 44, 61–62, 65, 67, 69, 80–81, 83, 91, 101, 150–151, 153, 155, 221, 226, 370, 377, 428–429, 437, 450, 459, 480, 487, 531, 571, 573, 577

development (see Teeth, embryology)

embryology 1:117, 129–147

form 1:121–124

histology 1:117, 143–147

implantation 1:126–129, 190

morphology 1:118–129

phylogeny 1:117

terminology 1:118–119

Tefrosia, parthenogenesis 15:493

Tegmental areas 18:42

Tegmentum 9:178, 183–184, 187–189, 193, 195, 197, 328

medullary 10:233, 236, 258

mesencephalic 10:113, 176–178, 187, 193, 223, 232, 253, 263, 266–267, 269–270, 272, 276– 278, 282, 292, 301, 310, 320, 322; 17:411

midbrain 17:546

vasculosum 2:260

Teiidae (teiids) 5:145, 172, 192, 423; 7:9, 51, 167, 179, 263, 277–282, 318, 366–367, 374–375, 377–378, 416–417, 420, 489–491; 8:46, 624, 662, 688; 9:161, 163, 235, 251, 332, 338–339, 427; 10:62, 221–222, 241; 12:5, 99, 115–116, 379, 472; 14:29, 641; 15:44, 325, 334, 343, 416, 423–428, 488, 663–664, 667–668; 16:35, 118, 123, 141–142, 257, 284, 296, 454–455, 465, 473, 486, 492, 517–518, 535, 543; 19:21, 38–39, 41, 66, 409, 523; 20:40, 43, 45, 57, 78, 94.37, 159, 161, 166, 168, 172, 174–177, 179, 181–186, 188–194, 214, 252–258, 261–262, 264, 266–267, 269, 271, 273, 275, 282, 284, 308; 21:15, 52, 80, 89, 96, 108, 117, 123, 142, 153, 190, 232–233, 235, 250, 272, 279, 285, 289, 398, 400, 581

adrenal 3:280

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:241–243, 247, 251–253, 255, 258–260, 262–264, 266, 269–270

blood cell morphology 3:77–81

blood chemistry 3:38, 31

chondrocranium 11:61, 71, 89

dentition 1:134, 163–166, 168

ear 2:240–241, 243, 267, 271

eye 2:20, 27, 30–31, 87

histology of gut 6:229, 299

internal relief of gut 6:177, 220

jaw muscles 4:289, 316, 351–358, 388, 415–416, 418, 478

nose 2:120, 132, 139–140, 143, 178–179

pituitary 3:145–146, 151, 154, 156, 173–174, 195

thyroid 3:204–205

urinogenital system 6:27, 73

Teiioidea 20:75, 172, 174; 21:16

Teius 15:325; 20:45, 174, 176–178, 181–182, 184; 21:135, 184, 285, 294, 299, 301, 400

adrenal 3:280

chondrocranium 11:71–72

nose 2:120, 132

teyou 20:178, 301, 308

Tela

choroidea 9:21, 184, 222

submucosa 6:279

Telemetric methods 5:28, 190

Telencephalon 9:23, 55, 70, 173–174, 177, 221, 233–237, 241; 10:91, 134–135, 174, 176, 178, 188, 259, 261, 265, 278–281, 290–291, 294, 299, 303, 309–310, 316–318, 325; 12:216, 219; 14:128–130, 135; 15:12; 18:41–42, 440; 21:513, 533

Teleogryllus commodus 18:52

Teleosauridae, skull 4:249, 266–267

Teleosaurus, skull 4:268

Teleost(s) 8:2; 9:156, 160; 10:279, 323–324, 326; 14:7, 624; 19:310, 316, 324, 537, 543, 564, 566–567, 577

fish 5:408

regeneration 15:303

viviparity 15:529

Teleostei

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:114

thyroid 3:201

urinogenital system 6:3, 22, 32

Telescoping 20:385–386, 388, 391, 518

Telescopus 7:503; 8:91, 94, 663; 16:21, 121, 129, 148, 197–198, 233–234; 17:12; 19:200

beetzii 19:215

dhara 19:154, 215; 20:644

eye 2:54, 62

fallax 8:94, 663; 19:154, 158, 215; 20:644

histology of gut 6:278

nigriceps 19:215

rhinopoma 19:215; 20:644

semiannulatus 19:215; 20:644

tessellatus 19:215

variegatus 19:154, 215

Telmasaurus 20:226

grangeri 20:303

Teloderm 14:512

Temperate

species 14:180–181, 208–210

zone (see Life history traits, distribution; Life

history traits, latitude; Parental care,

latitude)

Temperature (see also Acclimation; Cold

temperature; High temperature; Nest

temperature; Parental care, shivering

thermogenesis; Thermal dependence) 3:1, 13–14, 16, 19–21, 25, 35–36, 38, 42–43, 45, 53, 215–218, 220, 225; 5:9, 24, 27–30, 32–36, 38, 51, 53, 56–59, 73, 75, 81–83, 94, 128–129, 138, 147, 149, 152, 156, 159–161, 163–166, 168–169, 172, 174, 176, 179–180, 182, 186–187, 190–192, 198, 208–209, 239– 240, 251, 256, 258, 260–263, 280, 283, 294, 296, 298–299, 301, 303, 306, 312, 316, 335, 338–343, 345, 348, 352–358, 360, 370–371, 375–377, 397, 401, 403, 456, 458–460, 469, 471–472, 479; 8:175–176, 666; 12:236, 239, 241, 243, 251, 284, 290, 303, 326, 340–341, 350–353, 355, 431, 448–449, 497; 13:31, 38, 55, 61–64, 70, 80, 83, 96, 99, 207–209, 212, 215, 218, 297–298; 18:31–32, 55, 126, 136, 183, 301, 319, 321; 19:48, 52, 56, 59–60, 62, 64, 299–300, 305–307, 314, 317, 319, 321, 335, 341–347, 349–350, 352–353, 460, 501, 511–512

acclimation 5:30–31, 33

active body 7:10, 107

and abnormalities 15:48

and antibody synthesis 14:639

and autotomy 15:322, 349–350

and captive breeding 14:208–209

and crystallization of ribosomes 14:69

and development 14:13–14, 20, 94, 99–111, 178, 185, 189–192, 197–198, 227–229, 239, 241, 272–273, 279–280, 317, 353, 359, 376, 394–395, 397, 442, 683; 15:5, 25–27, 30, 48–50, 285, 609, 613, 617–618

and developmental arrest 14:183

and digestion 14:208

and energy expenditure 14:19

and gonad function 15:285

and hatching 14:316

and immune response 14:208, 602, 638–641, 643, 645, 647–648, 650–651, 653–654, 666

and nesting 14:343

and ovulation 15:49, 609

and regeneration 15:358, 381

and reproduction 15:285

and reproductive cycle 14:340, 342–343

and scale formation 15:358

and sex determination 14:7, 150, 208, 273–274, 280, 336, 355, 440, 442, 444–445

and sex ratio 15:27–28, 264–265, 272–273, 278–280, 285

and sexual differentiation 15:151, 264–287

and skin shedding 14:543, 545, 548, 552–553, 557–558

and somite formation 14:395

and spermatogenesis 14:209; 15:37

and tissue rejection 14:15

and viviparity 15:620, 622, 624

body 14:21, 208; 15:4, 349–350, 611, 613, 617–618; 16:15, 20–21, 29, 261–262, 499

coefficient 5:160, 298

compensation 18:239, 252, 255, 258–259

conformity 12:22, 44, 46, 52

control 12:168, 172

-dependent sex determination 13:209

dependence 5:174

effects

acid/base (see Acid-base balance

antipredator behaviors 16:21, 29

caudal autotomy 16:261

constant temperature studies 16:545, 547

life history 16:398, 402–403, 419

limits of tolerance 16:544–547

metabolism 16:546–547, 550

on genotype 15:286

sex determination (see Sex determination,

differentiation)

size of hatchlings 16:567–569, 578–580

incubation 15:25

induced abnormalities 14:201, 359, 452, 454–456

nest 15:25, 273–274, 278, 283, 608, 618

of environment 2:277–279, 286, 292, 296–297

perceptions 5:5

pivotal 14:208–209, 272

range 5:28–30, 75, 180, 302, 338, 358, 459

receptors (see Pit organs)

diffuse 2:278–280

regulation 10:250; 12:2, 23, 26, 46–48, 63, 168, 170–171, 226, 231, 233, 236, 293, 307; 13:12, 216, 304

behavioral 12:2, 25, 27, 48–49, 136, 167, 169–171, 214–232, 254, 275, 295; 13:10–13, 62–63, 297

cardiovascular adjustments 12:169–172, 176–179, 181, 186–187, 197–199, 236–252, 285–286, 296

color change 12 :4, 171–172, 180–182, 189–190, 202, 283, 295

definitions 12:17–23, 48, 168

endogenous heat production 12:140–141, 169, 171, 182–184, 187, 189, 192, 194–197, 199–202, 304; 13:12, 167

evaporative cooling 12:134, 169, 171–172, 178–179, 188, 193, 225, 252–253

insulation 12:169, 172; 13:12

mechanisms 12:48–49, 135, 142, 168–172, 213, 282

methods of study 12:93–96, 222, 233

rate of change 12:135, 174–176, 186, 190–192, 198, 236–252, 276, 295

sensors 12:170–171, 184–185, 189, 194, 202, 215, 219, 220, 242, 253

selection (see Temperature regulation, behavioral)

sensitive period 14:444–445

telemetry 5:32

tension 5:9

Temporal

artery 2:7, 10, 12, 63, 75; 4:314, 334–335, 400, 401, 403

bar 1:7

branch of ciliary artery 2:23, 52

branch of hyaloid artery 2:53

(direction of eye) 2:2

emargination 11:227, 246

fascia 4:108–109, 111–112, 165, 294, 296–297, 329, 332, 335, 354

fenestra(ae) (see also Supratemporal fenestra) 11:4, 226, 246; 21:543

fossa 4:104, 110, 114, 124, 138, 145, 201–202, 205, 209, 214, 217, 219, 221–222, 236–237, 255, 335, 341, 350, 362, 470; 11:216; 21:512

fovea (see Fovea temporalis)

muscles 2:9, 67, 75

opening 1:1, 3, 8–9, 14, 108

passage 4:222, 229, 237

pouch 18:173

region 1:12, 35

resolution 17:142

ridge 4:401–402, 471

vein 4:334–335, 399–401, 403, 471

Temporomaxillary joint 4:112

Tempero-orbital artery 4:233

Temujinia ellisoni 20:86, 293

Tendinous framework of epaxial muscles 11:372– 374, 377, 380, 387, 391, 396, 402, 414

Tendinous inscriptions 11:376, 382–383, 391, 430

Tendon 1:112; 9:434, 437

epiphysis 1:257

markings 1:94

of nicitating membrane 2:7–8, 10–11, 63, 74, 82

of pyramidalis muscle 2:67

organ 17:454

Tenebrio molitor 18:468

Tension 11:268, 288, 299–300, 302–304, 306, 308, 310–313, 333

Tensor and levator of the palatal velum 21:505

Tentacular diverticula 19:22

Tenth cranial nerve (see Vagus nerve)

Tentorium cerebelli 9:21

Tenuidactylus caspius 21:265

Teratogenic effects 8:512–513

Teratogens

and limb development 15:134–139

effects of 14:452–454, 456, 459–460

Teratolepis 15:328; 16:138, 200, 260; 19:234

fasciata 19:381, 418

fruhstorferi 19:216

Teratological scalation 1:316

Teratoscincus 7:469; 12:123; 15:329, 367; 16:31–32, 52, 58, 126, 128, 131, 139, 241, 252; 20:120, 122, 127, 296; 21:223

dentition 1:161

ear 2:199, 266, 271

eye 2:13–14, 22, 26

jaw muscles 4:478

roborowskii 21:45

scincus 21:265

Teretrurus 10:204, 230, 239; 19:218

rhodogaster 19:186; 20:402, 601

sanguineus 19:186

Terminal

bar 6:47–48

bars 2:33, 36

bouton 2:38

network 6:280, 284–286, 289, 292

phalanx 21:188

segment of uriniferous tubule 6:22, 35–36, 38

shield 1:297

sinus 14:162–164

web (see Terminal network)

Termitaria (termite mounds) 15:4; 16:542

Termites 8:658; 20:352, 386, 396

Terrapene 5:35, 136, 152, 173, 175, 177, 180, 183, 197, 194, 200, 202–203, 205, 255, 257, 373, 377, 379, 391; 7:144, 347–350, 416, 463, 465, 575, 596–597, 600, 615, 638; 8:599, 602, 607, 612, 657–658, 672; 9:32, 373; 10:292–293, 325; 12:137, 139–140, 191–194, 288, 327, 350–352, 409, 419, 429, 459, 473; 13:63, 75, 81, 84, 86, 89–92, 114, 119–121, 125–126, 128–129, 161, 166, 181, 184, 187–188, 309; 14:78–79, 81, 101, 105, 119, 139, 170, 180–181, 206, 208, 212, 217, 221, 231, 233, 235–236, 635, 665; 15:61, 89, 264, 394; 16:9, 11, 20–21, 26–27, 57, 112, 135, 339, 341, 345, 348, 356, 359, 362–363, 365–367, 381–394, 405, 409–410, 412, 437, 538, 544, 552, 568, 583; 17:137, 151, 515

adrenal 3:275

axial skeleton 1:212

blood cell morphology 3:75

blood cell numbers 3:95, 98–100

blood chemistry 3:4, 8, 13, 15, 25, 28, 38, 42–43, 45, 50

carolina 18:236, 267, 269, 315, 327, 331, 452; 19:489–491, 493, 497, 509–510, 525

carolina triunguis 18:237, 240

ear 2:258, 265, 270

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:89, 108

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104, 119, 123, 153, 156,176

internal relief of gut 6:160, 162–163, 167–168, 175–176

limbs 4:3–4, 6, 11, 20, 53, 55, 60, 76, 89–90

ornata 18:250, 315; 19:60, 78, 459, 474

shell 1:316, 319, 323, 325, 329

thymus 3:120

thyroid 3:214, 217, 226

urinogenital system 6:83, 91, 94–95, 97, 99, 116

Terrapins (see Testudinidae)

Terrestrial

Australasian palatine draggers 20:534

diets 5:392

environment 5:2, 370, 451; 8:43

habits 1:22–23, 35, 299; 4:1, 6, 8–9, 20, 60, 91–92, 95

Hydrophiinae 20:546, 549, 552

respiration 5:277

species 5:230, 235, 250, 258, 260, 318–319, 365–366, 380, 385, 388–389, 413, 427, 436, 438–439, 488

Terrestriality 5:4, 13

Territorial behavior 3:224

Territoriality 5:24

definition 7:267

related to home range 7:54–55

related to mate acquisition 7:53–55

related to variation in food supply 7:55

related to visibility (see also Social behavior) 7:54

Territory 18:173, 175, 178

markers 18:200, 424

territoriality 18:28, 119, 131, 147, 156, 169, 175, 177, 187–188, 200, 426

Tertiäre Choane (see Choana)

Tertiary (see Cenozoic)

Test animals (see Cat; Chicken; Cow; Dog; Frog;

Guinea pig; Leech; Lobster; Monkey;

Mouse; Rabbit; Rat; Squid; Toad)

Testes 5:232; 16:355–358

development 15:154, 156–161, 166–170, 183, 241, 254, 260, 269

DS-3B-HSDH activity 15:243, 253

effect of estrogens 15:254, 261

embryonic 15:156–161, 180, 183, 242, 260

endocrine activity 15:260, 280–281

explant 15:245–246

growth 14:339

of hybrids 15:472–473, 475

regression 13:340

rudimentary 15:468

Testicular

artery 3:273

canal 6:49, 51, 106

collectors 6:442–443

formation 12:168

hormone 15:183

lymphatics net 6:442–443

net 3:266

regression 17:606

tubule (see Seminiferous tubule)

tubules 15:155, 157, 170, 254–255, 257, 259, 261, 266, 270, 276

Testis (see also Gonad) 3:218–219, 224, 270; 6:24–25, 28, 41–42, 44, 49–51, 55–83, 106, 119–122, 338, 342, 349–350, 417, 442–443; 18:167–168; 19:96, 155

castration 18:157, 167–168

Testosterone (see also Androgen) 3:219; 6:76, 80, 87, 104; 12:251; 13:217–218

and corpora lutea 15:580–581

and regeneration 15:384

and skin shedding 14:545, 572, 575

effect on mesonephros 15:250

effect on sexual development 15:247–253, 276, 592

in gonads 15:277

in gravid females 15:281

levels in plasma 14:339–341

paradoxical effect 15:250, 276

propionate (see also Androgen) 6:43, 55, 87; 18:168, 353, 365

transmission across placenta 15:575

Testudinae (see Testudinidae)

Testudinata (see Testudines)

Testudine(s)(ian) (see also Turtles) 5:19, 254, 292–293, 336, 342, 347, 349, 367–368, 373, 377, 379, 386, 393, 422, 449, 452, 466, 474, 487, 489–490; 7:6, 9, 68, 98, 143, 337–351, 456, 459–465, 557, 568–570, 573–576, 579–585, 590–591, 592, 595–603, 610–612, 616–623, 626–631, 633–636, 640–643, 646–656; 14:7, 9, 13, 16–17, 26, 32, 48, 278, 360, 450, 501, 512, 528–529, 536, 567, 585, 587, 604, 617, 640–643, 655–657, 661–663, 665, 684–694, 711–712; 19:2, 5–7, 11–12, 18–20, 29, 31, 34–37, 39, 41, 44, 65, 67, 74, 297, 303–304, 306, 308–310, 312, 314, 317–320, 330, 335, 344, 347, 351, 376–377, 379, 381, 387, 389, 397–398, 411, 451–452, 454–458, 460, 465, 467, 469, 471, 473–474, 485–489, 493, 495, 498, 501, 503, 506, 508, 511, 513, 515, 517, 521–522, 539, 577–578; 21:482, 503–504, 582

adrenal 3:264, 267, 269–270, 272–278, 284, 286, 288, 291–292, 294–295, 298, 305, 309, 312

axial muscles 11:356, 361–372, 374, 423, 428

axial skeleton 1:204–208, 209–225, 299–300

blood cell morphology 3:73, 75–76, 79, 81–85, 88

blood cell numbers 3:94–95, 98

blood chemistry 3:1–4, 8–9, 13, 15, 17–21, 23, 26–28, 30–35, 38–39, 44–46, 50, 52–53

bone 1:47, 51–61, 66–67, 74

cardiac shunting 19:441–449

cardiac structure 19:403–405, 426–429

chondrocranium 11:2, 4, 19–20, 37–38, 120, 123, 174, 191–193, 197, 201, 205–227, 236, 238–239, 241, 245–246

dentition 1:120, 147, 150

ear 2:230–232, 253–254, 256–259, 262–263, 265, 270

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:84–90, 97, 101, 107–108

eye 2:2–3, 5, 32, 65–73, 76, 79, 82–86, 90

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:101– 199

histology of gut 6:226–232, 235–237, 243–244, 246–247, 265, 271–274, 277, 280, 301

internal relief of gut 6:160–175, 178, 182, 218–221

jaw muscles 4:289, 415, 417

limbs 4:1–100

lung evolution 19:68–69

lymphatics 6:316–318, 322, 331–332, 335–337, 342–343, 349, 354, 357, 367, 374–375, 388, 391, 393, 396, 404, 407, 410–413, 419, 421, 424, 427, 429, 436, 445–452

metabolism 5:152

muscle tissue 11:268, 272, 283–284, 286, 288, 291–292, 294–298, 300, 314–317, 327, 332, 334–338

nose 2:100–102, 104–115, 154, 156, 160–161, 164–170, 172–174, 177–178, 180–184

origin and evolution 1:1–4, 8–10, 20

pancreas 3:320, 322, 328–329, 331, 333

parathyroid 3:236–243

pituitary 3:135–137, 140, 143, 145–146, 148, 150–152, 154, 157–158, 160, 165, 188–190, 192–193, 195

sea turtle 19:19–20, 66, 68–69

shell 1:311–339

spleen 19:547–550

taxonomic literature 2:319, 321–324

terrapin 19:489

thymus 3:114–115, 117–118, 121, 124

thyroid 3:202, 207, 212–215, 217, 224, 226

tortoise 19:4, 66, 299, 318, 491, 493, 498

turtle 19:20, 46, 299, 320, 334, 385, 428–429, 444, 449, 452–453, 459–460, 472, 491

urinogenital system 6:6, 8, 11–12, 16–21, 27–33, 35–37, 43, 49, 52, 56, 58–59, 64, 70–71, 74, 78, 81, 85, 89, 91–93, 96–100, 105–107, 110–111, 114,116–118

Testudinidae 5:154, 192, 318, 327, 451; 7:340–344, 346–349, 447, 460–464, 570; 8:46, 49, 55, 59, 69, 144, 660, 659–661, 673–674; 9:306; 12:136–137, 287; 13:1; 14:27, 62, 80, 210, 215, 221, 665, 712; 15:264, 393, 581, 588, 607, 613, 615; 16:113, 135, 390, 392, 397, 399, 409–410, 438–439, 526, 551–552

axial muscles 11:356, 363, 366, 369

axial skeleton 1:213, 215

blood cell morphology 3:76

blood chemistry 3:28, 31, 45, 52

chondrocranium 11:205–220

ear 2:240–241, 265, 270

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104, 153–154

histology of gut 6:235

internal relief of gut 6:160

limbs 4:2, 10, 20, 53, 58, 67, 75–76, 85, 91, 100

muscle tissue 11:265, 284, 286, 289, 291, 299, 302–306, 308–309, 311, 325, 334

nose 2:114

parathyroid 3:237

pituitary 3:136, 158, 188–189

shell 1:315, 328, 335–336

Testudininae 19:19

adrenal 3:275

axial skeleton 1:211, 215, 222, 224–225

eye 2:67–68

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104, 154–156, 159, 163, 166, 172

limbs 4:14, 20, 35, 38, 42, 45–46, 49–50, 53, 55, 58–60, 66, 76–77, 82–83, 88, 90–92, 95, 100

nose 2:114–115

parathyroid 3:237, 240

pituitary 3:189, 192

shell 1:330, 336

Testudinoidea

axial skeleton 1:213, 215

eye 2:68

internal relief of gut 6:160

Testudo 5:45, 136, 153–154, 169, 173, 200–201, 203, 234–235, 257, 336, 349–350, 384–386, 394, 489; 7:349, 463–465, 584–585, 592, 612; 8:49, 53, 55, 64, 75, 144, 150, 591, 597–598, 600, 602–605, 607, 611–612, 618–620, 627, 629, 633, 637–641, 645–646, 653, 660, 673–674; 9:33, 151, 154, 164, 251, 253–254, 256–257, 260,262–263, 306–308, 310, 374–376, 417, 422–423, 433; 10:12, 25, 33, 41, 59, 61–63, 65, 67–68, 70, 73–74, 76, 78, 80, 82–85, 87, 89, 91–92, 97–98, 100–101, 133–134, 137, 139, 141, 143, 145, 167, 171–173, 176, 179, 182–187, 203, 221, 232, 254, 258–259, 313; 12:137, 234, 236, 241, 256, 329, 334, 350–351, 459, 473; 13:22, 61, 64, 66, 82, 86, 88–89, 95, 103; 14:9, 55, 77, 81, 93, 123–124, 127–130, 134, 136–137, 141–145, 149–152, 154, 157–158, 209, 212, 222, 612, 617, 625, 639, 645–647, 657, 660, 662–665, 684–685, 687, 712; 15:61, 152, 180, 183, 185–186, 195–202, 204, 211, 218, 228, 234–239, 245, 260–262, 264, 269, 274, 276–277, 282, 393; 16:11, 113, 135, 298, 347, 392, 404–405, 430–552; 17:71, 456–458, 461, 467, 477, 486, 508–509, 640; 19:18, 324, 331, 355, 399

adrenal 3:269, 275–278, 285, 292, 306–307

axial muscles 11:356, 362, 372

axial skeleton 1:210, 214

blood cell morphology 3:76, 84–85

blood cell numbers 3:95, 99, 102

blood chemistry 3:4, 8, 14, 17, 25–26, 29, 34, 39, 48

chondrocranium 11:205, 227

ear 2:265, 270

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:85

eye 2:38, 68–69, 71–72

graeca 18:442, 454, 467; 19:19, 78, 303, 355, 388, 401, 403, 417, 442, 474, 497, 499, 503, 525

head muscles and visceral muscles 4:104–105, 107–108, 112, 117–119, 123, 126, 154, 156, 159, 163–165, 167, 171, 173, 175–176, 178, 180

hermanni 18:235–236, 431, 466, 494; 19:355

histology of gut 6:233–238, 243, 245–247, 249, 252, 254, 267–269, 278–279, 282–283, 291, 295, 301

horsfieldii 18:438, 453; 19:355

internal relief of gut 6:160, 165, 170, 174

kleinmanni 19:475

leithii 19:475

limbs 4:2–4, 24, 26–27, 29–30, 34–35, 38, 40–41, 47, 49–50, 67, 70, 73, 75–77, 79, 83–84, 88, 90, 95, 100

lymphatics 6:316–317, 335, 343, 354, 368, 374, 378, 388, 393, 404, 407, 410–411, 413, 416–417, 422, 425–429, 431, 435–439, 442–443, 445, 448, 452

muscle tissue 11:272–274, 279, 281, 284–288, 290–292, 295–298, 301–302, 304, 307, 309–310, 312–314, 317–318, 320, 322–325, 327–328, 332, 335–336, 338

nose 2:104, 106, 108–110, 113–114, 154, 158, 160, 177, 181

pancreas 3:329

parathyroid 3:237

shell 1:316, 330

tabulata 19:417

thymus 3:115, 128

thyroid 3:203, 207, 212, 217, 224, 226

urinogenital system (see also Geochelone; Psammobates) 6:19, 23, 28–29, 32, 55, 69, 74–76, 86, 91, 94, 98, 106, 117

Tetanic contraction 21:208

Tetanus 11:272, 304, 306, 314, 332

antitoxin 8:566

toxin 14:645, 654

Tetany 3:240, 250, 257, 259

Tetracaine 8:654

Tetracycline(s) 1:77; 16:348

Tetradactylus 20:156; 21:60, 122, 140, 165

africanus 21:122

axial muscles 11:357; 15:325

axial skeleton 1:242

ellenbergeri 20:299

Tetraiodothyronine 3:201–202, 212–215, 219–222, 224–226

Tetralepis fruhstorferi 20:631

Tetranitromethane 8:226

Tetraodontiformes 19:566

Tetraploid hybrids 15:460, 474–477, 505–506, 508

Tetrapods 5:87, 266, 383; 14:8, 15–16, 514, 525, 527, 663; 20:352, 440, 586

Tetrazolium 6:229, 298–299

Tetrodotoxin 8:469

Thailand 2:323

Thalamus 9:221, 223, 231, 241, 305, 369; 10:122, 168, 174–175, 191, 206, 260, 263, 266, 269, 282, 294, 299, 301, 309; 12:227; 17:325, 629

lateral zone 10:296

mediocentral zone 10:296

ventrocaudal zone 10:296

Thalassemydidae, shell 1:336

Thalassochelys (see Caretta)

Thalassia (turtle grass) 14:210

Thalassophina viperina 20:630

Thalassophis 8:29; 15:46; 19:224; 20:580

anomala(us) 8:29; 19:199; 20:630

ear 2:270, 272

Thalattosaurus 9:296

eye 2:80

skull 4:245

Thalattosuchia 9:81

eye 2:73, 75

skull 4:263–268, 274–279

Thalesius 19:101

Thalidomide 15:382, 455

Thamnodynastes 5:134; 15:647–648; 19:227; 21:509

adrenal 3:269

natterei 19:215

pallidus 19:215

strigatus 19:168, 215

strigilis 19:216

Thamnophiines 20:557, 560, 575–576, 582.

Thamnophiini 19:99, 234

Thamnophis 5:29, 31, 36, 44–46, 134–135, 148–149, 160–161, 164–165, 169, 183, 203, 209, 231, 266, 347, 448–450, 469, 491–492, 494, 497; 7:70, 91, 101, 119, 207–209, 213–214, 218, 220, 222–227, 390, 393, 395, 399, 417–418, 503, 576–578, 587–589, 598–599, 608–609, 617, 625, 668; 8:42, 377, 594, 602, 655, 694; 9:158, 173, 368; 10:325; 12:128–130, 199, 223, 293, 426, 465, 475; 13:31, 58, 60, 63, 67–71, 74–75, 78–80, 82–83, 88, 90, 97–101, 104–105, 107, 111, 113, 115, 117–120, 122–129, 131–133, 170, 181, 184, 191, 208, 216, 235, 309–310, 312; 14:30, 50, 545, 553–554, 632, 659, 695– 696, 698, 702, 796, 712; 15:8, 25, 45, 212, 250, 261, 531, 533–537, 540, 546, 548–549, 555, 562, 564–566, 569–571, 573, 575, 580–582, 585–587, 592, 652; 16:8, 15, 19, 21, 47, 49, 64, 68, 121, 123, 129, 148, 210, 482–483, 519–520; 17:10, 19, 59, 70–71, 100, 188, 193, 199, 201, 248, 259, 262, 264–266, 271, 273–276, 278–279, 282–287, 291–292, 294–297, 304, 306–308, 310–316, 318–320, 323, 326–327, 344, 431, 461, 505, 509, 626; 18:4, 30, 52, 97–99, 115, 124, 129, 140, 142–143, 145, 147, 149–150, 155, 157–158, 161–162, 204, 437, 446–449, 459–460, 476–477, 479–481, 487–488, 492, 494–496; 19:115, 118, 121, 149, 156–157, 216, 234, 350, 388, 419, 454, 475; 20:557–558, 573; 21:487, 595

adrenal 3:272, 281, 288, 294, 309–310, 317

blood cell numbers 3:98

blood chemistry 3:5–6, 11, 26, 33, 36–37, 44–45, 47–49

brachystoma 19:216; 20:648

butleri 18:52, 138, 140, 143, 150, 155, 477, 480–482; 19:216; 20:648

chondrocranium 11:136, 145

chrysocephalus 19:216; 20:648

collaris 19:216

couchi(i) 8:42; 18:139; 19:216; 20:648

cyrtopsis 18:141, 481; 19:216; 20:648

ear 2:227, 269, 272

elegans 18:139, 442, 484; 19:154, 216; 20:648

elegans terrestris 18:161, 476

elegans vagrans 18:161, 476

eques 19:154, 216; 20:648

eye 2:62

fulvus 19:216

godmani 19:216; 20:649

hammondi 19:216

histology of gut 6:279–280

internal relief of gut 6:193, 195, 197, 202, 207–208, 211

jaw muscles 4:481

marcianus 18:131, 141, 477, 481; 20:649

melanogaster 18:94, 152; 483; 19:216; 20:649

mendax 19:216

muscle tissue 11:269–270, 272, 274, 276, 278–279, 284–285, 287, 289–290, 300, 314, 320–321, 323, 327, 330–331, 336

nigronuchalis 20:649

nose 2:121, 134–135, 159–161, 164–165, 168, 171, 174, 179

ordinoides 18:438; 19:216, 350–351, 356; 20:567, 649

pancreas 3:321

parathyroid 3:248–249, 253–254

pit organs 2:295

pituitary 3:157, 165

proximus 18:140, 477, 479, 481, 496; 19:216; 20:649

pulchrilatus 19:216

radix 18:52, 129, 134, 140–141, 148, 156–158, 161, 257–258, 437, 442–443, 445, 456, 460, 475, 477–482, 486, 495; 19:114, 216; 20:649

radix haydeni 18:141, 162, 476, 480, 489

radix radix 18:141, 480

rufipunctatus 20:649

sauritus 18:52, 127; 19:216; 20:649

scalaris 19:216; 20:649

sirtalis 18:52, 118, 131–132, 136, 138, 140–141, 144, 150, 155–157, 161, 428, 431–432, 434, 437–440, 443–446, 458, 462, 477–482, 484–485, 487–488, 492; 19:99–100, 112, 116–117, 123, 125–127, 146–147, 151, 164, 167, 216, 356, 486, 503, 525; 20:568, 575, 578, 649

sirtalis parietalis 18:4, 14, 29, 32, 39–44, 46, 49–52, 54–56, 82–83, 89–90, 93–94, 97, 99, 101–102, 125–126, 134, 139–140, 149, 151–152, 155, 157, 276, 442, 454, 456, 481–483, 495

sirtalis sirtalis 18:128, 134, 139, 143, 145, 147–148, 161, 442, 475, 482, 486

sumichrasti 19:216; 20:649

thymus 3:124

thyroid 3:207, 212, 221, 227

urinogenital system 6:27, 29–30, 33–38, 41, 43–44, 49, 51, 59, 63, 67, 74, 79, 81–82, 89–90, 92, 94–97, 99–100, 102, 110, 116, 119

Thanatosis (see Antipredator mechanisms,

death feigning)

Theca (see also Tooth socket) 15:579–580

externa 6:97–99, 103; 14:56, 64

interna 6:83, 98–99, 103; 14:56, 64

Thecadactylus 7:469; 16:116, 139

ear 2:222, 239, 266, 271

eye 2:26, 31, 46

jaw muscles 4:478

laevis 20:306

Thecal

nuchal bone 1:329

shell 1:313, 320, 328–329, 331–332

Thecodontia 7:6; 9:43, 66, 304

chondrocranium 11:246

dentition 1:184

origin and evolution 1:2–3, 8, 10, 39

skull 4:265, 273, 280

Thecodontosaurus, epiphyses and sesamoids 1:92

Thecodonts 14:331

Thecodonty 1:124, 126–127, 129, 143, 171, 184, 187, 189, 191, 193

Thecophora, axial skeleton 1:210

Theelin 3:219

Thelgosematic coloration 16:215

Thelial process 4:53, 67, 95

Thelotornis 7:384, 387, 503; 8:42, 91, 93, 99, 440, 663; 15:646; 16:20, 121, 147, 214–215; 19:146, 216, 232

capensis 19:127, 216; 20:578, 644

chondrocranium 11:136, 157–159, 163, 168

ear 2:272

kirtlandi(i) 8:42, 91, 93–94, 440; 19:127–128, 154, 216; 20:578, 644

Theory 16:62–63, 237–238

of recapitulation 11:6

Therapsida 7:6; 9:54, 57, 59–61, 68, 114, 126–127, 131, 295, 297, 299, 301–302, 304; 19:71, 74; 20:257; 21:84

bone 1:47, 50, 75

dentition 1:119, 124, 193–194

eye 2:80

nose 2:153

origin and evolution 1:2, 4

skull 4:279

Therapsids 14:16

Therapeutic agents 5:25

Theriodontia 9:68, 127, 131–132, 134, 299, 304

eye 2:80

Theriosuchus, skull 4:266, 280

Thermal

acclimation 5:9, 105, 137, 163–165, 169; 12:232–236

adaptation 12:214, 232–254

adjustments 5:8

balance (see Nest temperature; Temperature,

body)

air temperature 16:539

air vapor pressure 16:538

body size (mass, area) 16:536, 538–539

coloration 16:49

conduction 16:535–536

convection 16:535–536

emissivity 16:538–539

factors affecting nest temperature 16:535– 542

heat balance equations 16:535–539

heat capacity 16:536

heat storage 16:535–536

metabolism (see also Parental care, shivering

thermogenesis) 16:535–537, 541–542, 546–547

radiation 16:535, 538–540, 542

sexual differentiation 16:551

soil temperatures 16:537, 539–541

Stefan-Boltzmann constant 16:539

temporal cycles 16 :539–541

thermoregulation 16:499

water interactions 16:565, 572–573, 577–587

capacitance 12:284

compartmentalization 12:145

conductance 5:188; 12:183, 196, 204, 232, 279, 281, 317–318

cycles 5:128

dependence 5:33, 159–161, 178, 184, 208–209; 13:38–39, 55, 67, 69, 96, 134, 165, 182, 186, 192–193

ecology 12:26, 38, 47, 58–73, 144–145, 232, 258, 302; 13:11

emissivity 12:284

environment 5:4, 14, 164, 316; 12:294, 300

equilibration 5:82

equilibrium 5:75, 78, 172

generalist 12:68

gradient 5:28, 314–315

inactivation 5:161

increments 5:189

independence 5:210

inertia 5:31–32

injury 5:314

lability 5:9

levels 5:127, 180

limits 5:33

loading 5:8, 34

niche (see Thermal ecology)

patterns 5:188

performance breadth 12:34, 39

definition 12:36

preferenda 5:9, 16, 165, 193, 210, 312; 8:665

radiation 5:14; 12:167, 232, 283–285, 291–293, 407

range 5:9, 160, 299

receptors 5:312

relations 5:24

responses 5:287

sensitivities 5:149

sensitivity (see also Q10) 12:45, 70

specialist 12:68

stimuli 2:278

tolerance(s) 5:164; 12:236

tolerance limits, definition 12:36

tolerance range, definition 12:36

transport 5:316

Thermistors 5:32

Thermobarometers 5:75

Thermobiology 5:161, 208

Thermoconformity (see Temperature conformity)

Thermocouple(s) 5:32; 11:272

Thermode 5:310

induced temperature 5:306

Thermoelectric temperature measurement 5:32

Thermogenesis (see also Parental care, shivering

thermogenesis; Temperature regulation,

endogenous heat production) 11:266; 15:4

Thermogenic capacities 5:188, 190

Thermoperiod 13:207

Thermophilic 8:615

lizards 5:9, 185, 209

response 5:24

Thermophis 19:231

baileyi 19:216

Thermoreceptor 9:409, 414; 10:35

Thermoregulation (see also Temperature;

Temperature regulation) 5:3–5, 29, 127, 190–191, 283, 312, 316, 398; 7:8, 10–11, 49; 8:635, 665; 9:128, 339, 383; 14:208, 530; 15:609, 612, 666, 676–677; 18:99, 256, 259–260, 263–268, 279, 300, 302, 386–387, 389–391; 19:155, 455, 460–462, 469, 474, 501

adaptations 18:238

and melatonin 18:267

and parietal eye 18:264–268

and pineal 18:266–267

behavioral 2:277–279

behaviors 18:232, 259

circadian aspects 18:259–268

physiological 2:278, 280

rhythms 18:249, 259

seasonal changes 18:260–262

Thermoregulator

behavior 5:127, 317

panting 5:360

requirement 5:245

responses 5:28, 82

Thermoregulatory shuttling (see Shuttling)

Thermosensitive

period of gonadal development 15:270–274, 276–278, 285

sites 12:219

zones 5:311

Thermosensor-effector system 12:216

Thermostability 5:208, 297

Thermostatic capacities 5:5

Therocephalia 9:68, 132, 299

Theropoda 9:66, 89, 114, 304; 19:73–74

Theropsid 21:137

Thescelosaurus, dentition 1:188

Thescelus, shell 1:333

Theta rhythm 10:327

Thiamine deficiency 14:208

Thiamylal 5:45, 47, 51

Thiazin 6:270

Thigh 4:9, 96; 21:39, 54, 321, 328, 330–331, 338, 349, 351, 353, 356, 358, 364, 374

Thigmothermic species 15:617

Thigmothermy 12:20, 23, 126

Thimerosal 5:98

Thin layer chromatography (TLC) 18:122–123, 151, 153–155, 169, 203

Thio-alcohol n-butyl mercaptan 18:160

Thiocyanate 12:340

method 5:69

space 5:69

Thiopental sodium 5:45, 47

Thiourea 3:208, 215, 221–222; 15:282

Third

digit 21:180–181

distal carpal 21:10, 128

distal tarsal 21:165, 175–176

metacarpal 21:285

metatarsal 21:180, 387

tarsale 21:173, 175, 179

trochanter 21:152

ventricle 3:138; 9:256, 258, 261, 342

Thoracic

aperture 3:113

cavity 3:116

duct 6:317–331, 343, 345–358, 378, 381, 383– 387, 389, 396–400, 402, 411, 413, 415, 417, 419, 421, 424, 427–429, 432–434, 444–446, 453, 456, 458

impedance 5:236

rib 1:261–262; 21:228

sinus 6:320, 327, 348, 355, 383–385, 398, 410, 456

trunk (see Thoracic duct)

vertebrae 1:202–203, 205, 226, 301

Thoracolumnar region 10:2, 5

Thoracosaurus, skull 4:268

Thorax 5:95–96, 236; 20:584, 586; 21:40

[Thr]6 bradykinin 19:454

Thrasops 19:146, 161, 232

flavigularis 19:127, 216; 20:644

jacksoni 19:216; 20:644

occidentalis 19:216

Threatened populations 5:21

Three bar linkage 20:378

Threonine 3:23, 40, 42

Threshold

(critical, pivotal) temperature 15:265–269, 271–272, 282–283, 285–286

effect 5:30

Thrimaxodon 9:41, 61, 132–133, 299, 301

Throat 19:353

-fan (see Dewlap)

gland 18:202

muscles 4:287–288, 316, 325

Thrombin 3:34; 8:332, 491–494, 496

generation test 8:440

-like activity 8:332, 493

Thrombocytes 3:74, 82–83, 87, 89, 101, 103; 14:603, 612

Thrombocytopenia 8:489, 496, 505

Thrombo-embolism 8:484

Thrombolysis 8:495

Thromboplastin 8:335, 337–440, 491–492, 494; 13:92

Thrombosis 8:495; 19:521, 524

Thymectomy 3:111; 14:642, 644, 661

Thymic

bioassay 3:122

blood vessels 14:621, 625

capsule 3:113, 118, 120

corpuscles 3:118–120

cortex 3:119–120, 128

cyst(s) 3:119–120, 123, 126–127; 14:620

extract 3:222, 224

follicles 3:118

hormones 14:620

involution 3:128–129; 14:625–626, 628

lobules 3:118–119

lymphoic cells (see Thymocytes)

medulla 3:119–120, 128

parenchyma 3:119–122, 127

plexus 6:323

stroma (parenchyma) 14:618–620, 624

Thymidine 6:113

Thymocytes 3:118–123, 128–129; 14:140, 618– 620, 623, 625, 636, 642–643, 657, 661

Thymol 5:97

Thymus 3:111–133, 224, 235–236, 238, 245–246, 248–250, 252–254, 256; 6:328–329, 378, 386–387, 433, 458; 10:8–9; 11:28, 294; 19:540, 568

and immune system 14:616–626, 661

and parathyroids 14:446

development 14:305, 446, 635–636

embryology 3:116–118

fine structure 3:121–128

histology 3:118–121

implantation of 3:111

lobation of 3:113

morphology 3:112–116

transplants 14:140, 229

Thyreoglossal duct 3:210

Thyrocalcitonin 6:118

Thyroglobulin 3:202; 14:710

Thyro-glossal duct 14:139

Thyroid 3:112–116, 201–235, 238, 246, 249, 252– 253, 256; 10:8, 41; 12:230, 236, 257–258; 15:382–384, 570; 19:515

activity 5:34

atrophy of 3:202

biosynthesis of hormones 3:214–215

capsule 3:201, 207, 211

capsule colloid 3:201–202, 207–213, 219, 221, 223–225

capsule follicles 3:201–202, 207–213

capsule isthmus 3:203–204, 207

capsule secretion 5:207, 211

capsule stimulating hormone (see Thyrotrophic

hormone)

capsule vein 3:203

cartilage 4:176–177, 179–181, 191–193

embryology 3:210–212, 225

fenestra 4:52–54, 70–71, 74; 21:136–139, 144–146, 148, 191, 346, 358

of pelvic girdle 14:156

gland 5:36; 6:114–119, 317, 322–323, 325–328, 375, 381–382, 385–386, 433; 13:92–93, 216–217, 220; 17:601

gland colloid 14:139, 554

gland development 14:139, 174, 308, 445, 710

gland uptake I131 14:139

gross morphology 3:202–207

growth and differentiation and 3:222

histology and cytology 3:207–210, 216

hormone 5:30, 198; 18:316

and skin shedding 14:545, 554

metabolism and 3:219–220, 225

moulting and 3:220–222

plexus 6:323

reaction to pituitary 3:212–214

reproductive cycles and 3:217–219

seasonal cycles 3:215–219

sinus 6:317–318, 322, 324, 326–328, 345, 381–382, 385, 387, 410, 458

-stimulating hormone (TSH) 12:236; 17:590

uptake of labelled iodine 15:570

Thyroidectomy 3:212–213, 217, 220–224, 226; 5:198; 6:119; 12:230; 14:545, 548, 553–555, 557, 579; 15:384; 19:516

Thyrotropes 14:687, 702, 705, 710

Thyrotrophic

cells (see also Delta cell) 3:150–153, 156–157, 159, 161–163, 166, 168–174, 176–177, 179–189, 191, 193–194

hormone 3:202, 208, 212–213, 217, 220–224

Thyrotropic hormone 15:383

Thyrotropin 6:115; 12:257; 14 :709

-releasing hormone (TRH) 12:230; 17:590, 601; 18:46, 53, 446

Thyroxin 12:168, 173, 184, 236, 239; 15:282

Thyroxine (see also Tetraiodothryonine) 3:32; 6:118–119; 13:93, 220; 14:545; 17:601–602; 18:309, 318

Tibia 1:91, 93, 101, 108–109, 111; 4:57–59, 62–63, 67–68, 75–77, 79, 82–84, 87–89, 96; 21:22– 23, 42, 56, 136, 150–152, 156–162, 165, 167, 170, 191, 322, 350, 352–353, 361–362, 369–372, 374–375, 384–385

development 15:78, 80, 110, 114

rudiment 15:121

Tibial

collateral ligament 21:351, 363

condyle 4:55–56, 58

nerve 4:63, 84, 86

trunk 21:35

tuberosity 1:100

Tibiale 1:30; 21:163–164, 166

Tibialis anterior 21:324

Tibioastragalar

joint 21:10, 159–160, 170, 370

ligament 21:170

Tibiocentrointermediare 21:172

Tibiofibular ligament 21:156, 387

Tibiofibulare 21:172

Tibiomeniscal ligament 21:154

Ticks 5:27

Tidal

flow 19:155–156

ventilation 5:225

volume(s) 5:96; 229–230, 236, 241, 245, 248, 352, 375; 12:447–448; 13:18; 19:48–49, 59, 155–156, 301, 304, 306–309, 320, 322–323, 329, 337, 340

Tidemark (see Blue line)

Tie tendons 21:202, 263

Tiger snake (see Notechis)

Tight junction(s) 12:424, 427; 14:703; 19:494

apical ridge 15:93

Tilapia, mouth brooding 15:529, 543

Tiliqua (see also Trachydosaurus) 5:132, 141–142, 160, 178–179, 181, 183, 298, 317, 453, 456–457, 460, 475; 7:494; 8:598, 602–603, 606, 687; 9:251, 293, 332; 12:113–114, 176, 183, 185, 219, 247, 462; 13:34, 161, 164, 166; 15:122, 325, 532, 638, 671; 16:35, 123, 129, 132, 141, 205, 252, 256, 261; 17:31–32, 466, 470, 479, 485; 18:409; 20:45, 53, 58–60, 63, 138, 140, 142, 144, 146–148, 259, 298; 21:51, 96, 153, 155, 275, 278, 330, 337–338, 345, 352, 357, 360, 400

adelaidensis 20:142, 148, 298

adrenal 3:280

axial skeleton 1:255, 257, 260, 266, 270

blood cell morphology 3:77, 81

blood chemistry 3:23

dentition 1:166

ear 2:271

eye 2:27

gigas 20:307

internal relief of gut 6:117, 182

jaw muscles 4:354, 358–360, 478

muscle tissue 11:277–278, 285–287, 290, 302, 314, 319–322, 324–328, 330–333, 336

nigrolutea 19:351, 355

nose 2:120, 140

occipitalis 19:355; 20:307

parathyroid 3:254–255

pituitary 3:157, 174

rugosa 19:355, 402–403, 418, 453, 475, 516, 525, 550, 552, 579; 20:298; 21:7, 56, 400, 402

scincoides 18:316; 19:409–410, 418; 20:298, 307; 21:7

urinogenital system 6:45

Time 12:52–53, 58–61, 227, 300–303

constant 5:32; 11:287

-temperature profiles 13:246, 263–264

Timekeeper 12:224

Timing mechanisms 5:34

Timm method 18:446

Tissue

bath 5:59

contamination 5:62

culture 3:225; 8:509–511; 11:266

damage 5:86

fluids 5:62

metabolism 5:164, 356; 12:238–239

samples 5:52–53, 58

solutes 12:326, 333–336

tolerance 3:34

transplants 15:432

water content 12:326

Tissues 5:54, 64, 69, 75, 85, 89, 104, 154, 160, 165, 169, 175, 183, 191–193, 198–199, 206, 208, 235, 250, 259, 276, 299, 302, 314–315, 323, 335, 358, 360, 383, 387–388, 391, 398, 413–414, 416, 430, 439

Titanophoneus, eye 2:80

Titers 5:30

Titration 5:80

Toad(s) 7:595; 8:466, 594; 10:93

Toad-eating 20:495

Toe clipping (see Marking methods)

fringes 21:55, 57

Tokay gecko 20:48

Tolerance (see Embryos; Temperature effects;

Water effects on embryos)

anaerobic 5:207

anoxia 5:192

range 12:31, 34, 36

Toluca 15:647; 16:147; 19:233

conica 19:142, 216

lineata 19:164, 216

Toluene 5:97

Toluidine blue 3:238, 333; 6:227, 246, 248, 255–256, 291; 8:122

blue O stain 16:355

p-Toluolsulfonyl-DL-arginine methyl ester 8:330

Tomatoes 8:607

Tomistoma 7:239; 8:676; 9:82, 85; 14:335, 344, 419, 462

axial skeleton 1:228, 230

internal relief of gut 6:212–214, 217

skull 4:201, 203, 210–211, 222–223, 227, 229, 231–232, 234, 236–243, 245, 253, 259, 279

Tomodon 15:646–648; 16:123, 147, 199; 19:227; 20:546

adrenal 3:269

dentition 1:177

dorsatus 19:216

jaw muscles 4:481

lineatus 20:653

ocellatus 19:216

urinogenital system 6:97

vittatum 20:653

Tomuropeltis

axial skeleton 1:272, 276, 278–280

nose 2:122

Tongue 2:89, 139, 143–144, 281, 293–294, 296; 3:2, 116; 4:152, 154, 159, 172–173, 175–177, 182, 186, 188, 190, 310, 319, 430; 5:430, 432; 6:232–233, 375, 378, 382, 385, 407– 409; 8:59, 65; 9:16; 11:17, 35–36, 64, 95–96, 100, 110, 129, 133, 143, 215, 226, 235, 240; 18:124, 127, 132, 138, 160, 172–173, 182, 189–190; 20:54, 61, 78, 496, 583

development 14:423, 427–428, 515

extrusions 18:177, 181, 426, 463

flick 18:119, 124, 129–130, 138–139, 142–143, 145–147, 160–162, 164, 173, 177–178, 182–191, 204, 353, 355, 387, 426, 458–459, 463–465, 470, 487

and olfactory nerve lesions 18:496

and stress 18:464

and vomeronasal nerve lesions 18:496

characteristics 18:464

conspecifics 18:470, 478

preferred substrate 18:478

rate 18:464, 478, 487, 496

SICS 18:488–489

lick 18:163, 170–173, 175, 178–182, 191

lures 16:212, 215

malformation 14:456, 459

muscles 4:168–173, 189, 430

embryology 4:168–170

removal 18:496

sheath 5:431–434

snake, specializations 18:460

touch 18:168, 172–173, 175–177, 180–181, 186

types 18:464

valve 4:191

withdrawal 5:50

worms 5:27

Tonic

fibers (see also Fibers, tonic) 21:205, 209

immobility of prey 8:4

response 2:293–294

Tonofibril 9:415, 417, 422, 427, 436

Tonofilaments 3:121–123, 126

Tonotropic organization 10:294, 317

Tonus 5:236–237

effect 10:20

Tooth

bud 1:130–131, 142, 146–147

cleaning, conditioning 8:6–7

counts (see also Tooth numbers) 15:440, 485; 20:43, 97–98, 132, 142, 168, 190, 193

cusps 1:154–155, 158, 161, 164, 179; 8:631

development 14:414, 431–432, 526

eruption 14:413

family 1:143

field 1:130, 134, 151, 153, 193

germ 1:129, 132–133, 148, 150; 14:431

matrix 1:129, 134, 143, 147

numbers 1:155–156, 160–163, 166–169, 172, 185, 187, 189

pedestal 1:118

replacement 1:120, 127, 131, 133–141, 150– 154, 158, 161, 163–166, 170, 172–173, 176, 183–187, 190–193; 4:241; 15:304; 21:601

row 20:36, 74, 114

socket(s) 1:127, 129, 144, 147, 151, 184–186, 189–193; 21:601

Torpedo 8:463; 9:156; 17:609

Torpor (see also Hibernation) 5:168; 12:7; 21:208

Torsion 21:20, 26, 106–110, 112, 151

Torso 5:86, 93

Tortoise (see also Turtle) 5:59, 71, 104, 365, 451, 455, 457, 466, 474–475, 478, 489, 491

Torus

semicircularis 9:196, 219, 221; 10:143, 151, 168, 174, 191, 223, 227, 233, 236, 293–294, 297, 330; 17:296, 325, 632, 651

transiliens 4:147

Tosylarginine methyl ester 8:91, 320–321, 323, 329, 614

activity 8:340

inhibitor 8:323

Total

body water (TBW) 12:326–342

metabolism 13:15, 185–189

allometric relationships 13:186–188

and behavior 13:186, 188–189, 191

thermal dependence 13:186, 193

solid test 8:579

Touch

papilla 9:421, 423, 427, 430–431, 436

receptors 2:279, 293–294

Toxic

levels 5:50

materials 5:55

oxalates 5:60

Toxicity 9:94, 98, 438

individual variation 8:441

of mandibular gland 8:80

test 8:440

to humans 5:48

Toxicocalamini 19:223

Toxicocalamus 8:25; 19:127, 223; 20:545

buergeri 8:25

holopelturus 8:25; 19:198

longissimus 8:25

loriae 8:25; 19:198; 20:630

misimae 8:25

preussi 8:25; 19:198; 20:630

spilolepidotus 8:25

stanleyanus 8:25; 19:198; 20:630

Toxicodryas 19:104, 161, 230

blandingii 19:161, 216

pulverulentus 19:216

Toxin(s) (see also under specific names; Venoms) 8:1, 196, 342–372, 458, 464, 507, 571; 19:156, 508, 516–517, 524

amino acid composition 8:196, 213–224

chemical modification 8:224–226

definition 8:438

evolution 8:213, 222–224

geographical variation 8:213

labelling 8:227

synthesis 8:227–228

tertiary structure 8:226

valency 8:355

Toxochelyidae, shell 1:321, 328, 334, 336

Toxoid(s) 8:176, 355–356

Trabecula(e) (see also Parenchyma) 9:2–3, 5–6, 34; 11:3, 10–15, 19–20, 22–24, 30, 32, 39–42, 44, 50, 52–54, 62, 66, 68, 74–75, 93, 98, 106, 112, 114–117, 119, 124, 127–130, 132, 136–138, 140, 142–144, 150, 154–155, 158, 160–161, 163–164, 166–168, 170–173, 179–182, 185, 187, 189, 193–195, 200–202, 205–207, 209–212, 214, 216, 219–221, 223–224, 229–231, 236–237, 241–242; 19:6, 9, 15, 17, 20, 22, 33, 42–44, 46–47, 59, 63–64, 76, 96, 107–111, 126, 131, 133, 145–147, 149, 162, 168, 381, 394–395, 399, 402, 412, 427, 429, 491, 539–540, 547, 551–552, 554, 557–559, 569–570; 20:10, 164, 222, 238, 269, 360–362, 375, 395, 399, 490, 524, 553; 21:517, 530

communis (see also Intertrabecula) 2:6–7, 9, 13–14, 67; 11:11, 15, 20, 23–24, 42, 44, 50, 54–55, 74, 76, 83–85, 88, 90, 110, 115–116, 127–132, 137–138, 140–141, 161, 163, 166, 170, 173, 180–182, 194–195, 200–202, 217, 223–224, 229; 20:10, 125, 128, 245, 360–362, 491, 556; 21:538, 575, 577, 583

connective tissue 3:118

cranial 14:125–126

cranii 2:6, 8, 48; 4:249, 251; 20:9, 25, 27, 29–30, 78, 135, 137, 196, 205, 215, 217, 238, 240

of bone 1:88, 97, 146, 312

of lymphatic heart 6:447, 449–451, 454

of lymphatic sinuses 6:328

Trabeculae 21:528, 534, 537

Trabecular

bone 1:142, 145

cartilages 21:533

crest 11:110, 112

groove 11:153–154, 185

groove in parasphenoid 20:438, 464, 477–502

plate 11:11, 19, 41–42, 74–75, 114–116, 136, 138, 141, 143, 194

ridge of the frontal 21:577

structure of bone 11:241

Trachea(l) 3:112, 114–115, 202–204, 207, 211, 238, 246, 252, 256; 4:155, 158–159, 168, 174–175, 177, 179–180, 184, 188, 190–192; 6:234, 325–326, 329, 345, 354, 368, 375, 380–382, 384–386, 411, 428–429, 431–433; 8:121; 10:8, 29; 11:24, 28, 170, 187, 214, 368; 13:139, 141–142, 311, 436, 439; 19:6, 8–9, 21, 26–28, 32–33, 36, 97, 101–102, 104–105, 113–114, 116, 118–128, 132–135, 138, 141– 144, 148, 155, 159–160, 165–170, 175

artery 19:102–103, 131–132, 134

avascular air chambers 19:177

cannula 5:79

cartilages 6:428; 19:123, 126

complex 19:115–139

entry 19:102, 104, 110, 141–143, 159–160, 168–171

epithelium 19:20

foramina 19:136, 177

incubation 5:48–49, 51–52, 96

length of 19:102, 122–123

lung 19:33–34, 94, 96, 98, 100–101, 103–104, 106–107, 109, 111, 114–115, 120, 122, 125, 130–139, 141, 144, 148–149, 154–155, 163, 169–171, 176

membrane 19:104, 107, 111, 120–123, 125–129, 130–132, 136–138, 144, 155, 169

morphology 19:104–112, 120–139

mucus production 5:49

nonpulmonary 19:125

regions 19:125

ring(s) 4:177, 179–180, 192; 19:96, 100, 102–103, 107, 116–119, 123–126, 129, 136, 169, 175

sinus (see Median jugular trunk)

tips (free tips) 19:124, 176

tracheal parenchyma 19:103

trunk 6:385

vein 3:203

volume 19:107

Trachemys 19:20, 56, 66, 331, 402, 460, 473

decorata 18:315

decussata 18:315

scripta 18:4, 250, 260, 315, 325, 327, 330–331, 434, 438, 442, 445–446, 453, 455, 457, 465; 19:3, 17, 39, 49, 51–55, 57–61, 63, 78, 299, 303, 306, 309, 313, 323–324, 328, 330, 333, 335–336, 346, 353, 401, 417, 428, 433, 442–444, 447–450, 452–461, 465, 470–472, 475, 503, 525, 547, 578

scripta elegans 18:33, 197, 326, 442, 445

scripta troostii 18:195

Tracheo

-bronchial plexus (see also Tracheo-pulmonary

plexus) 6:411, 431–432

-pulmonary plexus (see Tracheo-bronchial

plexus)

Trachischium 16:148; 19:150, 216, 234; 21:497, 500–501

fuscum 19:216

guentheri 19:164, 216

monticola 19:216

tenuiceps 19:216

Trachodon

bone 1:46

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:109

eye 2:79–80

Trachyboa 15:117, 119, 121; 16:38, 54, 151; 19:189, 219; 20:460, 464, 468, 471, 474; 21:579

axial skeleton 1:290

boulengeri 19:189; 20:462, 471, 474, 609

chondrocranium 11:169

ear 2:269, 271

gularis 19:189; 20:468, 609

jaw muscles 4:430, 481

pit organs 2:301

urinogenital system 6:27

Trachydermochelys, bone 1:56, 72

Trachydosaurus (see also Tiliqua) 5:132, 141–143, 162, 166, 178, 181, 183, 236–237, 307–309, 366, 369, 373, 383–385, 389–391, 393, 397–398, 401–402, 421, 427, 457–459, 464, 471, 479; 7:494; 8:602, 605, 688; 10:14–15, 17–19, 22–23, 25, 30, 32–34, 36–37, 39; 12:113, 225, 240, 244, 246–247, 253, 256, 331, 335, 346, 377, 384–385, 462; 13:34, 137, 161, 165–166, 217; 14:626, 631–632, 639, 651, 659, 664; 15:122, 346, 530, 532, 581; 16:252, 256, 261; 21:275

axial skeleton 1:247–249, 256–257, 266, 269

blood chemistry 3:5, 13, 15, 34

chondrocranium 11:65

histology of gut 6:288

internal relief of gut 6:177, 179, 182, 186

jaw muscles 4:358–361, 478

parathyroid 3:254–255

rugosus 18:236, 238–239, 242; 20:298

urinogenital system 6:45, 117

Trachylepis 21:24, 229, 275, 294, 298–300, 302, 347, 360, 398

carinata 21:398

margaritifer 21:398, 401

Trachysaurus, dentition 1:128

Trackway 21:58

Tract

anterior optic 17:177

basal optic 10:145, 153, 159, 165; 17:177, 206

cerebellomotor 10:180, 192

cerebellospinal 10:93

cerebellotectal 17:536

cerebellotegmental 10:180, 192

cerebellothalamic 10:192

cerebellovestibular 10:180, 192

coeruleospinal 10:92

common descending of the trigeminal 17:386

contralateral medial vestibulospinal 17:556

corticobulbar 10:193

corticonuclear 17:498, 536–543, 560, 566–568

corticospinal 10:63, 91, 94–95, 123, 125, 193

corticovestibular 17:545, 553

descending trigeminal 17:391, 633, 651, 679

dorsal column 10:220

dorsal spinocerebellar 10:77, 139, 141, 147, 149, 151, 157, 163, 217; 17:409, 519

dorsolateral of Lissauer 17:633, 651, 663, 670, 672, 679, 682

fastigospinal 10:93

geniculocortical 10:320

habenulointerpeduncular 10:145, 153, 159, 165, 177, 192, 237

hypothalamospinal 10:93

interstitiospinal 10:89, 91, 93–94, 101

isthmocortical 10:269–270, 272, 274, 280–281

lateral descending, of the trigeminal nerve 17:386, 391–392, 396, 403

lateral vestibulospinal 10:139, 141, 147, 149, 157, 161, 163, 172, 191, 206–207, 212–217; 17:556

Lissauer’s 10:80, 120–121

mammillotegmental 10:153, 177

marginal optic 17:177, 180, 189, 301

medial vestibulospinal 10:172; 17:533, 556

medullohypothalamic 10:269–270, 274, 276

mesencephalic lentiform 17:190, 314

mesostriatal 10:269–271, 276, 278, 280, 282

monoaminergic 10:92

olivocerebellar 17:516, 525

propriospinal 10:63, 65, 85, 96–97, 119, 128

quintofrontal 10:190, 227; 17:413

reticulospinal 10:94, 139, 147, 149, 151, 155, 161, 163

rotondotelencephalic 10:320, 323

rubrospinal 10:63, 89–91, 93–96, 101, 147, 149, 151, 161, 163–164, 193; 17:558, 563

solitary 10:213

spinal lemniscus 10:167–168, 172, 179, 183, 189–190, 217, 220, 302

spinal trigeminal 10:139, 141, 147, 149, 155, 157, 161, 163, 169, 180, 183, 211–212, 226

spinobulbar 10:167

spinocerebellar 10:77, 117, 122, 167, 179, 192, 225; 17:419, 498, 516, 522–523

spinocervical 10:77–78

spinomesencephalic 10:167

spinoreticular 10:77, 117, 183, 189

spinorhombencephalic 10:167

spinotectal 10:117, 167

spinothalamic 10:77, 117, 167–168, 190

spinovestibular 10:172, 217, 220

strionigral 10:272

subthalamotelencephalic 10:322, 324

tectobulbar 10:143, 145, 151, 153, 157–159, 164–165, 176–177, 183, 187, 191, 193, 225, 227, 236

tectocerebellar 10:179

tectospinal 10:176, 236

tectothalamic 10:168, 176, 191, 294, 297, 319, 321

trigeminal lemniscus 10:190, 227

trigeminocerebellar 10:190

ventral spinocerebellar 10:141, 143, 151, 158, 164, 217

vestibulocerebellar 10:141, 149

vestibulospinal 10:63, 89–94, 96, 101, 141, 172, 193

Traction epiphysis 1:109

Trail (trailing) (see Pheromone)

Training 13:167

Tränenkanal (see Lachrymal duct)

Tränennasengang (see Lachrymal duct)

Tranquilization 5:43, 50, 126

Transamination 19:515

Transcapillary fluid flux 19:346

Transcortin 3:32–33

Transcutaneous water movements 5:382

Transducers 5:98

humidity 5:104

Transduction 2:288

Transepidermal water loss (see also Skin) 18:153

Transepithelial

ion exchanges 19:341

permeability 5:493, 495

transport of urate 5:493–494, 497

Transferrin 3:27, 31–32, 46–53; 19:515

Transfusion fluid 5:60

Transient-state energy balance 12:284

Transients 5:82

Translation 21:43, 46

Transmembrane recordings 5:87

pH gradient 5:257

Transmission of sound (see Middle ear)

Transmitter substance 10:3, 10, 12, 15, 22, 26, 39, 250

Transmitters 5:32, 98

Transmutation 17:198

Transosomes 14:62–64

Transpalatine (see Ediculus)

Transplant studies 16:389

Transplantation 14:15, 640–642

antigens 15:275

of blastema 14:15

of limb buds 14:158

of skin 14:583

Transport (see also Locomotion) 5:26; 12:370

Transportation 5:21

Trans-sulcal membrane 19:407

Transversalis muscle 2:5, 17–19, 22, 41, 52, 70, 75, 82

Transverse

anastomotic vein (see Anastomotic vein )

canal 4:205, 214, 217, 219, 221, 224–226, 255, 257, 278

coronary sulcus 19:406

cutaneous vessels 6:366, 387

ligament of atlas 1:273, 289

process 1:208, 217, 219, 230, 233, 238, 263, 268–270, 279–280, 301; 6:452, 454–455; 11:362, 367, 370

process of premaxilla 20:357, 402, 409, 419, 424, 429, 431, 437, 462, 469, 483, 499, 523, 529, 531, 536, 540, 553–554; 21:580

processes 21:61

and fracture planes 15:305–306, 308, 325, 329, 332–334, 338–340

pterygoid flange 1:30, 38

septum 6:351

sinus (see also Thyroid sinus) 6:318, 320, 375

vein 3:165

vessel of the wrist 6:390

Transversum (see Ectopterygoid)

Transversus branchialis 21:596–597

Trapelus (see also Agama) 20:96–97, 100, 294; 21:91, 302

agilis 20:102, 306

mutabilis 20:101, 306

pallidus 21:209

sanguinolenta 20:294

Trapezius 21:212

Trapezoid body 10:173

Trapping (see Capture methods)

Trasylol 8:166, 329–330

Trauma 5:40, 52

experimental 14:559–563

repair of 14:530

Traveling waves 21:45, 61, 241

Treadmill 5:84, 182; 19:337

Treatment of disease 5:25

Tree shrew 10:315

Trehalase 3:29

Trematoda, blood cell morphology 3:88

Trementine oil 6:317

Tretanorhinus 7:503; 16:121, 148; 19:229

mocquardi 19:216

nigroluteus 19:216

taeniatus 19:216

variabilis 19:216; 20:581

Tretioscincus 12:115; 21:400

bifasciatus 20:193, 301

Triacylglycerol 19:501

Triad 11:269, 274–276, 316; 17:36–37, 40, 81, 464

Trial and error conditioning 7:558

Triangular area 9:228; 10:296

Triassic 4:12, 264–267, 280

period 14:151–152, 495

reptiles 15:338–340

Triassochelys

dentition 1:150

shell (see also Proganochelys) 1:332, 333

Tribolonotus 12:113; 15:639, 644–645, 671; 16:141; 20:144, 147; 21:398

axial skeleton 1:270

ear 2:271

schmidti 20:307

Tribromoethanol 5:45

Tricaine methanesulfonate 5:45

Tricarboxylic acid 19:498, 512

acid cycle 3:46; 5:199

Triceps 21:30–32

complex 21:212

tendon 1:110

Triceratops 9:304

bone 1:72

Trichloracetic acid 3:30; 5:66

Trichloroethylene 18:150

Triconodont teeth 1:119, 161

Trichrome 3:277, 283, 290, 304; 8:59

Tricuspid teeth 1:150, 160, 163, 167, 191

Trigeminal 20:11, 31

connection 10:226

foramen (see also Foramen ovale) 11:85, 90, 112, 216, 219, 224, 242

formina 20:365, 375, 389, 394, 408, 458, 508, 527, 565–566, 591

ganglion 9:3, 6, 11, 25, 47–49, 58, 134; 11:15, 26, 30–32, 68, 106, 127, 129, 131–132, 160, 163, 186–190, 210, 217, 237, 243; 14:173

nerve (see also Nerve, trigeminal) 2:11, 41, 50, 74–755, 177, 180, 281–282, 289, 293–297; 4:101, 103, 118–124, 142–143, 162, 285– 287, 289, 307, 311, 313, 315, 319, 384, 394, 405, 417–418, 423, 438, 467; 8:105, 118; 11:12, 15, 21–23, 26, 32, 106, 144, 187–188, 210, 216, 243; 14:133; 18:424

notch 11:12, 98, 110, 112, 124, 138, 140; 20:31

system (see also Nerve, trigeminal; Nucleus,

trigeminal; Tract, trigeminal) 10:224, 227; 18:125

Triglyceride(s) 3:36; 18:155, 169–170, 194, 203

in oocytes 14:64

Trigonium

colli laterale 4:166

colli laterale anterior 4:170

colli laterale posterior 4:170

intermandibulare anterius 4:118

intermandibulare posterius 4:142, 167, 169, 187

Trihydroxycoprostanoic acid 19:513

Triiodothyronine 3:202, 215; 12:236; 18:309, 318

Trilobate teeth 1:154–155

Trilophosaurus 9:297

dentition 1:121–122, 124, 134, 191

Trimeresurus 7:204, 207, 506; 8:9, 37–38, 103, 167, 169, 176, 179–182, 185, 187–188, 238, 243–244, 246, 250–251, 259, 263, 271, 288, 297, 300, 306–308, 312–313, 317–318, 320, 322–323, 326, 328, 331, 337–338, 341, 347, 358–359, 370, 373–374, 447, 498–499, 502–507, 511, 664; 10:297; 15:46, 651, 657–659, 662, 671; 16:122, 127, 152, 172, 288; 17:370–371, 392, 399; 19:33, 81, 193

(as “Trigonocephalus”), 220; 20:517

albolabris 8:37, 447; 19:193; 20:498, 508, 616

axial skeleton 1:285

blood chemistry 3:51

cantori 8:37

chaseni 8:37

chondrocranium 11:164

covictus 8:37

cornutus 8:37

ear 2:270, 272

elegans 8:37, 103, 169, 307, 447; 18:460; 19:193

erythrurus 8:37

flavomaculatus 8:37

flavoviridis (see also Protobothrops) 8:37, 103, 169, 179–180, 182, 185, 187, 238, 243–244, 250, 259, 263, 297, 306–308, 312–313, 317, 320, 322–323, 326, 328, 331, 337, 341, 347, 358–359, 373–374, 447, 502–506, 511; 18:155; 19:114; 20:616

gracilis 8:37

gramineus 8:37, 180, 182, 187, 251, 297, 300, 326, 337, 370, 447, 506–507; 19:193

hageni 8:38

huttoni 8:38

internal relief of gut 6:211

jaw muscles 4:482

jerdonii 8:38; 20:616

kanburiensis 8:38

kaulbacki 8:38

labialis 8:38, 370

macrolepis 8:39

malabaricus 8:38, 447

mangshanensis 20:616

monticola 8:38; 20:615

mucrosquamatus 8:38, 188, 244, 263, 300, 313, 318, 326, 337–338, 341, 447; 20:616

okinavensis 8:38, 187, 244, 250, 263, 297, 307, 313, 318, 326, 328, 347, 447, 498, 499

pit organs 2:285, 287, 295–296

popeorum 8:38; 19:193

porphyreus 20:629

puniceus 8:38; 19:193; 20:616

purpureomaculatus 8:38, 338, 498; 19:193; 20:520, 616

schultzei 8:38

stejnegeri 8:38, 187, 244, 263, 271, 358; 19:124, 133, 193; 20:616

strigatus 8:38

sumatranus 8:38

tokarensis 8:38; 18:460

tonkinensis 8:38

trigonocephalus 8:38; 19:193

urinogenital system 6:94

wagleri 8:38, 186, 238, 243, 288, 358, 447, 664; 20:616

xiangchengensis 20:616

“Trimeresurus” rhombeatus 8:664

Trimerorhachis, origin and evolution 1:23

Trimetopon 19:229

barbouri 19:216

gracile 19:216

pliolepis 19:216

polylepis 19:216

slevini 19:216

Trimorphodon 16:14, 123, 149; 17:215; 19:231

biscutatus 19:154, 166, 216; 20:553, 572, 581, 644–645

ear 2:269, 272

eye 2:55, 63

tau 19:217

Trinacromerum, eye 2:80

Trioceros 20:105, 295

Trionychidae 5:154, 192, 197–198, 249, 327, 395; 7:349, 464; 8:46, 674; 9:251, 306; 12:136, 343; 13:7; 14:27, 81, 90, 107, 158, 171, 182–183, 198, 218–219, 229; 15:265; 16:113, 135, 393, 399, 413–414, 439, 526, 551; 19:19–20, 404

adrenal 3:275

axial muscles 11:356, 362–363, 366, 424

axial skeleton 1:213, 215

blood chemistry 3:28, 31, 44

chondrocranium 11:222–223

ear 2:265, 270

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:102, 104–105, 107–108, 110, 112, 117, 124–126, 154, 156–157, 163, 182

histology of gut 6:273

internal relief of gut 6:161, 220

limbs 4:2, 13–14, 17, 20, 24–28, 30–32, 34–35, 38, 40, 42, 45–47, 49–50, 53–54, 58, 60, 65–68, 71–72, 75–76, 79, 82, 84–85, 88, 90–93, 95, 100

nose 2:106, 114

parathyroid 3:237

shell 1:314, 320, 327–329, 334, 336

Trionychinae, internal relief of gut 6:161

Trionychoidea 68–69

axial skeleton 1:210, 217, 224

eye 2:67

internal relief of gut 6:161, 170

Trionyx (see also Apalone) 5:197, 201–205, 208, 249, 318–319, 366, 368, 373, 377, 380, 387, 389–391, 395–396; 7:349, 464–465, 569; 8:632, 654, 660–661, 674; 9:164, 251, 306, 418, 422–423; 10:203; 12:138, 258, 289, 327, 341, 343, 351, 368, 429; 13:35–39, 85–86, 89, 209, 307, 309–310; 14:27, 77, 79, 81, 84, 87–89, 92, 107, 110, 114, 119, 121, 138–139, 144, 148–149, 154, 158, 166, 168–169, 177, 181, 213–214, 222, 225, 227–231, 233, 235–236, 240, 278, 512, 529, 640; 15:265, 283, 286; 16:57, 113, 135, 340, 348, 354, 361–362, 393, 396, 403–404, 439, 537–538, 568; 17:500; 19:19, 78, 404, 417

adrenal 3:275, 289, 292, 295, 301, 305

axial muscles 11:356, 362, 364–368

axial skeleton 1:204, 211, 218

blood cell numbers 3:95

blood chemistry 3:4, 9, 14–15, 28, 42, 50

chondrocranium 11:222

ear 2:254, 256–258, 265, 270

eye 2:68, 72

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104– 105, 113, 117–118, 123, 125, 127, 154–158, 162–167, 170, 172–175, 178, 180–181

histology of gut 6:269, 274, 278–279

internal relief of gut 6:161–162, 165, 172–173, 175, 220

limbs 4:2–4, 6, 9–11, 14, 20–21, 24, 28, 30, 3234, 40–41, 47, 49–51, 56, 60, 65–66, 68, 72–74, 77–79, 84, 88–89, 100

lymphatics 6:367, 369, 374, 377, 404, 456

muscle tissue 11:283, 294, 336

muticus 18:251, 315

nose 2:104, 107–108, 110, 113–114, 178, 180–181

parathyroid 3:237

sinensis 18:95

spinifer(us) 18:4, 269, 315, 327, 442; 19:299, 354

thymus 3:121, 124

urinogenital system 6:5–6, 13, 16, 18, 28, 49, 58, 91, 96, 108

Triose phosphate isomerase 5:205

Tripanurgos 16:231; 19:226

compressus 19:217

urinogenital system 6:30

Triple cells 2:35, 43–44

Triploid species 14:642

Triploid zygote 15:414

Triploids 15:414–415, 418–419, 428, 432, 435, 437, 439–441, 447, 456, 458, 460–461, 464–466, 474–476, 478, 480, 483, 485–488, 490, 495–498, 502–503, 505–506, 508

Triploidy 15:433, 466, 473, 492, 495–497

Triquetrum 21:126

Trirachodon 9:133, 135, 299, 301

Trirhinopholis 7:503

Tritiated insulin 5:98

Tritiated water (HTO) 5:69–70, 104, 374; 12:336, 360–361, 484, 486–487; 13:239

Tritium 13:238–240

Tritubercular teeth 1:119

Triturating surface 1:189

Triturus 8:3; 14:7

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:90

urinogenital system 6:45

Tritylodont 9:132–134

Tritylodontoidea 9:299, 302

Trobitrabic chondrocranium 20:361

Trochanter 15:79; 21:191

major 4:55–58, 66–67, 72, 74, 76, 95–96

minor 4:55–58, 65, 67, 70, 76, 95

Trochlea 4:16–17; 21:102, 105

Trochlear

decussation 10:223

foramen 4:224, 229, 250, 257

nerve 2:7, 11, 49–50; 11:15, 21, 24, 41–42, 74, 90, 105, 115–116, 121, 124, 155, 160, 163, 187, 189, 195, 206, 210, 224, 229–231, 233, 236–237, 243; 14:133, 429

process 4:104–107, 114–117, 125–126, 131; 11:216

Trochosaurus 9:299

Trogonophidae(iidae) 7:497; 8:46, 662, 690; 15:44, 337, 372, 625, 664, 667, 669, 671; 16:136; 21:624–626, 634, 636, 729

adrenal 3:281

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:271–274, 280

blood cell morphology 3:77

chondrocranium 11:126

dentition 1:172

ear 2:224, 268, 271

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:106

histology of gut 6:229

internal relief of gut 6:190

jaw muscles 4:480

nose 2:120

pancreas 3:324

pituitary 3:136, 146, 154, 180–181, 192, 195

thyroid 3:206, 207

Trogonophinae 21:624

Trogonophis 7:497; 8:71, 73, 690; 9:158; 10:204; 12:125, 460; 13:57, 206; 15:44, 373, 625– 626, 669; 16:37, 56, 136; 19:557; 21:623, 625, 630, 634, 636, 712–713, 716–721

adrenal 3:281

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:272–273, 275–276, 278

blood cell morphology 3:77, 82

chondrocranium 11:126–132, 134–135, 200–201

ear 2:268, 271

eye 2:24, 43, 46, 48

internal relief of gut 6:190–192

jaw muscles 4:411, 416, 480

nose 2:120, 127, 140, 143

pituitary 3:145, 180–181

thyroid 3:207, 227

urinogenital system 6:38, 59, 72, 79

wiegmanni 21:626, 640, 712–713, 717, 732

Trompe de Falloppe (see Ostium abdominale)

Trophic apparatus, related to food size 7:21

Trophonemata 15:529

Tropibasic 20:10, 239

condition (see Tropitrabic condition)

Tropical

reptiles 13:202–206, 210–211, 213, 274, 277, 280, 290, 295–296, 298

species 14:180–181, 210, 228, 397

Tropics (see Life history traits, distribution;

Life history traits, latitude; Parental

care, latitude)

Tropidechis 8:25; 15:654; 16:150; 19:222; 21:524

carinatus 8:25; 19:198; 20:630; 21:523

Tropidoclonion 7:503; 12:129, 131; 13:121; 16:121, 149, 482–483, 520; 19:234

lineatum 19:217; 20:649

Tropidodactylus, urinogenital system 6:84

Tropidodipsas 16:230; 19:100, 229

annulifera 19:217; 20:651

fasciata 19:217

fischeri 19:217

philippii 19:217

sartorii 19:217

Tropidodryas 19:227

serra 19:164, 217; 20:656

striaticeps 19:217; 20:656

Tropidolaemus 19:220

wagleri 19:152, 193; 20:508–509, 515, 517, 520–521, 616

Tropidonophis (see also other natricines) 19:100, 146, 233

aenigmaticus 19:217

dahli 19:217

dendrophiops 19:154–217

doriae 19:154, 199 (as Amphiesma), 217; 20:555, 649

elongatus 19:217

halmahericus 19:217

hypomelas 19:217; 20:649

mairii 19:154, 217; 20:649

mcdowelli 19:217

montanus 19:217; 20:581, 649

multiscutellatus 19:217

negrosensis 19:217

novaeguineae 19:217

parkeri 19:217

picturatus 19:199 (as Amphiesma), 217

punctiventris 19:217

statisticus 19:217

truncatus 19:217

Tropidonotus (see Natrix)

Tropidopheids 21:557

Tropidopheinae 21:565, 610

Tropidophiid condition 20:466

Tropidophiidae 15:646, 671; 16:38, 40; 19:100, 122, 130, 133, 145, 151–152, 158, 171, 189, 219; 353–354, 444, 460, 467, 469–470, 472, 474, 478, 482, 559, 574, 609; 21:565, 570

Tropidophiids 21:578

Tropidophiinae 19:171, 219

Tropidophinae, chondrocranium 11:174

Tropidophioidea 21:543, 555, 565, 575, 584

Tropidophis 7:498–499; 16:38, 40, 133, 151; 19:144, 189, 219; 20:460, 464, 468, 471, 474

axial muscles 11:398–399

axial skeleton 1:287, 290

blood cell numbers 3:98

canus 18:312; 19:189; 20:468, 470, 609

canus curtus 18:324

caymanensis 19:189

distinctus 20:609

ear 2:271

eye 2:51, 54–56

fasciata 20:647

feicki 18:312

greenwayi 18:312

haetianus 18:312; 19:189; 20:472

jaw muscles 4:430, 481

maculatus 19:189

melanurus 18:312–313; 19:189; 20:462, 468, 470–473, 475, 609; 21:566

nigriventris 19:189

pardalis 19:189; 20:474, 609

paucisquamis 19:189

pilsbryi 19:189

pit organs 2:301

semicinctus 19:189; 20:471, 474

taczanowskyi 19:189; 20:610

urinogenital system 6:27

wrighti 19:152, 189

Tropidophorus 15:638; 16:141; 20:144; 21:398

axial skeleton 1:270

ear 2:271

misaminius 20:139, 307

Tropiduridae 21:12, 67, 129

Tropidurinae(ine) 20:43–44, 79–80, 82–86, 88–90, 305

eye 2:31

Tropidurus 5:389, 453, 456–457, 466–468, 472–473, 475; 7:51, 139–140, 165, 191, 270, 275, 310, 483–484; 8:684; 12:102, 294, 488; 16:7, 18, 21–22, 50, 140, 515; 18:382; 20:12, 42, 45, 80–81, 84, 89–90, 293; 21:104, 294, 299, 302

albemarlensis 18:362

axial muscles 11:357

bivittatus 18:362

delanosis 18:175, 329, 339, 357–358, 362, 376, 382, 398; 20:305

duncanensis 18:362

ear 2:271

etheridgei 20:88, 293

grayi 20:305

habeli 18:362

jaw muscles 4:312, 319, 415, 477

nose 2:119

occipitalis 18:362

occipitalis koepckeorum 18:362

pacificus 18:362; 20:305

peruvianus 18:362

spinulosus 20:82, 293

stolzmani 18:362

torquatus 19:511; 21:130

umbra 20:82, 293

urinogenital system 6:45–46

Tropiocolotes 7:469; 8:64; 21:166, 397

chondrocranium 11:74–75, 77

studneri 21:95

tripolitanus 21:95, 124, 398

Tropitrabic 21:533

braincase 20:584

condition 11:11, 116, 128, 132, 144, 182, 193, 195, 200–201, 206, 225, 241

Troponin complex 11:292

Trot 21:51, 54

True hypapophysis (see Paraseptal apophysis)

interprotovertebral haemapophysis (see

Paraseptal apophysis)

nasal cavity (see Cavum nasi proprium)

rib 1:231

“True sallet” 2:245

Truncus arteriosus 5:308; 10:35

Trunk 20:363, 586

cervical 10:9

sympathetic 10:9

vertebrae (see Dorsal vertebrae)

Trypan blue 15:135, 575

Trypanosoma

blood cell morphology 3:88

blood cell numbers 3:104

Trypsin 3:41–42, 51; 8:472, 613–616, 666

inhibitor(s) 8:166, 207

Tryptamine 8:193

Tryptic peptides 11:291

Tryptophan(e) 3:40, 42; 6:43, 228, 248, 252, 264, 294; 18:155

Tseajaia, origin and evolution 1:27

TSH (see Thyrotrophic hormone)

Tsintaosaurus 9:101

Tuatara (see also Sphenodon) 16:9, 28, 58, 66, 114, 136, 308, 531–532; 20:1, 64

Tuba (see Infundibulum)

Tuber 5:170

basioccipitalis 4:267–268

calcanei 21:365, 386

Tuberal hypothalamus 18:98

Tuberculum

anterior of cartilago thyreocricoidea 4:192

of rib 1:201–202, 209, 212, 227, 229–230, 237, 252, 287, 301

Tubero-infundibular system 10:250

Tuberosity of processus interfenestralis 21:502

Tubi piccoli (see Epididymal tubule)

Tubocurarine 5:53; 11:329

D-Tubocurarine 8:455, 457, 460–461, 463, 465

Tubular

acidification 5:481

fluid 5:448, 469, 473, 477, 486, 492

function 5:465

glands 5:416, 423

glands of digestive tract 6:244, 296, 298–299

lumina 5:460, 479, 486, 493, 495, 497

permeability 5:474–475

reabsorption 5:467, 469, 489–490, 492, 498

regulation 5:467–468

secretion 5:481, 490, 498

system 11:267, 273–274, 288–289, 293–294, 296–297, 304, 313, 316

teeth 1:124, 173, 175–176, 178, 182–183

transport 5:450, 459, 465, 471, 477, 479–480, 482–486, 489, 491, 493–494, 496–498

Tubule cells 5:100, 417, 437, 448, 467, 478, 481, 486

contourne (see Proximal segment of uriniferous

tubule)

Tubules 5:416, 425, 432–435, 438, 468, 471–473, 492–493, 495

Tubulin 19:497

Tubulo-alveolar glands of digestive tract 6:233, 236, 238, 296

Tubulus contortus (see Proximal segment

of uriniferous tubule; Seminiferous

tubule)

Tubus medius (see Epididymal tubule)

Tuditanus, origin and evolution 1:20–21

Tuft cells 5:425, 427

Tumor(s) (see also Pathology) 8:510–512; 19:508, 516, 523

Tuna 5:191; 13:5

Tunica

albuginea 6:51, 56–58, 73, 442

apropria 6:236

muscularis 6:237, 268–270, 288, 290–291, 293, 413, 416

propria 6:268, 270, 279, 284, 288, 291, 413

septa 6:57–58

submucosa (see Submucosa of stomach)

vasculosa 6:73

Tupaia 19:574

Tupinambis 5:245, 283, 315; 7:140, 491, 598–599, 606, 608; 8:606, 633, 688; 9:251, 332; 10:59–66, 68–70, 72, 74–76, 78–80, 82–87, 89, 91–93, 97–98, 100–101, 111–116, 118, 121–122, 125, 127, 133–134, 137, 147, 149, 151, 153, 166–168, 171–173, 175–176, 178– 180, 184–187, 203, 216, 223, 229, 233, 237, 277, 296; 12:55, 116, 177, 242, 246–247, 408, 413; 15:325, 343; 16:122, 141, 256, 261, 284, 300, 304, 306–307; 17:184–185, 188–189, 191, 208–209, 245–246, 324, 530, 534, 544, 556, 558–559; 19:22, 324, 383, 469; 20:51, 58, 63, 174, 176, 178–179, 181, 184, 301, 389; 21:43, 53, 67, 80, 96, 145, 153, 159, 170, 185, 250, 278, 285, 294, 299, 301–302, 337, 351, 357, 374–375, 378–379, 381, 383, 388, 390, 392–393, 398

adrenal 3:269

axial skeleton 1:248, 251, 256, 264, 267

blood chemistry 3:5, 10, 28, 34

chondrocranium 11:71–72

dentition 1:163–164

ear 2:243, 267, 271

eye 2:20, 27

internal relief of gut 6:177, 179, 181–182, 187, 220

jaw muscles 4:351, 355–358, 388, 416–418, 478

merianae 19:3, 17, 27, 64, 80, 306–307, 355

muscle tissue 11:273, 336

nigropunctatus 19:42–44, 49, 51–57, 59, 61, 80, 322, 330, 332, 344, 355, 418, 475; 20:301, 308; 21:7, 43, 336

nose 2:120

punctatus 20:389

rufescens 18:468

teguixin 18:427, 442–444; 19:3, 17, 27, 42–44, 49, 51–57, 59, 61, 64, 80, 306, 322, 330, 332, 344, 355, 409, 418, 460, 471, 475; 20:175, 177, 301, 308; 21:7, 373

Turbinal (see Concha; Nasal concha)

Turbidity 8:96, 248

Turbulence 12:281–282

Turbulent flow 19:389, 436, 441

Turkey 2:322

Turkmenia 2:322

Turtle(s) (see also specific families and specific genera;

Testudines; Testudinae) 5:2, 7–8, 10, 14, 20, 23, 25–27, 30, 36–41, 44, 50–51, 55, 59–60, 62–66, 68, 71–72, 79, 81–82, 88–89, 91, 93, 95–96, 101–104, 135–136, 150–154, 156, 174, 180, 187, 191–197, 199, 206, 227–230, 232, 234, 238, 240–243, 245, 247–249, 251, 253, 255, 257–260, 264, 275, 277–278, 284–288, 301, 303, 305, 307–310, 316, 318–321, 323–324, 326–327, 335, 338, 341, 344, 346, 348–349, 352–353, 358, 360, 365–366, 371, 380, 383, 387, 391, 394–395, 406, 408, 414, 416–418, 420, 422–423, 433, 437, 439–440, 448, 451–452, 455–457, 460–461, 463, 465–466, 470–477, 480–481, 486, 488–490, 496; 8:59, 69, 377–378, 589, 596–597, 612, 622–623, 632, 670–674; 9:3, 5, 7–9, 11–12, 14–15, 18–19, 21, 23, 27, 31, 33–34, 42, 57, 65–66, 71, 138–139, 148, 151, 163–167, 248, 251, 256, 288–289, 296, 305–306, 323, 329, 372–374, 389, 407–408, 417, 424, 434; 10:3, 5–8, 10, 12, 14, 18, 20–21, 23–25, 27–29, 31, 33–34, 36–37, 39, 41, 44–45, 59–60, 62–63, 80, 84–85, 92, 96, 100, 133, 182, 191, 203, 206–207, 210, 212, 217–219, 221–222, 224–225, 227, 233, 235, 240–241, 252, 262–263, 265, 269, 274, 276–278, 280–282, 289, 291–294, 296–297, 300–301, 306–307, 310, 314, 316–318, 325, 327, 330; 12:33, 93, 136–142, 146, 172–173, 190–197, 223, 227, 238, 240–241, 250–251, 287, 303, 306, 317, 326, 340, 359, 362, 367, 379, 401–402, 404, 425, 427, 486, 493; 13:1–7, 11, 13–14, 16–19, 21, 23, 25, 28–29, 31–33, 35, 65, 72–75, 85, 98–99, 114, 119, 159, 177, 182, 205, 209–212, 218, 239–240, 246, 262, 276, 279–282, 290–294, 300, 303; 14:14–15, 18, 46, 48, 55, 62, 69, 75–241, 271, 348, 359–360, 374–376, 381, 395, 442, 445, 451, 460, 497, 536, 604, 608–609, 614, 617–618, 626, 637–639, 648, 711, 713–714; 21:293

antipredator mechanisms 16:9, 17, 20–21, 25–27, 58, 66–67, 122, 134–135, 244

aquatic 5:83, 233, 235

box (see Terrapene)

capture methods 16:337–339

diet 16:397–398

eggs and embryos 16:525–528, 531, 538, 544, 562–563, 565–569, 574

elegant (see Pseudemys; Chrysemys scripta)

feeding lures 16:212–213

freshwater 5:39, 61, 105, 327, 417, 451, 455, 460, 465, 470, 474, 477, 480

gopher tortoise (see Gopherus)

green 5:196, 248, 420, 422, 430

heart 5:1, 19

life history 16:335–336, 344–345, 347–349, 352–363, 365–368, 389–421, 436–439

loggerhead (see Caretta)

marking methods 16:340–341

mud (see Kinosternon)

musk (see Sternotherus)

nests 16:532–533, 540–544, 553, 581

painted (see also Chrysemys) 5:33, 466

parental care (see Parental care)

phylogenetic relationships 16:25, 390, 410, 415

predation on 16:6, 8–11, 25–27, 57, 60, 112–113, 397, 403–404, 411–412

red-ear (see also Pseudemys) 5:44

Ridley’s (see Lepidochelys)

sea 5:183, 188–189, 318, 422, 437

sex determination 16:353, 551–553, 572, 583–585

shell (see also Shell) 5:40–41; 16:25–27, 56–57, 347–349, 352–353, 389, 397, 400–401, 420

size 16:398–399

snapping (see Chelydra)

soft-shelled (see Trionyx)

tortoise-shell (see Eretmochelys)

water (see Podocnemis)

Tusk 1:119

Twin

cells 2:42, 44–46, 48, 62

embryos 15:28–29

Twinning 14:452

Twitch 11:299, 304–314

fiber(s) (see also Fibers, twitch) 21:205

tension of muscle 12:168

Two-tier pattern 2:62, 85, 91

Tylosaurus 9:296

dentition 1:171

Tympani 21:493

Tympanic

bulla 4:205, 211, 221, 224, 226, 228, 256–257

cavity 2:196–198, 201, 203, 219, 222–224, 226, 229–233, 242, 247, 262; 11:28, 31, 79, 99–100, 103, 113, 132, 147–148, 214–215, 226, 243; 14:136–137; 21:475

crest 11:33–34, 59, 76; 20:22, 42, 86, 100, 122, 180, 185, 191, 203, 214, 221, 225, 231, 234

crest of quadrate 2:198, 200

disc 14:294

lymph cavities 2:224, 232

membrane 2:193–201, 221, 223–226, 229–233, 242, 262; 4:109, 203, 233, 237, 244, 277, 299–300, 328, 331–334, 338–340, 353, 357, 360, 362, 364, 366, 387–390, 397, 399–400, 404, 420; 11:28, 31, 33, 59, 65, 67, 84, 91, 95, 99–100, 104–105, 113–114, 118, 132, 147, 196, 215, 222, 237, 239; 20:34, 37, 53, 69, 73, 110, 133, 135–136, 191, 207, 214, 216, 238, 244; 21:482

muscle 2:199, 222, 233

plate of extrastapes 2:231

process (see Insertion plate of extracolumella)

process of quadrate 4:374

Tympanocryptis 12:461–462; 16:258; 20:100, 294; 21:190, 398

adelaidensis 21:191

diemensis 21:191

ear 2:271

lineata 21:398

Tympanum 1:20, 38; 14:416, 495

Tyndall scattering 18:305, 309

Type

A cone 2:44, 56, 58, 60–63, 86

A1

cone 2:34–36, 40–42, 45–46

A2

cone 2:34–36, 40–42, 46

A twin cell 2:91

B cone 2:63

B double cell 2:3, 34, 42–46, 56, 60, 77, 91

C cone 2:54, 56, 60–63

C double cell 2:3, 35, 42–46, 88

Cʹ cell (see Type D rod)

D rod 2:56, 63

Typhlacontias 15:115, 636; 16:118

eye 2:14

Typhlina 12:134

Typhlonectes 17:213

Typhlophis 19:235; 21:583

squamosus 19:181; 20:378, 598

urinogenital system 6:90

Typhlopidae 7:497; 8:46, 147, 626, 654, 662, 695; 10:225; 12:126, 134; 15:100, 117, 121, 417, 429, 645, 663, 666–667, 671; 16:39, 121, 151, 288, 296, 454; 17:218; 19:33–34, 68, 116, 122, 130, 132–134, 140, 147, 151–152, 158–159, 161, 181, 235, 413; 20:354, 370–373, 376, 387–394, 398, 408, 589, 598; 21:474, 476, 513, 535, 538, 540, 542, 552, 558–560, 562, 564–565, 567–568, 574, 584, 593, 600–601, 607–609, 611–612, 615

adrenal 3:281

axial muscles 11:357, 417, 421, 431

axial skeleton 1:206, 249, 281, 284–285, 291–292

blood cell morphology 3:77

blood chemistry 3:28, 31, 51

chondrocranium 11:158, 180–185

ear 2:227, 252–254, 268, 271

eye 2:54

histology of gut 6:244, 287, 296, 299

internal relief of gut 6:192, 201, 203, 221

jaw muscles 4:374, 411, 421, 423, 427, 430, 436–440, 448, 480

nose 2:120

pancreas 3:324, 329

pituitary 3:136, 144, 146–147, 151, 154, 181–182, 192–195

urinogenital system 6:30, 113–114

Typhlopidea 19:129, 136, 138

Typhlopids 21:562, 613

Typhlopinae

chondrocranium 11:182–183

jaw muscles 4:370, 436, 438

Typhlopoidea

axial skeleton 1:290, 293–294, 296

dentition 1:178

origin and evolution 1:6

pituitary 3:136

Typhlops (see also Ramphotyphlops; Rhinotyphlops) 7:386, 497; 8:58, 73, 662, 695; 10:204, 230; 12:465; 15:429, 645, 662, 671; 16:121, 151; 17:210, 213; 18:120, 437; 19:33, 68, 81, 123, 133, 144, 147, 184, 235, 507; 20:367; 21:476–477, 483, 485, 488–489, 492, 495, 534–536, 561, 563, 567, 574, 597

acutus 19:100, 413–414, 419; 20:599

adrenal 3:281

albanalis 19:182

amphixanthus19:184

angolensis 19:152, 166, 182; 20:599–600

arenarius 19:182; 20:599

ater 19:182

axial muscles 11:357, 420, 422

axial skeleton 1:249, 286, 292–293, 296–297

beddomii 19:182

bibronii 19:125, 182; 20:599

biminiensis 19:182

bisubocularis 19:182

blanfordi 19:182; 20:599; 21:584

blood cell morphology 3:77, 79, 82, 85

blood chemistry 3:11, 28

boettgeri 19:182; 20:599

brongersmianus 19:182

caecatus 19:182

capitulatus 19:182; 20:599

castanotus 19:182

catapontus 19:182

caymanensis 19:182

chondrocranium 11:180–184, 201–202, 204

collaris 19:182

congestus 19:182

cuneirostris 19:182

decorosus 19:183

decorsei 19:183

delalandii 20:371

dentition 1:178

depressiceps 19:183

diardii 19:183; 20:599

domerguei 19:183

dominicanus 19:183; 20:599

ear 2:227–228, 253–255, 268, 271

elegans 19:183

epactius 19:183

exiguus 19:183

eye 2:24, 50–52, 54–55, 87

floweri 19:183

fornasinii 19:125, 183

fredparkeri 19:100, 183

gierrai 19:183

gonavensis 19:183

granti 19:183; 20:600

hectus 19:183; 20:600

hedraeus 19:183

histology of gut 6:235, 242, 296

hypomethes 19:183

inornatus 19:183

internal relief of gut 6:192, 196–197, 203, 221

jamaicensis 19:183; 20:381, 600; 21:608

jaw muscles 4:370–374, 424–426, 436–440, 470, 480

jerdoni 19:183

khoratensis 19:183

koekkoeki 19:129, 183

kraalii 19:183

lalandii 21:540, 572

lankaensis 19:183

lehneri 19:183

leucostictus 19:183

lineatus 21:543

lineolatus 19:129, 183; 20:386, 394, 600

lumbricalis 19:114, 122, 129, 131, 140, 183; 20:368, 395, 600

malcolmi 19:183

marxi 19:100, 183

mcdowelli 19:100, 183

microcephalus 19:183

microstomus 19:183

minuisquamus 19:183

mirus 19:183

monastus 19:183; 20:600; 21:608

monensis 19:183; 20:600

mucronatus 19:183

muelleri 19:129, 183; 20:599

mutilatus 19:100

nigrescens 19:319

nose 2:120, 122, 136

obtusus 19:183

ocularis 19:183

pammeces 19:183

pancreas 3:323, 329

pituitary 3:147, 182

platycephalus 19:183; 20:386, 600

platyrhynchus 19:183

polygrammicus 20:599

porrectus 19:183

proximus 19:413, 419

punctata(us) 18:442; 19:128–129, 183; 389, 392, 599–600; 21:536–537, 609, 612

pusillus 18:139, 479; 19:183; 20:600

reticulatus 19:130, 138, 150, 183; 20:600

richardii 19:183; 20:390, 600

rondoensis 19:183

rostellatus 19:183; 20:600

ruber 19:183

ruficaudus 19:183

schlegelii 21:584

schmidti 19:183

schmutzi 19:183

schwartzi 19:183; 20:600

siamensis 19:183

steinhausi 19:183; 20:600

subocularis 20:598

sulcatus 19:183; 20:600

syntherus 19:183; 20:600

tenebrarum 19:183

tenuis 19:184

tetrathyreus 19:184; 20:600

titanops 19:184; 20:601

trinitatus 19:184

uluguruensis 19:184

urinogenital system 6:38, 42, 49, 57, 63, 74, 89–90, 95, 113–114

vermicularis 19:99, 123, 132, 184; 20:386, 393, 601

violaceus 19:184

zenkeri 19:184

Typhlosaurus 7:20, 25, 69, 91–92, 94, 96, 117; 15:110, 115, 121; 16:118, 461–462, 464–465, 472–473, 517; 20:140, 142, 148, 247, 252, 271, 298

aurantiacus 20:298

axial muscles 11:357, 383, 387

axial skeleton 1:242–243, 253–254, 262, 267

chondrocranium 11:85

ear 2:221, 224, 271

lineatus 20:141, 144, 298

nose 2:140

Typhlosole 19:561, 571

Typhobis 19:5

Typhus endotoxin 14:653

Tyrannosaurus 7:7, 25; 9:52, 57, 61, 63, 93–94, 96–98, 304

dentition 1:186

Tyrant-subordinate system 7:303

Tyrosine 3:23, 40; 6:43, 228, 248, 252, 280, 294; 17:531; 19:508

 

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