Biology of the Reptilia: Index A

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A band 3:124; 11:269, 273, 293

A1 alpha cell 3:331

A2 alpha cell 3:331

Abastor

ear 2:271

eye 2:55, 61

Abbreviations 8:164

Abdomen(inal) 19:486–487

anastomosis 19:429

artery 19:566

cavity (see also Coelom) 19:533, 545, 561

fat bodies 19:512

glands 15:644

muscles 14:435

pores 14:442

ribs (see also Parasternal chevrons; Gastralia) 21:68, 269

shield 1:315, 317, 330

subregion 1:263

vein(s) 6:322, 332, 334, 336–338, 341, 361, 367, 373, 392, 394–395, 436, 450, 453, 455; 19:401

Abducens

canal 4:224, 228, 257; 11:76, 93, 98, 106, 110, 112, 144, 154, 159, 162, 168, 170, 174, 187, 203; 20:30

foramen 2:8; 20:30

nerve 2:7, 11, 49–50, 67, 74; 11:15, 21–22, 24, 41–44, 52, 56, 66, 74, 105–106, 124, 137–138, 240, 144, 154–155, 158, 160–163, 168, 173–174, 187, 89, 203, 206, 210–212, 217, 224, 236–237; 14:133, 429

Abduction

of the forelimb 4:5, 24–26, 28, 31, 49

of the hindlimbs 4:65–67, 72, 84–85, 95

Abductor digiti quinti 21:213, 324

of fifth metacarpal 21:213, 309–310, 314

Abductores digitorum 21:394

Ablation study (see Lesion study)

Ablepharus 7:492; 8:74–75, 687; 9:332, 340; 12:460; 15:637, 639, 662, 670, 674; 16:117, 141; 20:138, 145, 297; 21:397

adrenal 3:280

chondrocranium 11:65, 70

ear 2:271

eye 2:14, 27, 30

histology of gut 6:268

nose 2:120, 140

pannonicus 20:297

pituitary 3:175

Abnormalities (see Developmental abnormalities)

and parthenogenesis 15:373, 451–453

body wall 15:452

cephalic 15:27

chemically induced 15:134–139

in scalation 1:316, 325

limb 15:134–135

tail 15:370–373, 452

temperature induced 15:48

Aboral lobe of adenohypophysis (see Posterior

lobe of adenohypophysis)

Abovarian cilia 6:93

Abronia 12:118; 15:628; 16:115, 137; 20:205, 302

graminea 20:302

Absorptance 12:293

Absorption 8:635–647, 667, 698

anino acids 8:635–636

of fatty acids 8:642, 644

of ions 8:645

of monosaccharides 8:640–643

of venom 8:450

seasonal variation 8:639, 642

Absorptivity 12:283

Absteigender Schenkel des Choanenganges

(see Choanal tube)

Abuttment contact 21:603–604

Abwehrmilz (defense spleen) 19:544, 570

Acalyptophis 8:26; 13:7, 34; 19:223

peronii 8:26; 20:625

Acanthodactylus 5:130, 423; 7:70, 166, 182, 491; 8:72, 94, 456, 684; 9:20, 332, 380; 12:109–110, 377, 460–461; 13:159; 14:12, 57, 617, 632, 634; 15:43, 307; 16:21, 117, 140, 213; 20:44, 167–168, 170–171, 253, 259, 299; 21:67, 96

adrenal 3:280

blood cell morphology 3:74, 76

blood cell numbers 3:96

boskianus 20:299; 21:7, 155

chondrocranium 11:39–58, 60, 62, 64, 75, 150, 203

dentition 1:167

ear 2:245, 267, 271

erythrurus 20:44, 299, 307

eye 2:27, 30

jaw muscles 4:478

pardalis 20:307

pituitary 3:145, 153, 155, 173, 192

schmidti 18:254

thymus 3:113

urinogenital system 6:38, 49, 59, 61, 70, 82, 87, 97, 115

Acanthophiinae(i) 19:222–223

Acanthophis 7:503; 8:17, 73, 103, 106, 193, 246, 250, 262, 293, 295–296, 334, 358, 369, 377, 442, 471, 475, 478, 493, 519; 12:132; 13:301, 311; 15:654; 16:149, 202, 213, 485, 520; 19:197, 222; 20:518, 542, 545–546, 549; 21:568

adrenal 3:281

antarcticus 8:17, 103, 246, 250, 262–293, 295–296, 334, 358, 369, 377, 442, 456, 471, 475–476, 478, 493, 519; 18:324; 19:197; 20:546, 625

ear 2:272

eye 2:55, 62

jaw muscles 4:449, 453, 482

pituitary 3:148

pyrrhus 8:17; 19:197

Acanthosaura 21:396

armata 20:305

lamnidentata 20:293

lepidogaster 20:293

Acceleration 21:57

Accelerator fiber 10:13–14

Accessory

hypapophyses (see Paraseptal apophysis)

member of double cell 2:3

nasal sinus 4:201, 258, 278

nerve 2:197; 4:163, 166, 168, 175; 11:26, 45, 109, 112, 145, 170, 213, 238

olfactory bulb 2:104, 114, 142, 152; 11:170

olfactory tract 18:41

optic system (see also Nucleus, basal optic) 9:390; 17:176, 205, 533

ossicle 21:124

parathyroid gland 3:238, 248, 257

pectoral vein 3:203

process 1:285

respiratory organs 12:367

scala tympani 2:220, 242–246, 249–251, 255, 261

supralabial gland 8:73

trunk 6:321

Acclimation 5:30–31, 164–166, 256, 297, 354; 12:39, 45, 214, 250, 430–431, 469, 476; 13:32, 54, 63, 67–73, 91–92, 96, 134

state 5:129

temperature 5:31, 33, 164

Acclimatization (see also Acclimation) 12:27; 18:261, 263

Accommodation of eye 2:22, 52, 71–72, 75, 79, 81–84, 86, 91

to venom (see Immunity, natural)

Acellular bone 1:49

Acetabular level 1:232

Acetabulum 4:8, 52–54, 65, 70, 74, 266; 14:56, 447; 21:19, 41, 46, 52–53, 136–139, 142– 149, 151–152, 191, 329, 344, 359

Acetaminophen 18:392

Acetate 3:46

esters 18:203

Acetazolamide 3:45; 5:481; 12:363

Acetic acid 3:41; 6:43, 277, 284

Acetoindoxyesterase 6:43

Acetone 3:296, 306; 18:154

Acetyl naphtholesterase 6:43

Acetyl pyridine adenine 8:341

Acetylation 8:224

Acetylcholine 5:308–309; 8:193, 460, 457, 464– 465, 467–468, 470, 474, 517, 525, 654; 10:3, 12, 15, 17–18, 34, 36, 250, 252; 11:290–291, 296; 12:239–240, 243–244, 247; 14:623; 15:591; 17:159, 592, 589; 18:319; 19:441, 447–448, 451–452

esterase 2:288; 3:305; 17:399, 419, 421

histochemical reactions 8:300

receptor 8:461–463, 467

receptors 5:237

response 8:455

Acetylcholinesterase 6:43–44, 270, 284; 8:165, 175, 188, 191, 294–303, 361, 463, 528; 12:238

inhibitors 8:295, 303–304

occurrence 8:296

purification 8:301

reaction mechanism 8:302–303

serum 8:294

substrate inhibition 8:295

substrates 8:298

thermostability 8:294

“true” 8:294, 300

Acetylglucose amine 8:618–619

Acetylnaphthol esterase 8:91

Ac-globulin (see Proccelerin)

Achalinus 19:154, 224; 20:556, 573; 21:497, 524, 531, 554–555, 575, 577–578

braconnieri 19:199; 20:631

eye 2:49

jaw muscles 4:481

loochooensts 20:555, 631

niger 19:199

rufescens 19:199

spinalis 19:199

werneri 19:199

Acid-base balance 5:11, 58, 81, 230, 238, 335, 339, 349, 353, 360, 495; 19:298, 301–302, 305, 336, 341–346

-base regulation 5:225, 338

alphastat hypothesis 19:305–306, 343–346

equations 16:548

excretion 5:351

factors affecting 16:548–550

fuchsin 3:258

glycerophosphatase 3:305

haematin 6:43, 229, 280, 294

imidazolium 16:550

ions 16:548–550

metabolic effects 16:550

metabolites 5:250

mucin 6:287

mucopolysaccharide 2:158, 175; 3:156, 238; 6:92, 234, 241, 246–247, 251, 265, 271–272, 280, 283, 289, 294, 296, 301

parameters 19:342

phosphatase 3:46, 305; 6:36, 43–44, 92, 113, 230, 237–238, 241, 247, 249, 252, 267–269, 280, 284, 288–290, 292–293, 297, 300; 8:91, 527; 14:604–608, 610–611

apical ridge 15:91–92

chorionic epithelium 15:564

phosphomonoesterase 3:296, 304; 6:295

physical/physiological variables 16:549

physiological controls 16:549–550

polysaccharides 14:609

proteins 16:549–550

regulation 19:341–346

physiochemistry 19:342

temperature 19:341–343

stomach 10:25

thermal dependence 16:549–550

Acidic lipids 18:151

muci 8:52, 56, 67

Acidification 19:466–467

of urine 5:55, 58

Acidity (see pH)

Acidophilic areas 1:89

cells (see Serous cells)

granules 2:180

Acidophils (see Eosinophils)

Acidophily (see also Eosinophily; Erythrophily) 6:115, 246, 265

Acidosis 5:335, 338, 353, 486, 495–496; 13:72–73, 85, 110, 129, 178; 19:301, 305, 312, 316, 512

Acini of exocrine pancreas 3:324, 332

Acipenser 19:565

oocytes 14:46

Aclys 7:469; 20:130–133, 135

concinna 20:296–306

Acontias 9:8, 332; 14:29; 16:117, 141, 266; 19:409; 20:138, 149, 145–146, 297; 21:60, 140, 402, 485, 610–611

axial muscles 11:357, 383, 388; 15:122, 325

axial skeleton 1:242, 247, 253–254, 257–259, 266–267, 270

chondrocranium 11:23, 65, 67–68, 70, 107, 188, 197, 203

ear 2:221, 224, 244, 267, 271

eye 2:13

internal relief of gut 6:177–179, 181

jaw muscles 4:478

meleagris 19:409–410, 417; 20:297–307

nose 2:120, 140

percivali 20:307

plumbeus (see also Nessia; Pseudacontias) 20:144, 147–148, 297, 307

Acontinae 20:138, 140–142, 144–148, 242, 245, 247, 262, 307

Acontophiops lineatus 20:297

Acoustic eminence 10:221, 223

recess 20:33

Acoustical amplification 19:136

Acrantophis 15:646; 19:104, 187, 235

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:283, 291

dumerilii 18:123, 480; 19:187; 20:606

madagascariensis 19:187; 21:606, 611

pit organs 2:301

Acridophaga ursinii 20:619

Acrochordal plate (see also Crista sellaris) 9:2

Acrochordidae 5:227, 421, 438; 6:193; 8:46, 663, 690; 12:126, 345; 13:2, 5–6; 15:45, 645, 664, 667, 671; 16:119, 142, 455, 518; 19:33, 100, 107, 111, 129–130, 133, 135–137, 146, 149, 158, 170, 189, 236, 399, 415; 20:354, 444, 482–487, 489, 492–493, 558, 591–592, 610; 21:491–492, 557–559, 602

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:283, 285–287, 291, 295, 297

chondrocranium 11:152

jaw muscles 4:440, 480

pancreas 3:323

Acrochordoid(ea) 20:395, 500, 597, 610; 21:603

Acrochordus 5:245–246, 249–250, 254, 263–266, 421, 431, 433–434; 8:58, 663, 590; 10:204; 12:428–429; 13:7, 16, 18, 20, 23–24, 29, 32, 34, 36–38; 15:45; 16:119, 142, 518; 19:33, 111, 120, 123, 126, 130, 134, 138, 149–150, 190; 20:483, 485–486; 21:474, 477, 484–485, 489–490, 492–493, 498–500, 508, 518, 524–525, 530, 533–534, 540–541, 546, 550, 553, 557, 560–561, 564, 566–567, 569, 573, 575–579, 581–582, 584, 586, 589, 594, 596–599, 604–605, 610, 612–613

arafurae 19:129, 135–136, 154, 189, 236; 20:486, 610; 21:485, 610

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:283–288, 291

dentition 1:181

ear 2:269, 271

eye 2:83

granulatus 19:105, 107, 129, 131, 136, 139, 154, 189, 236, 415, 418, 453–454, 456, 458, 475; 20:483, 485–486, 610; 21:485, 522, 525, 576, 578, 610

internal relief of gut 6:193, 195–198, 204–205, 209, 221

javanicus 18:28; 19:60, 81, 106, 129, 135, 151, 190, 236, 299, 356; 20:483, 486–487, 610; 21:485, 492, 502, 522, 525, 557, 576, 578, 699, 610

jaw muscles 4:480

nose 2:121–122, 136, 159, 174

Acrodonta 20:49–50, 54, 62, 78–79, 105, 357–258, 264, 273, 281; 21:16

Acrodonty 1:120, 126–128, 135, 152–153, 157– 158, 161, 172–173, 271; 11:95, 135; 20:67, 74, 78, 94, 98, 104, 106, 115, 260, 277

Acrolein 6:48

Acromioclavicular joint 21:93, 224, 229, 257–258

Acromiocoracoid ligament 4:12–14, 25, 31–33, 92–93; 14:155

Acromion 4:12–15, 21–23, 25–26, 30–33; 21:74– 76, 87, 90–91, 222–224, 228, 241, 256

Acromiotrapezius 21:222–223, 225

Acromium 14:155

Acrylic denture material 5:99

Act(s) (see also Display)

definition 7:336

frequencies 7:426

system

Amphisbaenia 7:497

Crocodilia 7:400–401, 506–507

definition 7:336

Sauria 7:351–359, 465–497

Serpentes 7:378–382, 497–506

Testudines 7:337–340, 459–464

ACTH (see also Corticotrophic hormone) 12:254

Actin 17:26; 19:495, 497

Actinomycetes (see also Infection) 19:521

Actinomycin D 15:134–135

Action potential 2:287; 5:85; 11:268, 271, 284–296, 289, 295, 297

Actinopterans 19:562

Activation 11:303

Activational effects 18:75, 77, 81, 85, 88

Active animals 5:129–136, 151, 178, 210, 294, 351, 407

expiration 5:229, 235, 238

inspiration 5:229, 233, 238

oxygen 5:227

respiration 5:285

transport 5:413–414, 492, 495, 497

Activity (see also Exercise) 12:6–7, 32, 58–66, 120, 124, 144–145, 175, 241, 256, 302, 355, 358, 361, 385, 446; 13:31, 155–194; 19:459–460, 537

aerobic 19:61, 69–70

anaerobic 19:64

cycles 5:28

levels 5:129, 258, 266

non-sustainable (burst) 13:176–186,193

patterns 5:176, 371

rhythms 12:223 2-oscillator models 18:253–254, 257–258

basking 18:250–251, 255

bimodal 18:250–251, 257–258

coloration 18:313

diurnal vs. nocturnal 18:252–258

endogenous nature 18:250

light effects 18:249–259

offset 18:256–257

onset/emergence 18:251, 255–257

seasonal variations 18:251–258

temperature effects 18:249–259

season 13:100–102

sexual 19:486

sustainable 13:157–176, 186, 193

temperature range 12:18, 33, 98–141, 146, 167, 214

temperatures 5:30

Acutotyphlops 19:147, 235; 20:365, 386, 388–390

infralabialis 19:136, 181; 20:598

kunuaensis 19:122, 129, 131, 140, 181; 20:391, 598

solomonis 19:181; 20:598

subocularis 19:181; 20:370, 598

Acyrthosiphon pisum 13:260

Aδ fiber 17:397, 403

Adactyly 15:136–137

Adaptation (see also Evolution) 14:20; 16:24; 19:426, 473

of reptilian lungs 19:67–75

thermal 19:501

to stimuli 2:287

Adaptive process 5:3, 71

radiation 4:263; 5:4; 7:35–36

zones 13:301–302

Adduction of the forelimb 4:5, 30–31, 33–34, 49

of the hindlimb 4:67, 74, 84, 96

Adductor

crest of quadrate 20:541, 562, 569

digiti quinti 21:324

externis 20:460

et extensor hallucis et indicus 21:324

femoris 21:323, 331, 335

fossa 4:201, 205, 211, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223, 239–240, 248, 306, 315; 20:36–37, 93, 1–3- 104, 114, 127, 136, 149–150, 257, 165–166, 173–174, 184, 186, 193, 195–196, 207, 209, 216, 218, 224, 226, 232, 235, 241, 247, 249, 274–275, 284, 522, 549; 21:610

mandibulae posterior 21:613

mandibularis externus tendon 1:108

muscle (see Muscle, adductor)

of fifth metacarpal 21:414

-ridge system 21:149

Adductores digitorium 21:394

Adeleiina

blood cell morphology 3:88

Adelophis 19:234

copei 19:199; 20:646

foxi 19:199; 20:646

daryi 20:649

Adelphicos 19:199, 228

latifasciatus 20:649

nigrilatus 19:199; 20:649

quadrivirgatus 19:166, 199

veraepacis 20:649

Adenine 18:305

nucleotide 11:309

Adenocarcinoma 8:512

Adenohypophyseal hormones 15:587–588

Adenohypophysis 3:135, 137, 142–159, 161, 163, 170, 172–174, 176, 178, 181, 183, 190, 192–194, 327; 5:394; 6:80, 114, 119; 15:382–384

Adenohypophysis (pars distalis, intermedia,

tuberalis)

definitions 14:682–683

development 14:685–707, 712–714

hormones 14:346, 692, 702, 704, 709–710, 714

secretory cells 14:687–688, 700, 702–705, 707–709, 713

Adenoma (see also Tumor) 19:523

Adenorhinos 8:29; 19:219; 20:520

barbouri 8:29; 19:190; 20:617

Adenosine 8:193; 17:465; 19:495

diaminase 15:439

diphophatase 8:499

monophosphate (see AMP)

triphophatase (ATPase) 8:165,242–243, 479, 498, 603

triphosphatase 5:200, 320; 6:44, 230; 17:372

triphosphate (see also ATP) 3:46; 5:186; 10:3, 22, 24, 26, 39; 19:512

Adenovirus (see also Infection) 19:517

Adenyl compounds 8:526

cyclase 18:318

Adenylate cyclase 6:118

kinase 5:200

ADH (see Antidiuretic hormone)

Adhesion 21:133

Adhesive subdigital pads 21:181

Adhesives 5:98–99

Adipose body (see Fat body)

lobes (see Fat lobules)

tissue (see also Fat) 19:503

lymphatics of 6:428, 436

Aditus conchae 11:12, 15, 17, 19, 46, 49, 52, 57, 68, 72, 75–77, 84, 86, 88, 103–104, 106, 127, 138, 140, 160, 163,166, 173, 231, 233; 20:439; 21:583–584, 586–587

Adjuvants 8:565

Adnexae of eye 2:6–15, 48–50, 63–64, 66–67, 73–75

Adolfus 20:167, 170

africanus 20:299

alleni 20:299

jacksoni 20:299, 307

Adrenal (adrenaline) 8:194, 474, 518, 527

activity 5:34

capsule 3:275–276, 277–279, 281, 286, 305

colloid 3:296–297

cortex 5:423; 19:515

corticosteroids 5:470–471, 480; 12:254, 384

cytology and development 3:298–309

degeneration 3:309–311

development 3:268

embryology 3:265–268

gland(s) 3:13, 210, 263–317; 6:88, 113, 119; 10:3, 42; 12:247, 257; 13:93–94; 14:441, 446, 710; 17:634; 18:339, 345, 370; 19:487

development 14:307, 309, 446

function 14:613

histology 5:38

histophysiology 3:309–312

hormones 5:430; 19:516

macroscopic anatomy 3:268–274

medulla 17:622–623

microscopic anatomy 3:275–288

portal system 3:273–274

steroid hormone 18:316, 322, 369, 376, 395

steroids 5:480; 13:220

structural types 3:286–287

tissue 3:264, 266, 268, 275, 277–279, 282–283, 285–288, 296–312

weight 5:38

zonation 3:296, 298

Adrenalectomy 3:288; 5:391, 394, 430, 470, 480

Adrenalin 3:264, 309; 13:93–94; 17:622

cells 3:298–309

Adrenaline (see also Epinephrine) 6:87

Adrenergic

blocking agents 5:236–237, 308

control 19:451, 455, 471

fiber(s) 5:237, 310, 416; 8:654; 10:3, 11, 18, 20, 24, 31, 34, 36–37, 39–41; 12:237, 243

innervation 5:308–309

mechanisms 12:246

nerves 19:403, 453–454

neuron 6:70

receptors 5:308; 6:87; 12:238–239, 244; 15:591

regulation 19:452–454

secretomotor innervation 3:341

stimulation 19:447, 455

Adrenoceptors (see Adrenergic receptors)

Adrenocortical

hormones 13:93

insufficiency 5:38

tissue (see Interrenal tissue)

tissues 5:391, 394

Adrenocorticosteroids (see Corticosteroids)

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 17:613, 616–620

Adrenocorticotropin 14:686; 18:309, 317, 319, 341, 345–347, 391–392

Adrenomedullary tissue (see Adrenal tissue)

Adriosaurus 20:585

Adult braincase 20:403

reptiles, maintenance 14:207–217

Adventitia 19:504

of blood vessels 6:268

Adventitious cartilage (see Secondary cartilage)

Aegean 2:322

Aeluroglena 19:230

cucullata 19:199

Aeluronyx

axial skeleton 1:260

Aeluroscalabotes 16:249, 260; 20:122

eye 2:14, 29

feylinis 20:295

Aeration 5:58

Aerial surveys 16:345

Aerobic

activity 5:172, 208; 19:61, 69–70

animals 5:183

capacities 5:14, 83, 183

capacity 19:156–157, 338

metabolic scope 12:135, 168, 173, 182

metabolism 5:7, 79, 82, 176–177, 179–180, 187, 256; 12:30, 168, 201–202, 204, 236, 429; 13:15, 67–73, 157–176, 185–191

aerobic scope 13:15–16, 160–176, 185

allometric relationships 13:159–160, 162–164, 172, 246

maintenance levels 13:155, 158–160, 234, 238, 246, 301

maximal levels 13:160–164, 189, 192

physical training 13:167

thermal dependence 13:162–167, 172, 192–193

pathways 5:207, 302

scope 5:179–181, 184, 186, 193, 210; 19:62

transport system 5:255

Aerobiosis 5:129, 182, 184, 186–187; 11:281, 292, 309, 335, 338

Aeromonas 5:27

Aesculapius 12:397

Aestivation 3:216, 311; 13:136–138

embryonic 14:101 183, 193–199

Aetosauria 9:66, 79, 83, 304

Afferent

adrenal vein 3:274

axons 11:317, 333

fiber 9:410

renal vein 3:270; 6:30–31

Afghanistan 2:323

Afibrinogenemia 8:496

Africa 2:324; 16:5–6

African palatine errectors 20:534

Afroablepharus [“Afroblepharus“] 21:397–398

axial muscles 11:357

chondrocranium 11:65

wahlbergi 21:398

Afroedura 16:115; 20:117–118, 295; 21:79, 396

chondrocranium 11:73, 75

Afrogecko 21:142

swartbergensis 21:396

Afronatrix 19:233

anoscopus 18:199; 20:646

Agama (see also Trapelus) 7:51, 99, 101, 114, 164, 262, 268, 276–277, 310, 361, 368, 370, 376, 407, 413–414, 453, 485–486, 644–645, 660; 8:50–52, 677; 9:26, 28–29, 151, 157, 292, 331, 363, 366, 425, 427, 431; 10:203, 230, 290, 318, 325; 12:62, 106, 334, 369–370, 488; 13:60, 76, 82, 97, 103, 105, 119–120, 125–126, 130, 203, 212, 308–309; 14:48, 605–606, 608–611, 617; 15:27, 42, 80–81, 152, 248, 264, 279, 281, 330–331, 342, 375, 445; 16:6, 21, 29, 114, 132, 134, 136–137, 241, 243, 251–252, 258, 512; 17:18, 99, 314, 487; 19:554; 20:58, 63, 92, 94, 97–98, 100–101, 103, 283; 21:41, 88, 120, 123, 128, 155, 164, 227, 229, 236, 247, 250, 257, 266, 273, 275, 291, 299, 302

aculeata 20:305

adrenal 3:274, 280, 292, 297, 309–310

agama 18:329, 334, 348–350, 362; 19:550–552; 20:98, 293, 305; 21:7, 190, 199

atra 20:293

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:247, 251, 256, 258, 265

bibroni 20:305

blood cell Mortality 3:76, 82, 88

blood cell numbers 3:96, 103

blood chemistry 3:5, 13

bourti 20:305

caucasica 19:579; 20:294

chondrocranium 11:91–94, 203

colonorum 20:293

dention 1:125, 157–160

doriae 20:305

ear 2:266, 271

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:82, 91, 93, 99–104, 106–108

eye 2:27, 41

hispida 20:293; 21:400

histology of gut 6:238, 240, 247, 249–255, 267, 274, 277–278, 290–293, 296–297, 300–301

internal relief of gut 6:177, 182, 184

jaw muscles 4:287, 315, 326, 329, 331, 333–335, 337, 339, 419, 477

muscle tissue 11:279

nose 2:119, 129, 178

pituitary 3:138, 148–149, 171

planiceps 20:99–101, 305; 21:7

sanguinolenta 20:294

sankaranica 20:305

stellio 19:79, 579; 20:294

thymus 3:113

thyroid 3:216, 227

tuberculata 20:294

urinogenital system 6:27, 29–30, 49, 56, 58–59, 83, 97–98, 101–102, 104, 117, 119

vulgaris 20:294

Agamidae 5:145, 168, 172, 387, 399, 401, 421, 423– 424, 426; 7:9, 21, 51, 164, 178, 262, 276–277, 298–299, 307–308, 318, 320, 361, 368, 370, 377–378, 416–417, 446, 485–489; 8:46, 52, 56, 66, 624, 634, 662, 677–678; 9:28, 161, 163, 235, 251, 330, 338–339; 10:34, 221–222, 241, 303; 12:99, 106–108, 379, 406; 13:166; 14:48, 643, 648, 658, 665; 15:7, 42, 330–331, 333, 342–343, 374–375, 416, 418, 488, 502, 626, 663–664, 667–669, 674; 16:28–31, 52, 59, 114, 127, 130, 136–137, 245–246, 257–259, 282, 294, 454–455, 465, 473, 486, 492, 512; 19:11, 21, 24, 30, 41, 66, 70, 399, 406–407; 20:45, 53, 76, 78–79, 84, 86, 89, 91–98, 101–103, 105, 113, 252–253, 256, 258, 60, 262, 264, 267–270, 273–275, 305; 21:13, 16, 66–67, 88, 95, 106, 139, 144, 147, 184, 192, 220, 224, 250, 255, 272, 334, 337, 350, 396, 398–402

adrenal 3:280

axial muscles 11:357, 384

axial skeleton 1:204, 241–242, 247, 251–253, 255, 258–260, 262–263, 265, 267, 269, 301

blood cell morphology 3:76

blood chemistry 3:15, 28, 31, 50, 52

chondrocranium 11:8, 61, 63, 91–95, 196–197

dentition 1:135, 153, 157–161

ear 2:224, 238, 240–241, 266, 271

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:101

eye 2:20, 25, 27–28, 30–31, 89

histology of gut 6:227, 229–231, 246–247, 265, 274, 297–298, 301

internal relief of gut 6:177, 179, 184

jaw muscles 4:289, 318, 326–339, 345, 413, 415–416, 418–419, 477

nose 2:119, 128, 131, 135, 139–140, 142–143, 154, 156, 158, 178

pituitary 3:136, 138, 143, 145–146, 149, 151, 154, 157, 169–171, 192, 194

taxonomic literature 2:320

thyroid 3:204–205

urinogenital system 6:26, 29

Agamodon 7:141; 8:662; 16:37, 127, 135; 19:557; 21:626, 634, 636, 717–718, 726, 728

anguliceps 19:412, 417; 21:626, 719, 726–728, 730

axial skeleton 1:271–272, 274–275, 279–280

chondrocranium 11:126, 132, 134–135

compressus 21:730

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:106

eye 2:24–25

Agamospecies 15:511

Agamura 16:138

persica 20:306

Agarose 8:192

Age (see also Life history methods; Life history

traits; Juvenile) 5:39, 137, 174; 12:145; 19:146, 151, 537

age of snakes 20:489

age-specific reproduction and survival 16:240, 334, 353–356, 444, 454–455, 476–477, 498, 500

body size/length 16:334, 348

bone rings 16:347–350, 398

distribution 16:334–336, 344–353, 405

estimating 16:347–350

fecundity 16:353–368, 498

first reproduction (see Life history traits,

reproductive maturity)

groups 13:130–131

growth 16:347–350

life tables (see Life history traits)

longevity 16:333, 335, 405

mark-recapture 16:349–350

maturity (see Life history traits)

mortality 16:333–336, 345–353, 404–405

reproductive senescence 16:353, 356, 498

shell annuli 16:347–349

skeletochronology 16:347–350, 398

survivorship 16:333–336, 345–353, 404–405, 477

tetracycline 16:348

variation with 3:98–99, 102, 128–129

Age at maturity

crocodilians 7:231, 236

lizards 7:186

snakes 7:224–225

Aggregation (see also Social behavior and aggregation) 5:175

Aggression (see also Social behavior and aggression) 16:352

effect of herbivory 7:304–305

Aggressive behavior (see Behavior)

Aging 14:3, 625

Agkistrodon (see also Calloselasma; Gloydius; Hypnale) 5:45–46, 201–203, 205, 347; 7:100, 116, 205, 207, 209–211, 216, 220, 223, 225–226, 386–387, 390, 394, 398, 505–506; 8:32–33, 35, 37, 97, 99, 103, 122, 124–125, 168, 175, 177, 180–182, 185, 191–195, 234–238, 241, 244–248, 250, 255, 260–263, 265–266, 269–284, 286–287, 290, 293, 297, 307–309, 311–317, 319–320, 324, 326–331, 333, 335–336, 340–341, 348–351, 359, 362, 372, 377–379, 441, 445, 450, 452, 454, 464, 470–472, 478, 484–485, 490–498, 500–501, 503–507, 509, 511, 513, 515, 525, 528, 563, 565, 568, 574–575, 581, 611–612, 629, 655, 696; 9:158; 10:289, 292; 12:131, 133; 13:82, 101–102, 105, 108–109, 112–113, 115, 117, 120, 124, 135, 308, 311; 14:653, 666; 15:46, 561, 655–656, 658, 671, 675; 16:10, 17, 44, 47, 50, 122, 124, 127, 131, 151, 155, 214, 483–484, 521; 17:374–376, 379–382, 385–386, 392, 395, 397–402, 414, 419, 424–426, 436, 440; 18:131, 159, 476, 489; 19:118, 125, 137, 219; 20:494, 510, 517–518, 557

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:297

bilineatus 8:32, 250, 262, 297, 316, 326, 328, 351, 372, 445; 19:190; 20:510, 611

bilineatus bilineatus 18:160, 324

blomhoffi 8:32, 175, 180–182, 185, 187, 194–195, 238, 241, 244, 250, 262, 265, 271–272, 274–284, 307, 317, 319–320, 328–331, 335, 340–341, 445, 485, 503, 506–507, 525; 20:615

blood cell numbers 3:97

blood chemistry 3:6, 11, 28, 35, 45–46, 51

caliginosus 8:32; 20:615

complex 20:496

contortrix 8:32, 99, 168, 175, 181, 191–194, 238, 250, 262, 297, 307, 309, 333, 335, 340, 348–351, 359, 372, 377, 441, 445, 478, 484, 511; 18:131, 160, 258, 324; 19:112, 190, 416, 418; 20:611

contortrix mokasen 18:160

ear 2:270, 272

eye 2:61

halys 8:32, 191, 245, 297, 312, 314–315, 326, 445, 563, 565, 568, 574–575, 581; 18:123; 20:615

himalayanus 8:33; 20:615

intermedius 20:615.

internal relief of gut 6:193–194, 196–197, 205

jaw muscles 4:482

monticola 8:33

muscle tissue 11:283, 336

nose 2:179

parathyroid 3:248

piscivorus 8:33, 99, 125, 168, 175, 177, 180–181, 191, 193–194, 234–236, 238, 244, 246–248, 250, 253, 255, 260–263, 265–266, 269–270, 286–287, 290, 293, 297, 307–312, 315, 317, 319–320, 324, 326–329, 336, 340, 351, 362, 372, 377–379, 445, 452, 454, 464, 470–471, 478, 484, 497, 501, 504–505, 509, 513, 515, 528, 611–612, 629, 655, 664, 696; 18:161, 163, 324, 465, 490–491; 19:99, 190; 20:498, 508, 512, 520, 612

pit organs 2:280, 282, 287, 295, 305–306, 312

saxatilis 8:33; 20:615

shedaoensis 20:615

strauchi 8:33; 20:615

thyroid 3:209, 228

urinogenital system 6:29, 94

Agkistrodontini 19:219

Agglutination 8:372

Aglomerular diverticula 6:31, 33

Aglyphous 8:94, 142, 149, 440; 20:488, 534

Aglyphy 1:178, 180–183

Agnatha (see also Cyclostomata) 19:561–562, 571, 574, 576

chondrocranium 11:7

Agnathostomatosis 15:453

Agonistic behavior (see Social behavior and

aggression)

Agrionemys 12:137; 17:204–205

Aguimorpha 19:29

Ahaetulla 7:384, 499; 8:39, 663, 691; 15:646–647, 671; 16:50, 123, 125, 144; 19:162, 199, 232; 20:556, 565, 581

ahaetulla 20:634

axial muscles 11:402

ear 2:271

eye 2:54–55, 63

fasciolata 19:199

jaw muscles 4:428, 446–447, 449, 465, 481

lymphatics 6:356

mycterizans 19:127, 199; 20:634

nasuta 8:39, 663; 19:127, 152, 199; 20:572, 634

nose 2:179

papuae 8:39

prasina 19:127, 159, 199; 20:568–569, 634

pulverulenta 19:199

xanthozona 19:199

Ahaetullini 19:232

Aigialosauridae 20:196

Aigialosaurs 21:123

Ailuronyx 16:115; 20:122, 124; 20:187

eye 2:26, 31

seychellensis 20:306

Aiolosaurus 20:235

oriens 20:303

Aipysurini 19:223

Aipysurus 5:421, 431, 433–436; 8:26–27, 442; 12:377, 383; 13:7, 34; 16:43; 19:223, 348; 20:536, 542, 544; 21:592

apraefrontalis 8:26; 19:107, 198

duboisii 8:26; 19:107, 198

ear 2:272

eydouxi 8:26; 18:438; 19:198; 20:538, 549, 625

foliosquama 8:26; 20:536–626

fuscus 8:26; 19:107, 198; 20:626

jaw muscles 4:482

laevis 8:27, 442; 19:107, 198, 348, 356; 20:538, 626

tenuis 8:27

Air-bladders 19:566

-blood barrier 19:15–16, 29, 49, 54–55, 57–58, 147, 327

breathing 5:284–286, 289, 291–292, 321, 336–337, 351

flow 19:61, 115–116, 302, 306–307, 313, 338–339

sac 19:7, 51, 72, 74, 328–329, 334

sac of lung 5:227, 232

sacs in lung development 14:174

space 19:2, 7–8, 10–12, 64, 352

temperature (see Ambient temperature)

temperature profile 12:318

Airborne vibrations 19:157

Aistopoda, origin and evolution 1:20, 36

Akinesis 20:49, 51, 64, 66–67, 74, 106, 115, 262, 269, 285–286

Aktograph 5:83

Ala temporalis 11:190

Alactacid 5:187–188

Alanine 3:23–25, 40, 45; 5:183, 196, 486; 13:177; 19:515

Alar plate 9:179, 234; 10:193; 17:498

process of basisphenoid 4:320; 11:59, 112

process of prootic 20:28, 30–31, 42–43, 55, 72, 75–76, 104, 113, 115–116, 122, 126, 128, 133, 135, 137, 144, 147–148, 150, 156, 158, 164, 166, 170, 172, 174, 180, 183, 186, 191, 193, 195–196, 203, 206, 209, 214, 216–217, 220–221, 223, 225, 231–232, 234, 240, 246, 248, 272, 278, 282, 284, 441–442

process of sphenoid 20:156, 164, 166, 172, 174

thorns 20:528

Alarm (see also Pheromone, alarm) 18:424, 476–477

pheromone (see Pheromone, alarm)

reaction 10:294

Alary process of the prootic 21:522–523

Albabophis, blood cells numbers 3:103

Albertochampsa, skull 4:273, 280

Albinism 14:455

Albumin (see also Eggs; Water) 3:27, 29–31, 35, 49–53, 222; 5:59; 6:85, 87; 8:268, 291, 321, 376, 515, 567; 11:291; 12:306; 14:112–113, 115, 118–119, 143, 193, 200, 230, 236, 274, 276, 278, 365, 367, 378–380, 460, 497–498, 659; 15:47

air spaces 14:90–91, 362

antimicrobial properties 14:374, 498

chemical composition 14:314–315, 377

viscosity 14:236, 377

water uptake 14:142, 232, 359

Albuminous gland 6:54, 85, 87, 91–93, 96

Alcian blue 3:137–139, 145–146, 149–151, 153– 154, 158, 163, 169–171, 173, 177, 180, 182, 185–186, 238, 329; 6:92, 226, 229, 234, 248, 251, 265, 270, 283, 287–289, 291, 293–294, 297–299; 8:48, 107, 122; 14:609

Alcohol(s) 5:88, 280; 18:145, 154–155, 169, 171

dehydrogenase 6:231, 249, 269, 280, 284, 295

Aldehyde fuchsin 3:122, 329

Aldolase 5:200; 8:509

Aldosterone 5:394, 430, 471; 6:76; 13:93–94

Alecto curta 20:627

Alethinophidia (see also Basal, Alethinophidia) 20:357, 365, 367, 369, 394–396, 400, 424, 444, 446, 382, 484, 528, 548, 685, 589–591, 595, 601; 21:478, 512–513, 516, 522, 530– 531, 533–534, 536–538, 541, 545, 547–548, 564, 572–574, 576, 580, 582–586, 588–590, 593, 595–597, 599–601, 608–609, 612–614

Alethinophidian bridge 21:480, 522–523

Alethinophidians 19:138; 20:364, 367, 372, 397– 399, 524, 585, 592, 594; 21:528, 581, 608

Algae 5:11, 318, 391

Algyroides 7:491; 8:684; 15:306–307; 20:167, 299

histology of gut 6:278

marchi 20:299

nigropunctatus 20:307

Alimentary canal 10:9

development 14:311–313

tract 8:589

Aliphatic n-acetate 18:452

n-fatty acids 18:452

Alisphenoid 4:130, 138; 11:3, 6, 23, 31–32, 195, 190–191, 242

Alizarine staining 1:205

Alkaline earths 3:13, 36–37

glycerophosphatase 3:296

non-specific alkaline phosphatase (see Phosphatase)

phosphatase 3:46, 295, 305; 5:208; 6:13, 36, 43, 92, 113, 230, 237–238, 249, 252, 267, 280–281; 8:111, 121–122, 237–238, 340, 362, 509; 14:46, 56, 604–607, 609

apical ridge 15:91–92

limb bud 15:91

phosphomonoesterase 3:295; 6:295

reserve 5:174

tide 5:12; 19:322

urine 5:480–481, 483, 486

Alkalinity (see pH)

Alkalosis 5:245, 335, 338, 478, 495; 19:301

Allantoic

blood vessels 14:146, 230

bud 15:186, 195

cavity 15:538–539, 549–550

diverticulum 15:186

fluid 14:232, 236, 314–315, 499

grafts of phallic anlagen 15:245

membrane 14:196, 198, 237; 15:538, 540, 546, 552, 556

placenta 6:103, 121

sac 16:531

stalk 14:144; 15:536

vesicle 15:14, 19, 539, 550

Allantoin 19:515

Allantois 1:37; 14:18, 160, 169–171, 198, 232, 377–380, 439

blood vessels (or vascularity) (see also Arteries;

Veins) 15:538, 540, 551, 553–558, 592–594

development 14:13, 78, 96, 144, 147, 160, 169, 174, 176, 225, 227–228, 290, 292, 399–400, 410, 448, 497, 502, 509–510, 512

endoderm 15:536, 554

formation 15:14, 19, 185, 190, 230, 539, 548, 550

mesoderm 14:536

Allantoplacenta (see Allantoic placenta; Placenta,

chorio-allantoic)

Allelomorphic genes 3:48

Allergy 14:602

Alligator 10:6, 25, 31, 43–44, 96, 300–301, 303, 306, 317–318, 328

Alligator 5:8, 35, 38, 44–45, 51–53, 60–61, 68–69, 72, 97, 136, 154–156, 167, 180, 183, 188, 194, 196, 198–199, 227, 254, 259–260, 264, 266, 289–291, 294, 297, 303, 308, 310, 320–322, 325, 337, 340, 342, 344, 347, 358, 371, 448–449, 481, 483, 486; 7:234–237, 239–240, 403, 507–507, 570, 596–597, 603–604, 634, 636, 668; 8:49, 59, 65, 150, 596, 602, 623, 637, 661, 674–675; 9:43, 154, 164, 182, 186, 196, 199, 214, 226, 235, 252, 417; 10:23, 137, 166, 175, 206, 224, 226, 289–290, 293, 297, 317; 12:135–136, 185–189, 223, 238, 347, 252, 286, 288–289, 292–293, 295–296, 298–299, 306, 327, 337, 340, 363, 367, 383; 13:15, 25, 34, 36, 56, 60, 65, 81, 91, 94, 102–103, 119, 167, 177, 192, 205, 209, 235, 280, 289, 307, 310; 14:10, 27, 232, 331–334, 336–344, 346–352, 355–356, 358–361, 363–364, 366–369, 371, 378, 380–381, 384–386, 388, 390, 392–397, 404, 408–409, 411, 413–416, 419, 421–422, 424, 428–430, 433, 436, 439–442, 444–449, 451, 456, 531–532, 536, 617, 628, 638, 643, 654, 660–661, 664, 691, 693, 712, 714; 15:152, 159, 170, 179, 251, 263, 278–279, 281, 286; 16:9, 113, 135, 280, 299–300, 302–303, 305, 335, 528, 533, 546, 443, 558; 17:8, 20, 26, 31, 100, 185, 188–189, 204, 245, 249, 296, 299, 498–499, 624–625, 670, 675, 683; 19:71, 306, 310, 312, 319–321, 328, 333, 474, 491, 539, 559, 578

adrenal 3:265, 273, 284, 289

axial muscles 11:356

axial skeleton 1:227–228, 230–233

blood cell numbers 3:96, 98

blood chemistry 3:3, 6, 11, 13, 16, 18–21, 23–27, 30–35, 38–40, 43–46, 49–50, 52

bone 1:60

chondrocranium 11:228, 232, 234–235, 237, 240, 245

dentition 1:125, 141, 146–147, 185

ear 2:259, 270, 272

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:85–86, 89–90, 93

eye 2:5, 76–78

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:130, 134, 136–138, 140–141, 143–145, 184, 186–190, 192–193

histology of gut 6:235–236, 265, 268, 271, 277–278

internal relief of gut 6:212–217

lymphatics 6:316, 323, 349, 354, 358, 389, 393–394, 403, 417, 422, 431, 434, 446,452–453, 458

mississippiensis 18:34, 46, 199–204, 237–238, 243, 273, 322, 467; 19:34, 36, 60, 66, 81, 311, 314–315, 320–321, 324–325, 330, 344, 356, 392–393, 419, 429, 438–439, 442, 454, 458, 471, 475, 487, 489–491, 495, 502, 509, 526, 557–558, 580

muscle tissue 11:275, 278, 290, 294, 297, 317, 325, 336

nose 2:144–146, 148–150, 160, 165, 157–168, 173, 179

pancreas 3:321–322, 326, 329, 333, 335, 337–339

parathyroid 3:243, 245

pituitary 3:165, 190

sinensis 19:580

skull 4:201, 206–208, 212, 218–219, 222–224, 227–233, 235–238, 240, 243, 246–247, 253, 272, 274

status in North America 7:239–240

thymus 3:118

thyroid 3:214–215, 228

urinogenital system 6:5–7, 13, 20–21, 27–28, 32–33, 36, 49–50, 52, 70, 91–92, 116–118

Alligatoridae 16:113, 135

blood chemistry 3:49

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:130, 184

skull 4:202, 212, 222, 225–226, 230, 232, 234–236, 239, 241, 275, 279–280

Alligatorinae

axial skeleton 1:226–227

dentition 1:185

internal relief of gut 6:212–213

Allognathosuchus, skull 4:279

Allografts 14:637, 639–642, 644, 663

Allometric changes 21:55

growth 2:144, 148

relationships

aerobic metabolism 13:159–160, 162–164, 186–188, 240–246

anaerobic metabolism 13:179–180, 182, 184

clutch size 13:265

growth 13:273, 290–294

locomotion 13:169–174

transport 13:169–170

Allometry (see also Coefficient of allometry) 5:137; 9:53, 61, 106, 132, 136, 137, 151, 157, 160, 166; 19:36, 67–68; 20:392, 406, 562, 582

Allomones 18:159, 200

Allopatric species 15:482–483, 500

Allopatry 15:502–503

Allopleuron, shell 1:313

Allosaurus 7:7; 9:157, 332

dentition 1:186

Alloxan 3:23

-Schiff 6:228

Alluaudina 19:225

bellyi 19:199

Alopias 19:562

Alopoglossus

atriventris 20:308

buckleyi 20:187, 189, 301, 308

festae 20:308

Alpha (α)

-adrenergic receptor 18:317–319, 344–345

-amino group 6:294

blocking agents 5:237

cells of pancreas 3:326, 328–338, 340–342

cells of pituitary 3:143, 148, 152–154, 156–157, 161–163, 166, 168–172, 174–177, 179–188, 191, 193–194

-fetoprotein 18:78

imidazole 5:358

keratin 12:401–402, 408–412, 416

-layer 18:153–154

layer cells of skin 12:404–405, 412–414, 421

proteins 3:27

-amino butyric acid 3:23

-globulin 3:38

receptors 12:238, 246

rhythm 10:327

-2-macroglobulin 14:377

Alphastat hypothesis 19:305- 306 343–346

Alsophiini 19:133, 158, 226

Alsophis 7:393, 499; 8:39, 97, 691; 16:144; 21:521

angulifer 8:39; 19:199

antillensis 19:199

cantherigerus 19:199; 20:652

dorsalis 19:152, 199

ear 2:271

hoodensis 19:199

parvifrons 20:652

portoricensis 8:39; 19:152, 199; 20:652

rufiventris 19:199; 20:652

sibonius 20:652

slevini 19:199

steinbachi 19:199

vudii 19:199; 20:652

Alsophylax 16:138

Alternate tooth replacement 1:120

Alternative mating strategies 16:209–210

Altitude 12:69–71, 251; 13:76, 98, 184, 204

variation with 3:100, 105

Altitudes 5:193, 195–196, 255

Alum 8:566

Aluminium, in egg shells 14:82, 374

Alveolar

air samples 5:245

air-water interface 19:349

blood gases 5:244

bone 1:126

canal 21:557, 600

-capillary equilibration 19:327

circumferance 19:349

epithelium 19:352

foramina 20:378

gas 5:247

groove 4:241

lung(s) 5:248; 19:324, 353

membrane 5:225–226

network 19:23

oxygen pressure 5:305

partial pressure of oxygen 19:300, 326

PO 2 5:243, 277, 301

process 1:146

ridge 4:241

sack 19:7

space 19:330

surface 19:59, 349

ultrastructure 5:231

values 5:241

ventilation 5:230, 348–350; 19:308

Alveoli 5:228

Alveolus (see Tooth socket)

Alveolus(i) 19:7, 51, 69, 107, 328, 349

Amacrine cells 2:34, 39, 61

Amanita mushrooms 19:517

Amastridium 19:224

veliferum 19:199

Amberlite IRC-50 8:178, 191

Ambiens 21:323

Ambient temperature 12:19, 167, 219, 282, 291–292; 13:62

Amblycephalus, jaw muscles 4:430

Amblyodipsas 8:90; 15:663; 16:119, 144; 19:122, 140, 220; 20:523–524, 527, 529; 21:512, 580

concolor 19:193

dimidiata 19:193

katangensis 19:148, 193

micropthalma 19:193

polylepis 19:148, 193; 20:523–526, 529, 619

rodhaini 19:194

unicolor 19:194; 20:619

ventrimaculata 19:148, 194

Amblyrhynchus 5:2, 11, 102, 277, 297, 299, 312– 318, 366, 369–370, 391, 415, 420, 423–428, 436; 7:50, 98, 102, 165, 270, 274, 303–305, 311, 316, 472; 8:632–633; 12:54, 56, 100, 103, 176–177, 183, 187, 306, 330, 354, 376, 379, 383, 488, 491–493; 13:2–4, 7, 11, 13–14, 23–24, 28, 31, 157, 161, 165, 167, 170, 175, 182–183, 187, 192; 15:330, 342, 374; 16:8, 116, 139, 249, 256, 283, 300; 19:460; 20:79, 81–82, 84, 87, 89–90; 21:51, 56

axial skeleton 1:241, 267, 269

blood chemistry 3:15

cristatus 18:362, 370–371; 19:355; 20:291, 304; 21:7

dentition 1:154–156

ear 2:270

eye 2:82

jaw muscles 4:477

Ambystoma 10:95; 13:127; 14:7; 16:9; 17:38

muscle tissue 11:267

pancreas 3:333

parthenogenesis 15:414, 492, 495

premeiotic restitution 15:491

thymus 3:121

triploids 15:478

urinogenital system 6:45

Ameiva 7:51, 56, 69, 71, 82, 94, 100, 112, 140–141, 145, 167, 191, 278, 280–282, 489, 661; 8:662, 688; 10:223; 12:52–53, 115–116, 331, 377, 379, 384; 13:311; 15:494; 16:8, 50, 118, 141, 403, 517–518; 18:169, 433; 20:174, 176, 178–182, 184–185, 300; 21:7, 53, 96, 190, 220, 223, 226–228, 234–235, 271, 275, 278, 285, 288–289, 294, 298, 300–301, 374

ameiva 19:27, 78; 20:300, 308

axial muscles 11:357

blood cell morphology 3:77

chondrocranium 11:71

chrysolaema 18:175

dentition 1:163–164

dorsalis 20:308; 21:7

ear 2:243, 267, 271

eye 2:27, 41

guttatus 20:300

internal relief of gut 6:177, 187, 220–221

jaw muscles 4:351, 478

nose 2:120

quadrilineata 18:175

surinamensis 21:373

undulata 20:300; 21:223

urinogenital system 6:63, 73, 104

Amelia 15:132

Ameloblast(s) 1:125; 14:526

America 2:321

Amia 19:565–566

calva 19:316

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:114

Amidase 8:166

Amide residues 3:25

Amides 13:72

Amido Schwartz 8:190, 361

Amino acid 6:228, 237; 19:342, 499

acid esterase activity 8:91

acid oxidase 8:165, 248, 362, 374

L- 8:98, 111–112, 125, 127–128, 139–140, 144, 147, 166, 178, 188–189, 248–257, 470, 528

acid sequences 8:44

acids 3:23–25, 40, 45, 209, 333, 335; 5:81, 183, 206, 486; 8:635–639, 666; 12:342; 13:72, 90, 96

eggshell 14:81, 88, 315, 375

hemoglobin 14:313

immunoglobulin 14:655

in neurotoxins 8:197

keratin 14:527

ovalbumin 14:315

formation and interconversion 5:206

histidine 5:358

metabolism 5:196

Aminocaproic acid 8:330, 495

Aminopterin 3:38

Ammocoete 19:571

typhlosole 19:572, 574

Ammonia 3:25–26; 5:383, 483, 496–488; 12:326, 333, 345, 363; 14:362, 377

Ammoniacal silver nitrate 6:284

Ammonium bicarbonate 3:13; 13:23

heparin 5:61

hydroxide 8:569; 18:145

molybdate 6:284

sulfate 3:30, 32, 36

sulfate fractionation 8:568–569, 571

urate 5:491

Amniochorion 14:18, 169, 503, 506, 512–513; 15:14

Amniogenesis 15:3, 13–14, 18, 530, 548–549

Amnion 1:37; 14:18, 99, 160–161, 165–169, 176, 288, 377, 380–381, 386, 388, 399–401, 502, 508–509, 512

Amniota 19:3, 14, 20, 28, 46, 68, 71, 107, 473

Amniote 10:78, 93, 99–100, 299; 12:9

egg 1:35, 38–39

embryo 19:40

Amniotes

developmental patterns 14:17–18, 200

integument 14:526–527, 529–530, 539, 571

pitiutary development 14:681, 715–716

Amniotic canal 14:512–513

cavity 14:117, 138, 193, 225, 378, 506, 512–513; 15:548, 568

egg 5:12

fluid 14:236, 314–315, 381; 15:568, 570–571, 574, 578, 587

folds 15:548

membranes 5:12, 365

tube 14:99, 167, 169, 176, 288

Amoebiasis (see also Infection) 19:520–521

Amoeboid movement 6:107, 109–111

AMP 8:193; 12:245

Amphenone B 5:394, 429

Amphiarthrodial joint 20:518, 568

Amphiarthrosis 1:207

Amphibia (including both Latin and commonly

named taxa; see also Anura, Urodeles) 7:13, 665; 9:11, 17, 156, 341, 409, 433; 19:4–5, 21, 44, 46, 48, 59, 65, 67–68, 74, 298, 300–301, 305, 310, 312, 314, 316–317, 319–322, 324, 334, 342, 344, 347, 350, 352–353, 376–377, 387, 389, 402, 428, 468, 501, 503–504, 508, 516, 524, 536–537, 540–544, 564, 567–568, 572–573, 576–578; 21:174, 181, 192, 194, 260, 364, 373

axial muscles 11:355, 358

axial skeleton 1:208

blood cell morphology 3:83

blood chemistry 3:34

bone 1:71, 73

chondrocranium 11:21, 39, 222

chromatophores 14:529

cutaneous respiration 14:527

dentition 1:118, 120, 125, 150

development 14:16, 21, 501

ear 2:262–263

effect of temperature on sex 15:281–282

eggs 14:5, 17

epidermis 14:531

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:84, 90

expression of H-Y antigem 15:275, 278

eye 2:27, 87

fossil 14:527

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:103, 168

histology of gut 6:232, 234, 236, 269

immune system 14:614, 624, 639, 666

internal relief of gut 6:219

limb buds 15:61

limb reduction 14:20

limbs 4:16

lymphatics 6:315, 386, 447

metamorphosis 15:281

muscle tissue 11:265–268, 271, 277, 282, 291–292, 295, 298, 328, 338

nose 2:102, 104, 115, 182–183

parthenogenesis 15:413

pituitary 3:196

primary induction 14:5

pronephros 15:179

regeneration 15:351, 353, 359, 362–363, 373, 382, 384, 386

skin shedding 14:537

skull 4:278

taxonomic literature 2:318–321

temnospondyl 14:151

thymus 3:116, 124

thyroid 3:201, 214

urinogenital system 6:1, 4, 7, 18–19, 21, 32, 36, 48, 55, 117–118, 120

viviparous 15:579

yolk sac 14:18

Amphibian(s) 5:2, 12–13, 30, 43, 55, 61, 157, 206, 229, 237–238, 251, 253, 276, 341–344, 365–366, 370, 378, 382–383, 385, 388, 468; 8:2; 10:11, 24, 27–29, 93, 118, 168, 193, 252, 259, 287–288, 290–291, 299, 301, 303, 323, 325–326, 328, 331–332; 12:223, 233, 236, 239, 363, 398–399, 418, 434, 468; 13:129, 155–156, 179, 182, 188; 16:8–9, 39, 293, 304–305, 311–315

Amphibious 19:298

habits 4:265

Amphibolurus 5:9, 130, 141–142, 158, 160, 162, 165, 174, 176–179, 181, 183, 188, 366–367, 369–370, 373, 377, 379, 384, 389–391, 398– 402, 405; 7:66, 101, 139–139, 148–150, 152, 162, 164, 168–170, 173, 174, 176, 183–186, 189, 198, 276–277, 310, 365, 360–370, 376, 413, 486–487; 8:662, 677; 9:28, 251, 331; 10:34; 12:95, 106–108, 174, 176–177, 181, 225, 253–254, 329–330, 333–334, 338–339, 341, 347, 359, 362, 365–367, 369–371, 374, 385–386, 460–461, 473, 487–488; 13:34, 236, 161, 164–165, 302, 308, 311; 15:43, 507; 16:29, 49, 67, 114, 137, 258, 464–465, 512, 531; 17:99; 18:168; 20:92; 21:155, 190, 192, 358, 396

adrenal 3:280

axial skeleton 1:258, 265

barbata 19:79; 20:294

blood cell morphology 3:76

blood chemistry 3:5, 15

chondrocranium 11:91

decresii 18:387; 20:294

dentition 1:160

ear 2:271

eye 2:27

fordi 18:168, 172

jaw muscles 4:417, 419, 477

maculosus 18:350, 362, 372

muricatus 20:305; 21:53, 191

nose 2:119, 129

ornatus 18:167

reticulatus 20:305

urinogenital system 6:21, 26, 29–30, 98–100, 105

vadnappa 18:387

vitticeps 19:418

Amphichelydia

axial skeleton 1:210

origin and evolution 1:2, 9

shell 1:332–333, 336

Amphicoely 1:205–206, 208, 210, 226, 234, 236, 242–245, 255,300–301; 11:82

Amphicyrtian centrum (see Biconvex centrum)

Amphiesma (see also other natricines) 7:227, 499; 16:144, 286; 19:104, 146, 233, 236

beddomei 19:152, 199

bitaeniata 19:199

celebica (as Rhabdophis) 19:199, 214

conspicillata (see also Rhabdophis) 19:199

craspedogaster 19:199

deschauenseei 19:152

doriae (see also Tropidonophis) 19:199

flavifrons 19:199

frenata 19:199

inas 19:199

johannis 19:199

khasiensis 19:199

modesta 19:199

monticola 19:199; 20:646

octolineata 19:199

parallela 19:199

petersi 19:199

picturata (see also Tropidonophis) 19:199

platyceps 19:152, 200

popei 19:200

pryeri 19:200

sarasinora (as Rhabdophis) 19:214

sarawacensis 19:200

sauteri 19:200

stolata 19:200; 20:646

tigrinum 20:648

venningi 19:200

vibakari 19:164, 200

xenura 19:200

Amphiesmoides 19:233

ornaticeps 19:200

Amphiglossus

alluaudi 21:401

andranovahensis 21:399

ankodabensis 21:399

ansayensis 21:399

ardouini 21:400

astrolabi 21:399

crenni 21:403

decaryi 21:399

elongatus 21:402

gastrostictus 21:399

igneocaudatus 21:399

johannae 21:401

macrocercus 21:399

mandady 21:399

melanopleurus 21:399

melanurus 21:399

mouroundavae 21:399

ornaticeps 21:399

praeornatus 21:399

punctatus 21:399

reticulatus 21:399

spilostichus 21:399

splendidus 21:399

stumpffi 21:399

tanysoma 21:401

trivittatus 21:402

Amphigonia retardata 6:94

Amphikinesis 11:64, 113, 198; 20:49, 81, 94, 118, 130, 140, 152, 160, 168, 176, 200, 219, 228, 283

Amphipods 12:354, 356

Amphisbaena 5:373; 7:497; 8:71, 689; 10:204, 229; 12:125, 459; 15:337; 16:37, 56, 114, 130, 136, 245, 252; 17:13; 21:624, 626, 635, 643–644, 648, 655–656, 659, 661–662, 674, 676, 689, 711–712

alba 19:33, 81, 356, 412, 418, 557, 579; 21:623, 626–630, 634, 644, 648, 652–654, 707, 730

amazonica 21:652–654, 730

angustifrons 21:648, 652–654, 730

axial muscles 11:357, 390, 392

axial skeleton 1:271–273, 276, 278–280

bakeri 21:648, 730

bolivica 21:648, 652–656, 730

braestrupae 21:627

caeca 21:626, 635, 648, 656, 661, 730

camura 21:648, 731

caudalis 21:626

cegei 21:626, 731

chondrocranium 11:126, 132–133, 135, 201

cubana 21:626, 635, 648, 661, 731

darwini 19:557; 21:662

dubia 21:652–654, 731

ear 2:250, 268, 271

eye 2:24–25, 43, 46, 48, 87

fenestrata 21:635, 661, 731

frontalis 21:635, 674–675, 689, 731

fuliginosa 19:33, 81; 21:623, 626, 634

hastata 21:731

heterozonata 21:631–632, 634, 652–654, 731

hogei 21:652–654, 731

ignatiana 21:731

innocens 21:731

internal relief of gut 6:190–192

jaw muscles 4:311, 315–316, 388, 394, 397–398, 401, 405, 407–412, 414–416, 420, 466, 479–480

laurenti 21:627

leucocephala 21:652–654, 731

lumbricalis 21:648, 650, 652–654, 731

manni 21:648, 731

mertensi 21:652–654, 731

mitchelli 21:652–654, 731

muscle tissue 11:283, 336

nose 2:120, 124, 127, 140, 143

pancreas 3:324, 328

petrei 21:652–654, 731

plumbea 21:731

prunicolor 21:652–654, 731

ridleyi 21:648, 656–657

silvestrii 21:652–654, 731

slevini 21:648, 650, 652–654, 731

thymus 3:113, 117

towsendi 21:731

trachura 21:626, 731

vermicularis 21:652–654, 731

violacea 21:624

Amphisbaenia(n) (see also Amphisbaenia; Bipes;

Diplometopon; Rhineura; Trogonophis) 5:2, 10, 130, 145, 371, 381–382, 395; 7:6, 497, 571; 8:46, 52, 58,66, 71, 144, 151, 623–625, 659, 662, 689–690; 9:8, 10, 16, 19, 26–27, 31, 34, 43, 57, 66, 75, 78, 157–158, 163, 166, 296, 371; 10:203, 217, 221, 241; 12:125, 142, 360, 367, 379, 424, 467, 472, 493; 13:206, 210; 14:6, 535–536, 617, 636, 711; 15:3–4, 18, 30, 39, 303, 337, 341, 373, 660, 663, 667, 669; 16:6, 10–13, 37, 53, 56, 58, 114, 136, 265–266, 454; 17:216, 248; 19:2, 21, 27–28, 33, 41, 81, 297, 304, 544, 547, 579; 20:5, 23, 75, 116, 137, 241, 246, 281, 284, 462, 366, 395, 583–584, 586; 21:9, 16, 65, 621, 625, 634, 636; 21:485, 546

axial muscles 11:357–358, 361, 387, 389–394, 411, 414, 417, 425, 427–428, 430–431

axial skeleton 1:203–204, 206, 209, 240–241, 250, 257, 259–260, 266, 268, 271–282, 285, 289, 293, 296, 301–302

blood cell morphology 3:77, 80

chondrocranium 11:6, 23, 53, 107, 125–135, 149, 155, 180, 188, 191–193, 197, 199–202

dentition 1:171–172

ear 2:221, 224–226, 250–252, 254, 262–263, 268, 271

eye 2:2, 6–48, 87–89

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:162

heart 19:412

histology of gut 6:272, 401

internal relief of gut 6:190–192

jaw muscles 4:289, 296, 311–319, 370, 374, 395– 399, 405, 407–420, 422, 466–467, 479–480

lung 19:33

lymphatics 6:453

muscle tissue 11:268, 283, 336

nose 2:120–122, 127, 135, 139–140, 143, 154, 179

origin and evolution 1:2, 6–7

pancreas 3:324, 328

pituitary 3:136, 142–143, 147, 179–181, 192

spleen 19:556–557

taxonomic literature 2:319

thyroid 3:203–207, 227

urinogenital system 6:24–27, 38, 56, 59, 72, 79, 95, 114

Amphisbaenidae 7:497; 8:689; 15:625, 664, 667, 669; 16:114, 130, 136; 21:624, 627, 634, 657, 676, 688

adrenal 3:281, 184

axial muscles 11:357, 389

axial skeleton 1:271–273, 276, 280

blood cell morphology 3:77, 79, 81–82

blood chemistry 3:28, 31

chondrocranium 11:126

dentition 1:172

ear 2:225, 240–241, 268, 271

eye 2:15

histology of gut 6:229, 296

internal relief of gut 6:190–191

jaw muscles 4:479–480

nose 2:120, 127, 178

pituitary 3:136, 146, 151, 154, 179–181, 192, 194–195

thyroid 3:206

Amphisbaeninae 21:624

Amphiuma

pancreas 3:333

tridactylum 19:316

Amphophily 3:145–146, 149, 185, 188, 191

Amphotericin B 8:647

Amplorhinus 7:499; 15:647–648, 671, 675; 16:144; 19:225

multimaculatus 19:200

Ampulla 9:13; 10:215

of Vater 19:506–507

or ureter 6:65

Ampullae of the anterior and lateral semicircular

canals 21:503

Ampullary crest 2:206–207

recess 20:33, 72, 75

Amygdala 17:610, 613, 621; 18:35, 41, 97–98, 442, 445–446

amygdaloid nuclei 18:442, 445

Amyl acetate 18:204, 451, 453, 467, 475, 495

Amylase 3:291; 8:2

Amyloidosis 14:665

Anadia 20:186, 188–194, 301

bitaeniata 20:308

bogotensis 19:27, 78; 20:301

ear 2:271

Anaerobic

activity patterns 5:196, 255

capacities of reptiles 5:104, 185

capacity (see Anaerobic metabolism)

debt 5:187

energy 5:193, 228

glycolysis 5:196, 318, 320–321; 8:516

lactacidemia 5:338

metabolism 5:81–83, 183–184, 187, 195–196, 238, 318, 350–351; 12:9; 13:1, 13–16, 60, 157, 176–185, 189, 193

allometric relationships 13:179–180, 182, 184

anaerobic capacity 13:179–182, 184, 189, 193

anaerobic scope 13:16, 179–180, 184–185, 193

biochemical pathways 13:176–177, 193–194

circadian cycles 13:184

costs and benefits 13:177–179, 193

diving 13:25, 35, 39

hibernation 13:72–73, 138

thermal dependence 13:182–184

pathways 5:7, 187, 242, 277, 302, 325; 19:466

processes 5:82, 179

scope (see also Anaerobic metabolism) 5:185, 320

work 5:320

Anaerobiosis 5:7, 20, 100, 129, 182–183, 186, 196, 206–207, 255, 351; 19:486

Anal

constriction 5:228

gland 18:117, 121

pores 15:279

sac (see Cloacal sac)

shield 1:315, 333

Analgesia 5:44–46, 53

Analgesic action 8:475

Analog-to-digital converter 5:94

Analysis of covariance (see Statistical analysis)

Anamniote(s) 10:315, 327; 14:18

Anamniotic egg 1:37

vertebrates 5:128

Anancephaly 14:452

Anaphylactoid shock 8:509, 522

Anaphylaxis 3:34–35

Anaphylotoxin 8:497, 522–523

Anapsid(a) 9:65; 20:251

chondrocranium 11:226

dentition 1:150–151

origin and evolution 1:3

Anas 17:566

urinogenital system 6:12

Anastomatic vein 21:513

Anastomosis

abdominal 19:429

arterial 19:430

Anastomotic

artery 2:7

vein 2:7; 11:112, 124

Anatomical diffusion factor 19:54, 56–57, 64, 323

Anatomy (see also Morphology)

cardiac 19:376–387, 392–397, 403, 408, 426, 436, 447, 454

cardiovascular 19:426–430

comparative 19:4, 67–68, 561–570

splenic 19:535–544

Anatosaurus 9:61, 101, 102

dentition 1:189

Anchiceratops 9:114–118

Anconaeus quartus 21:212

“Ancrod” (see also “Arvin”) 8:332–333, 494

Ancylocranium 16:114; 21:636, 644, 661, 668, 670

axial muscles 11:394

axial skeleton 1:272–275

bilabialatus 21:670.

chondrocranium 11:135

ionidesi 21:670, 672, 731

somalicum 21:626, 670, 673, 731

Ancyclodactylus 21:188

occidentalis 21:400

petrodroma 21:400

spinicollis 21:399–400

Andrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 18:309, 317, 319, 345–347, 391–392, 398

Andrias 21:230

Androgen(s) (see also Androsterone; Testosterone) 3:36; 6:43–45, 75–77, 80, 115–116, 119; 14:340, 573, 575, 578–582, 584–585; 15:277; 18:37, 41, 72, 81–83, 85–86, 88–93, 95, 98, 102, 149, 167–168, 322, 340, 346, 354, 367, 369–370, 373–376

androstenol 18:204, 467

dihydrotestosterone 18:37, 90–92, 102, 168, 340, 446

receptor 18:340

testosterone 18:33–34, 37, 41, 149–150, 166–168, 178, 184, 186, 339–340, 353–354, 365–368, 370, 373–376, 398–399

testosterone concentrating cell 18:37

testosterone concentrating neurons 18:446

testosterone male response to female odors 18:471

Androgenesis 15:284

Androstenedione 6:76, 80, 84

Androstenol 18:204, 467

Androstenonedione 15:579–580

Androsterone 15:251, 579

Aneides 13:180

Anelytropsidae 9:335, 338; 12:472; 15:326, 329; 17:248

axial skeleton 1:241–242, 259

chondrocranium 11:83

ear 2:240–241

jaw muscles 4:316

pituitary 3:195

thyroid 3:205

Anelytropsis 16:35, 138; 20:241–249

chondrocranium 11:85

ear 2:244, 246, 271

papillosus 20:303, 309

Anemia 3:38, 224; 19:568

Anesthesia 3:2, 16; 5:43, 47, 49, 51–53, 63, 288, 360; 19:64, 301–302, 312, 321, 328, 333, 438

level 5:50

machines 5:48–49

Anesthetics 5:44–47, 50, 126; 12:340

chemical 5:50

Anestrus 3:36–38

Aneugomphius 9:299

Aneuploids 15:435, 453

Angionecrosis 8:479

Angiotensin 8:525; 12:244

II 17:684

Angle of torsion 21:103

Angola 2:324

Angolosaurus 20:10–152, 154, 157

skoogi 20:299

Anguidae 5:172, 192, 423; 7:9, 300, 372–373, 377–378, 495–496; 8:46, 52, 80, 678–679; 9:8, 161, 163, 252, 337–338, 427; 12:99, 117–118, 146, 379; 14:48, 658, 663, 712; 15:7, 44, 84, 306, 331–334, 376, 626–628, 663–664, 667–669, 671, 674; 16:35–36, 52, 115, 128, 137, 283, 296, 454–455, 465, 486, 492, 512; 19:21, 26, 41, 70, 410; 20:42, 57, 78, 195–199, 201–208, 224, 232, 252–257, 265, 267–269, 271, 273–274, 308; 21:15, 17, 80, 148, 398, 404

adrenal 3:280

axial muscles 11:357, 382, 397

axial skeleton 1:242–243, 247, 249, 253, 255, 257, 260–263, 265, 267–270, 273, 275, 280, 284, 288

blood cell morphology 3:77, 81, 83

blood chemistry 3:28, 31

chondrocranium 11:101–104

dentition 1:163, 168–169

ear 2:224, 240–241, 247–249, 267, 271

eye 2:13, 20, 27, 87

histology of gut 6:229, 299

internal relief of gut 6:178, 220

jaw muscles 4:374–376, 413, 417, 420, 470, 479

nose 2:120, 127, 132–133, 139–140, 143

parathyroid 3:255

pituitary 3:136, 144–146, 148–149, 151–157, 176–177, 193–195

taxonomic literature 2:320

thyroid 3:204–206

Anguilla 16:8

japonica 19:566

Anguilliformes 19:566

Anguimorpha 8:44, 69, 146, 151; 9:338; 19:21, 28– 32, 38, 70; 20:6, 18, 75, 116, 137, 195, 216, 229, 252–253, 256–257, 261, 264, 166–267, 269, 271, 273–275, 280, 284, 354, 586, 590; 21:9, 60, 66, 90, 96, 112–113, 597–599

axial skeleton 1:242–243, 246–247, 257, 259, 261–262, 267

chondrocranium 11:101–108

histology of gut 6:244

pituitary (see also Diploglossa) 3:136

Anguinae(es) 20:197, 199–200, 202, 204–206, 208–209, 269, 308

dentition 1:169

Anguioidea 8:66, 71; 19:28–29; 20:196

axial skeleton 1:242, 257, 259

dentition 1:168–169

jaw muscles (see also Anguoidea) 4:376, 383, 417–418

Anguis 5:130, 173; 7:176, 300, 372–373, 495; 8:57, 71, 377, 615, 619–620, 678–679; 9:151–154, 157, 161, 166, 252, 264–269, 332, 346, 361; 10:203; 12:118, 224; 13:126; 14:11, 15, 48–49, 57, 60, 531–532, 613, 636, 701, 712; 15:3, 7, 14–15, 18, 26, 29, 44, 61, 89–92, 94– 96, 100–110, 117, 122, 124–127, 131–136, 151–152, 154–164, 168, 170–216, 219–225, 237, 239–241, 245–247, 249–252, 261, 263, 315, 324, 331–333, 345, 349, 356, 366–367, 376, 378–379, 568, 571, 626, 669, 674, 676; 16:115, 137, 201, 266–267, 461, 464–465, 512; 19:5, 29–30, 383; 20:197–202, 204, 206, 208, 256; 21:68, 140, 142

adrenal 3:265–268,280, 290–291, 311

axial muscles 11:357, 382–383, 387

axial skeleton 1:242, 253, 258, 260, 266–270

blood cell morphology 3:77, 80, 84–85

blood cell numbers 3:96, 98–99, 101–102, 104–107

blood chemistry 3:9, 29

chondrocranium 11:77, 101–104

dentition 1:148, 168

ear 2:224, 247, 267, 271

eye 2:14, 27, 31, 41

fragilis 18:311; 19:28, 78, 377, 410, 417; 20:302, 308; 21:7, 24

histology of gut 6:242, 276–278, 287–288, 291

internal relief of gut 6:178, 187, 220

jaw muscles 4:479

lymphatics 6:316, 338, 341, 384, 404, 442, 453

muscle tissue 11:274, 336

nose 2:120, 125, 129, 133, 141, 159, 161–162, 164, 171, 175, 178

parathyroid 3:255

pituitary 3:144, 148, 152–153, 163, 177, 192

thymus 3:117

thyroid 3:212, 217–218, 227

urinogenital system 6:5–6, 14–15.19, 21, 23–24, 26–27, 29–30, 33, 37, 43, 49, 51–55, 58–59, 67–68, 71–72, 75, 78–79, 85, 87, 96, 98, 100, 110–111, 116

Angular 4:107, 112, 114, 116–117, 131–132, 136, 138, 146–147, 163, 167, 186, 188, 204–205, 209–211, 213, 215–219, 221, 223, 239–241, 248, 250, 254, 258, 279, 296, 306, 329, 356, 374; 11:24, 63–64, 73, 80–81, 106, 119, 124, 156, 179, 211–212, 214, 220, 231, 237, 244; 20:35–37, 44, 46, 74–76, 78, 90–91, 102–104, 114, 116, 127, 130, 136–137, 148, 150, 157–158, 162, 164, 166, 182, 174, 184, 186, 193–194, 196, 208–209, 215, 218, 224, 226, 232, 235, 239, 241, 247, 249, 274, 276–278, 356–357, 369, 275, 377–379, 389, 391, 400–401, 409–410, 412–413, 418–419, 423, 425, 433, 435, 441, 443, 47, 461, 463, 471, 474, 481–483, 497, 506, 519–521, 530, 533, 550, 552, 579–581; 21:602–604, 606–608, 611

bone 14:419

flange 20:195

process 20:37, 78, 90–91, 93, 103–104, 115–116, 150, 174, 186, 194, 275, 281

Angulation of teeth 1:175

Angulosplenial 20:520–521

Anguoidea

blood cell morphology 3:79–82

histology of gut 6:232

internal relief of gut 6:178

pituitary 3:195

thyroid 3:206

Anhydrous calcium sulfate 5:75, 104

Aniliidae 7:497–498; 8:46, 74, 662; 10:223, 225, 239; 12:117, 126, 134; 15:00, 117, 121, 123–124, 628, 645; 16:38–40, 143, 181–182; 19:116, 159, 185, 218; 20:354, 395–396, 421, 423–424, 426–427, 429, 432, 585; 21:549, 610

axial muscles 11:357, 402–403, 431

axial skeleton 1:285, 291–293, 296

chondrocranium 11:178, 203

dentition 1:179

ear 2:227, 252–253, 268, 271

internal relief of gut 6:193

jaw muscles 4:318, 423, 426, 430–434, 440, 466, 470, 480

nose 2:120

pancreas 3:324

urinogenital system 6:30

Aniline blue 3:146, 148–149, 151, 177, 179, 186

Anilioid snakes 21:602

Anilioidea (Anilioids) 19:95, 103, 125, 127, 143, 145, 165; 20:354, 395, 420, 431, 439; 21:484, 519, 524, 543, 549, 555, 557, 566, 575, 578, 584, 590, 593–594, 596–597, 599, 603

Anilionaphthalene sulfonic acid 8:190

Anilius 7:497; 15:121; 16:40, 143, 190, 230–231; 19:98, 123, 140, 160, 218; 20:416, 419–420, 422–423, 427–431, 437, 464, 591; 21:474, 476, 488, 493, 499, 501–502, 507, 509, 512, 549–550, 553, 555, 563, 579–580, 593, 598–600, 602, 606, 610

axial muscles 11:357, 399

axial skeleton 1:287, 292, 296

chondrocranium 11:178–179

dentition 1:179

ear 2:268, 271

jaw muscles 4:430, 432–433, 468, 480

nose 2:179

scytale 19:147, 158–159, 185; 20:4180419, 421, 603

urinogenital system 6:29–30

Animal husbandry 5:22, 24–27

Anionic composition 5:428

Anions 3:1, 13, 16, 30–31, 45; 5:60, 348, 429, 481

Anisodonty (see Heterodonty)

Anisolepis 15:330; 16:256; 20:304

longicaudata 20:304

Anisotropy 3:292–294

Ankle (see also Crurotarsal joint) 21:39, 48–49, 157, 159, 162, 171, 177, 364–365, 378

Ankylosauria 9:55, 67, 111, 138; 19:74

dentition 1:187–188

shell 1:311

Ankylosaurus, epiphyses and sesamoids 1:109

Ankylosed teeth 1:126, 129, 136, 139, 141, 143, 145, 150–151, 153, 158, 171, 173, 177, 193; 20:575

vertebrae 1:209–210, 217, 222, 225

Ankylosis 20:378, 480, 516, 539

Annelida, urinogenital system 6:2

Anniella 5:130, 423; 7:164, 496; 8:679; 9:22, 333, 336; 10:203, 222, 230; 12:117–118; 15:185, 331–333, 346, 366; 16:266; 17:248, 497, 501; 18:437; 20:23, 196–200, 202–209, 252, 256, 259, 270, 302; 21:142, 476, 485, 488

adrenal 3:280, 291

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:253, 258, 267

blood cell morphology 3:77

blood chemistry 3:28

chondrocranium 11:104–107, 118, 131, 149, 197–198, 201

dentition 1:169

ear 2:224, 248, 267, 271

eye 2:13–14, 23, 27, 31, 41, 46–47

jaw muscles 4:376–377, 418, 479

nose 2:120, 127, 130, 133, 178

pituitary 3:147, 176

pulchra 20:199, 302; 21:7

urinogenital system 6:26, 56, 87–89, 113

Anniellidae 7:164, 496; 8:46, 80; 9:332, 337–338; 12:379; 15:331, 333–334, 664, 671; 16:454; 20:195, 197

adrenal 3:280

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:242, 257, 260, 268

blood cell morphology 3:77

blood chemistry 3:28, 31

chondrocranium 11:104–108

dentition 1:169

ear 2:222, 225, 240–241, 248, 267, 271

eye 2:27, 87

histology of gut 6:229, 299

jaw muscles 4:316, 376, 417, 479

nose 2:120, 133, 139–140, 143

pituitary 3:136, 144–147, 151, 154, 176, 178, 192, 194

taxonomic literature 2:320

thyroid 3:204, 206

Annielline lizards 19:39, 70

Annual cycle(s) (see also Seasonal cycles) 12:293; 13:53, 59, 61, 65–67, 73–83, 101, 295

rings 1:67

Annular

anastomotic vessel 6:390

fold 2:51

ligament 21:303, 310–311, 313

ligament of footplate 11:27, 31

ligament of stapes 2:200

lymphatic sinus 6:381

lymphatics of tongue 6:408–409

nerve 2:65

pad 2:16, 19–23, 52, 69–70, 75, 82

Annulate lamellae 14:54, 56

in primordial germ cells 15:159, 171

Annuli (see Turtles, shell)

Annulospiral endings 11:317, 325

Anole(s) 20:79–80, 255; 21:49, 254–255

Anolinae

eye 2:31

jaw muscles 4:316

urinogenital system 6:104

Anolis (see also Norops) 5:5–6, 33, 81, 130, 141–142, 162, 164–165, 167, 170–171, 173, 183, 185, 188, 198, 347, 379, 393–394, 489; 7:16, 36–37, 44, 50, 53–58, 66–68, 73–78, 80–84, 88–91, 93–99, 101–115, 117, 121, 140, 142, 144–147, 150, 152, 161, 163, 165, 169, 178, 189, 197–198, 262, 268–274, 299, 308–311, 313–314, 360–361, 363–364, 369–370, 407–409, 411–414, 416, 425–435, 438, 440–441, 443, 446–447, 449, 451–454, 472–475, 566, 592–593, 598–599, 605, 613, 634, 637, 661; 8:70, 595–596, 619–620, 657, 661, 667, 682; 9:20, 27–28, 157, 330, 340, 363, 376, 383, 386–388, 408; 10:7, 42, 203, 228; 12:5, 34–35, 37–39, 46, 50–57, 60–61, 68, 71–73, 100, 104–106, 174, 180, 184, 225, 235, 258, 288, 302, 329, 355, 376, 402, 419, 430–431, 456, 461, 463, 466, 468, 470, 473, 488, 491; 13:64–65, 74–77, 79, 90, 100, 103, 105, 126, 179–181, 183–184, 192, 203, 207, 210–222, 255, 260, 277, 282, 288–289, 293, 295–298, 308–309, 311; 14:51, 64, 542, 544–545, 553, 566, 640, 695–698, 700, 702– 706, 709, 712–714; 15:3, 39–40, 47, 152, 159, 240, 306, 329, 334, 342–343, 348–349, 351–353, 358, 363–364, 374, 379–383, 386, 389–392, 588–590; 16:8–9, 12, 21, 33, 49, 51, 55, 68, 116, 126, 139, 174, 208, 210, 212, 239, 242, 249–250, 254–257, 260–261, 346, 450, 464–465, 473, 513–514, 565; 17:6, 29, 55, 71, 97, 184, 190–191, 193, 413, 469, 596, 617–621, 624–625, 653, 662, 675; 18:90–91, 98–99, 177, 317, 333–334, 340, 343, 383, 433, 436–437, 440–441; 20:45, 50, 79–84, 86–87, 89–90, 102, 273, 291; 21:45, 55, 76, 93, 170, 184, 187, 224–225, 227, 240, 243, 245, 247, 252, 255, 257–258, 260, 274, 279, 514, 554, 595

acutus 18:343

adrenal 3:265, 280

aeneus 18:26, 34

agassizi 18:329

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:257, 262–263, 270

bahorucoensis 18:344

blood cell morphology 3:76, 88

blood cell numbers 3:96

blood chemistry 3:4, 9, 14, 19, 21–22, 33, 37, 46, 49

brevirostris 18:383

carolinensis 18:2, 4, 13–14, 25, 27, 29, 34–37, 46, 48–49, 51–54, 56, 81, 88–92, 96–100, 102–103, 189–190, 230, 232, 237, 239–243, 245–246, 248, 254, 261, 263, 265–266, 271–273, 280, 307–311, 316–321, 334, 340–348, 371, 375, 386, 390, 392–395, 398, 446, 464, 469, 485; 19:22, 78; 20:291, 304; 21:59, 76, 532

chondrocranium 11:86–88, 90–91, 94, 196

coelestinus 18:321–322

cristatellus 18:343; 20:304; 21:208

cuvieri 18:323, 343

cybotes 18:384–385; 21:224

dentition 1:135, 143, 155

distichus 18:383

ear 2:194, 205–208, 211–215, 219, 237–238, 254, 264–265, 270

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:105

equestris 18:320; 20:81, 83–84, 304; 21:76

evermanni 18:343

eye 2:14–17, 19–21, 25–26, 33–36, 40–43, 87

garmani 21:7

grahami 21:7

gundlachi 18:343

histology of gut 6:288

jaw muscles 4:315, 319, 416, 477

krugi 18:343

lineatops 20:291

lineatopus 18:469; 21:7

luteogularis 20:83

marcanoi 18:384–385

muscle tissue 11:266, 273, 276–278, 293, 318, 325, 336

noblei 20:83

nose 2:119, 124, 128, 134–135, 139, 142, 164, 178

opalinus 20:304

parathyroid 3:254–255, 257–259

pituitary 3:143, 145–146, 148, 163, 165, 169, 192, 194

poncensis 18:343

pulchellus 18:343

roquet 18:317–318

sagrei 18:89–91

smallwoodi 20:83

stratulus 18:343

thyroid 3:213–221, 224, 227

trinitatis 18:177

urinogenital system 6:14, 18, 38, 44–45, 51, 54, 59, 63, 70, 72, 79, 84, 89, 95, 97–98, 104–105, 115–116, 121–122

Anomalepididae(ids) 19:33, 130, 133, 140, 147, 158, 171, 181, 235; 20:354, 360, 370, 373, 377, 381–382, 385–386, 388, 393–394, 398, 415, 559, 589, 598; 21:474, 476, 512, 535, 538, 540, 542, 558–559, 562, 565, 567, 573–574, 579, 583–584, 589, 596, 601, 607, 609, 611–613

Anomalepinae

chondrocranium 11:180–185

jaw muscles 4:374, 421, 423, 427, 430, 436, 438–439

Anomalepis 19:235; 20:379–385; 21:476, 495, 510, 513, 534, 540–541, 552, 558–559, 562, 567–568, 573, 583, 589, 593, 600, 609, 615

aspinosus 20:378–380, 383, 598

chondrocranium 11:180, 182, 184

dentatus 20:378

dention 1:178

jaw muscles 4:373, 423, 438–440, 480

mexicanus 19:181

nose 2:120

urinogenital system 6:90

Anomalophiidae 20:482–597

Anomalopus 15:639–640, 670, 675; 20:138, 297

mackayi 21:403

Anomaly 1:81

Anomochilidae 19:158, 171, 185, 218; 20:354, 396, 415–416, 422, 585, 601

Anomochilus 19:218; 20:397–398, 400, 409–410, 412, 585, 601; 21:549

leonardi 20:601

weberi 19:185; 20:396–397, 399–400, 601

Anomochilus 21:549

Anomodontia 9:68, 127, 295, 299, 304

Anophalmia 14:453, 456, 459

Anoplohydrus 19:101

Anops 19:557; 21:623, 626, 636, 644, 661, 666

axial skeleton 1:272–273, 276, 280

bilabialatus 21:668

chondrocranium 11:126, 135

ear 2:268, 271

internal relief of gut 6:190–192

jaw muscles 4:480

kingii 19:33, 81; 21:626–627, 662, 666–668, 731

Anosmia 18:165, 175

homing behavior 18:494

prey capture 18:494

Anosteria, shell 1:326

Anota 20:291

Anotosaura 20:186, 191, 301

Anoxia 3:17; 5:191–192, 207, 238, 318, 320, 353; 8:477–479; 13:16, 40, 72, 120, 129; 14:317; 19:318, 466

Anoxic tissue 5:192

turtles 5:320

Anserine 11:292

Ant

eating 20:386, 396

hills 15:4

mounds 13:106–107, 114–115

Antagonists 21:203

Antarctosaurus 9:98

Antaresia 19:234; 20:443

childreni 19:186; 20:604

stimsoni 19:186; 20:604

Antebrachial fascia 4:35

musculature 21:212

Antebrachium 4:8–9, 28; 21:20, 22, 39, 44, 58–59, 103, 105, 110, 113–115, 119, 124–125, 136, 261, 282–284, 286, 289, 294–296, 299–300, 302–304, 319, 328, 334, 371

Antechinus 16:239, 253

Anterior

accessory process of columellar apparatus 11:33–34, 55, 58, 76, 79, 100, 109, 119, 196

accessory process of extrastapes 2:198, 200

ampulla 2:204, 206

ampullary crest 2:204

auditory foramen 11:209–213

basicapsular ommissures 20:11

cardinal vein 21:480

chamber (see Vestibulum)

chamber (of eye) 2:5

cloacal chamber 6:27

collectors of anterior limb 6:322, 324, 360

concha 2:103, 116–118, 166, 170–171; 11:234– 235, 240

conchal recess 11:235, 240

cupula 21:575

dentigerous process of the palatine 21:547– 548, 550, 552, 555, 585

diverticulum of Eustachian tube 11:236–237

division of vestibulocochlear nerve 2:204, 206, 208

dorsal ventricular ridge 17:276, 328, 330, 431–432, 438, 544, 548, 610, 627; 18:444

funnel of oviduct (see Ostium abdominale)

hypothalamus 12:219, 229

hypothalmus-preoptic area (AH-POA) 18:77, 81, 98–99

inferior alveolar foramen 21:605

inferior foramen 20:90

inferior process of prootic 11:112; 20:27, 31, 72, 75, 125, 147, 150, 164, 166, 172, 174, 183, 186, 193, 195, 206, 09, 223, 225, 232, 234, 240, 282

intestinal portal 14:137, 287, 290, 292, 294, 438–439

labial foramen 21:614–615

limb, lymphatics of 6:388–391

lobe of adenohypophysis 3:159, 202, 212

mandibular foramen 20:413, 425, 520–521

maxilla 20:473, 479–481, 528, 549

maxillary process 11:15, 18–19, 51–52, 54, 66, 75, 88, 94, 98, 103, 106, 110, 202

medial process of the mexilla 21:555

medullary velum 10:179, 187, 276

mylohyoid 21:606

mylohyoid foramen 20:184

nasal canal (see Vestibulum)

nasal concha 11:117, 120, 122

nasal pouch (see Preconchal recess)

nasal tube (see Vestibulum)

nasal vessels 11:208

necrotic zone 21:26

orbital artery 2:12

orbital cartilages 11:21, 50, 130, 171, 195, 210, 220, 236

orifice of the cavum epiptericum 21:533

osseus ampulla 2:202–203

pad of lens 2:51–52

parasphenoid 11:219, 224

pituitary 12:257

pituitary extract 6:116–117

process of tectum 11:12, 15, 22, 28–29, 52, 55–56, 60, 66, 68, 80, 90, 93, 98, 100–101, 104, 106, 110, 112, 117, 119, 121, 135, 144, 198–199, 204, 209, 211

rectus muscle 2:7–8, 11–12, 49–50, 67, 74

salient 21:606

semicircular canal 2:202; 11:28, 52, 55, 69, 110, 112, 117, 119, 140, 163, 166, 173

semicircular duct 2:204, 206

sheet of basal aponeurosis 4:299, 416

sulcus 2:105–106, 110–111, 181

superior process of prootic 11:112

thymic lobe 3:112, 117–118, 161

trigeminal foramen 20:398, 432, 438, 448, 458, 504, 540, 565

turbinal (see Preconcha)

utriculus 21:503

vena cava 6:325–327, 329, 331, 446

ventromedial sulcus (see Anterior sulcus)

vestibulocochlear foramen 2:202

vidian foramen 20:389–290, 399, 432, 434, 439, 443, 453, 465, 467, 471, 497, 502, 504, 509, 511, 513, 567

Anterograde (axoplasmic) transport 18:442–444

Anterolateral collector of leg 6:395

process 21:565

process of the frontal 21:581–582, 586

Anteroventral process of rib 1:253, 278; 11:390, 393

Anthia 16:206–297

Anthracene blue 14:12

Anthracosauria 9:57, 295; 19:46, 74

dentition 1:120

origin and evolution 1:4, 15, 18, 23, 25, 27, 30–32, 35, 37–38, 40

Anthracosaurs 21:504

Antiacetylcholine esterase agent 5:237

Antibiotics 5:99; 19:519

Antibodies 3:34–36, 111, 126, 129; 12:168; 13:95; 19:544, 563

Antibody 8:125, 370, 378

production 601, 638, 645–660

maternal 14:638

specificity 8:342, 355

Anticholinesterase 8:455, 458, 462, 465

activity 8:305

reactivation 8:306

Anticoagulant 8:334, 490

factor 8:163, 491

Anticoagulants 3:2; 5:59–61, 63–64, 66

Antidiuresis 5:464–465, 474, 476; 12:349

Antidiuretic hormone 6:118

Antidromic stimulation 11:325

Antigen(s) 3:34–36, 46, 48, 126, 129; 8:95, 349, 353, 359–360, 362–364, 564

-antibody complex 8:364–365

Antigenic stimulation 19:549

Antigenically 8:83

Antihemostatic 8:499

Antihistamine 8:483, 507, 523

Anti-5-hydroxytryptamine 8:507

Antillophis 16:17, 144; 19:226

andreae 19:200

parvifrons 19:152, 200; 20:652

Antiperistalsis 6:92

Antiphosphatidase 3:34

Antipredator mechanism(s) (see also Caudal

autotomy; Mimicry; Parental care) 18:198, 387

age effects (see ontogeny)

aggression 16:16, 23, 35, 38, 40, 56, 64, 131

alarm calls 16:8, 28, 212

anachronisms 16:60–61, 65

aposematic coloration 16:25, 36–37, 39–40, 42–43, 48, 63–64, 133, 175–178

appendage grasping 16:54, 127

aspect diversity 16:55

autohemorrhage (see blood squirting)

ball forming 16:22, 38, 51, 128

basic concepts and theories 16:3–5, 7, 11–12, 14, 16–17, 24, 52–53, 60–63

biting 16:20, 26, 28–31, 34–36, 40–41, 43, 45, 132

blood squirting 16:20, 30, 40, 133

bluffs and threats 16:52–53, 58, 132, 164, 173

body elevation 16:31, 127, 131

body size 16:307, 309, 315

body temperature 16:15, 20–21

burrowing 16:37, 207

camouflage (see crypsis)

caudal autotomy (see Caudal autotomy)

cloacal discharge/ defecation 16:34, 36, 38–42, 45, 56, 127

coiling 16:40–42, 44–45, 51, 131, 191–193, 196–197, 199, 206

concealing coloration (see crypsis)

constriction 16:132

context 16:15–16, 20, 22, 28, 45, 63

convergence 16:59–60

correlation with coloration 16:49, 65

correlation with metabolism 16:30, 50

countershading 16:176

crypsis 16:28, 31, 34, 40, 42, 45, 48–50, 57–58, 62–64, 124, 159, 162, 191, 205

cue removal 16:54–55

death feigning 16:16, 20–22, 25, 28, 35–36, 38, 40–41, 54–55, 62, 125, 161, 173

deimatic displays (see bluffs and threats)

differences from birds and mammals 16:62

disgorge meal 16:43, 54, 133

diversion of attack (see tail display/lashing)

envenomation (see Venom)

evolution 16:26–27, 33–34, 46–48, 55, 57–61, 64, 67–69

eye marks 16:172–173

fatigue 16:21

faceoff/frontal displays 16:128

flash colors 16:206, 252

flight distance 16:21

fragile skin (see Skin tearing)

future research 16:65–69

gaping 16:25–26, 28, 34, 44, 132

generalizations 16:63–65

genetics 16:16–19

geographic variation 16:20, 22–24, 30, 45, 48–49, 55, 68

gliding/leaping/parachuting 16:29, 32, 35, 39, 51, 57

gravidity 16:21

habitat shift 16:29–30, 36, 50, 68

habits and habitat 16:38

habituation 16:18, 20

head hiding 16:42, 128, 196

head triangulation 16:186, 193–194, 198–200

hemipenial eversion 16:133

hierachy 16:63

hissing (see sound production)

“hooding” (see neck expansion)

immobility 16:26, 28–30, 42, 45, 124–125

inacessibility 16:35–36, 50, 126

inflation 16:28, 30, 35–36, 52, 129, 131, 191, 193, 196, 208, 215

inoffensive 16:125

intraspecific variation 16:14–24, 41, 68

learning 16:17–18

lip flair 16:132

locomotor escape 16:26, 28, 31, 35–36, 41–42, 50–52, 57–58, 125–126, 177, 210–212

metabolic correlates 16:30, 50, 62, 64, 134

methods 16:65–67

mimicry (see Mimicry)

miscarriage 16:54

misinterpretation 16:68

morphological adjuncts 16:24, 29–30, 56, 133–134

musk secretions 16:17, 25–26, 28

neck expansion 16:17, 38–39, 41–42, 128–129, 204–205, 208

neonate reptiles 16:19, 40, 122–124

novel and erratic behavior 16:55, 58

noxious flesh 16:43, 56, 127

offensive defense 16:56

ontogeny 16:16–19, 28, 40, 66, 123, 177, 206–208, 212, 256, 259–261

optimality 16:62–63

phylogenetic patterns 16:24, 48, 58–60, 68

primitive patterns 16:57

problems 16:65

protein behavior 16:161

rattling (see Rattlesnakes)

retreat sites 16:14, 50, 126

rigid postures 16:38, 54

running on water 16:51, 59

saltation 16:33

scratching 16:129

sexual differences 16:20, 22, 68

shell withdrawal 16:21, 25–27, 128

skin tearing (see Skin tearing)

social factors 16:16, 18

social responses 16:29, 60, 134

sound production 16:15, 17–18, 26, 28, 32–34, 36, 39–40, 42, 44, 57–58, 69, 126, 191–193, 198–201, 252

“spitting” of venom 16:39, 41, 132

startle effects 16:55

systematic variation 16:24–48

tail autotomy (see Caudal autotomy)

tail display/lashing (see Tails)

tail secretions 16:20, 32–33, 56, 251

tameness 16:12, 18, 23

taxonomic variation 16:24–48

thanatosis (see death feigning)

theory (see basic concepts and theories)

thermal dependence (see Temperature, body)

tongue extension 16:34, 129

vocalization (see sound production)

versus injury frequency 16:23

venom (see Venom)

wariness 16:22

weapon automimicry 16:208–209

“wheel” 16:51

wind movements 16:124

writhing 16:34–36, 40, 42, 130–131, 203

Antipyrine 5:69

Antiserotinin 8:507

Antiserum 3:35, 50, 52

(a) (see also Antivenin) 8:83, 95, 129, 342, 370–371, 374, 381, 571

bivalent 8:345–347

low titer 8:345

monospecific (monovalent) 8:346, 362, 364, 366, 561, 574, 580

polyspecific (Polyvalent) 8:347, 364, 561, 574, 580

potency 8:365, 574, 576, 578, 580–581

titer determination 8:364

trivalent 8:347

Anti-snakebite serum (see Antivenin)

Antithrombin 8:491, 496

Antithromboplastic activity 8:490–491

Antitoxin (see Antiserum)

Antitumor activity 8:511–513

“Antivasin I” 8:247

Antivenin (see also Antiserum) 8:369–374, 561

concentration 8:568–569

container 8:582

distribution 8:583

expiration date 8:582

filling 8:582

government standards 8:576

importation 8:376

labelling 8:582

neutralizing ability 8:367–368

polyvalent 8:349

potency assays 8:441, 571, 573, 577, 579–580

potency statement 8:583

preparation 8:374, 561

purification 8:567–569

sources 8:375

stability 8:376

standards 8:576

storage 8:582

Anti-viperotoxin 8:129

Antler growth 14:8

Antorbital

fenestra 4:265, 275–276

gland 4:276

space 2:116–118, 121, 123, 131–135, 149, 170

vacuity 1:8

Antorbitalraum (see Antorbital space)

Antrum pyloricum 3:332

Ants 5:390–391, 398, 401; 12:254, 347, 354

Antuitrine 6:116

Anura 9:166–167, 347; 19:21, 44, 322, 428, 537, 567–568

adrenal 3:312

blood chemistry 3:14

bone marrow 14:614

ear 2:263

epidermis 14:527

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:84, 90, 97, 106

lymphatics 6:357

muscle tissue 11:266, 271–273, 275, 282–283, 286, 289–293, 295–297, 299–300, 302, 304–306, 308–310, 314, 317–318, 323, 325, 327, 330, 332, 334–335

nose 2:153

parathyroid 3:235, 257

primordial germ cells 14:46, 50

thymus 3:121

thyroid 3:225

urinogenital system 6:3

Anuran (see Frog)

Anuric reptiles 5:385, 398

Anus 6:350, 356

Aorta(e) 5:283, 285, 290, 306; 6:7–9, 25, 29, 53, 83, 86, 107–108,321, 331, 337, 342, 346, 349–356, 378, 398, 453, 458; 11:315; 13:26; 19:384, 386, 396–398, 400–401, 439

arch of 3:236, 238, 240, 245–246, 249, 252–253, 256

dorsal 3:267–268, 270, 272–273; 10:37; 19:154, 395, 428, 536, 545–546, 565–567

pulmocutaneous arch 19:318

pulmonary (see also Pulmonary artery) 19:381, 384–386, 388–389, 394, 396, 400, 405–406, 414

systemic 19:96, 389–390, 392, 398, 412, 428, 445, 447, 449

valve 19:387, 394–395, 441

Aortakörperchen (see Parathyroid)

Aortic

arch(es) 3:236; 5:7–8, 275, 278–280, 282, 286, 288, 291, 308, 316, 325; 10:37; 14:140, 145–146, 175, 437–438, 446, 495, 515; 19:95–96, 113, 318, 378–379, 381, 384–394, 396–398, 400–401, 404–410, 412, 414, 427–430, 434–435, 437–441, 443, 445–450, 452, 454, 457–462, 472

blood flow 5:311

bodies 19:317–319

openings 19:388

pressure 5:292, 323; 19:385, 388, 430, 439, 443

receptors 5:245

septum 14:437

“sinuses” 19:395

strips 5:58

trunk 19:378–379, 381, 387, 89, 393–394, 401, 403, 406–407

Aorticopulmonary trunk 19:404, 409

Apalone asper 19:299

spinifer (see also Trionyx) 19:354

Aparallactinae 8:90, 149; 19:151, 220; 20:522

Aparallactus 8:90; 15:648–649, 671; 16:119, 144, 234; 19:122, 140–141, 149, 220; 20:522, 526– 527; 21:497, 554–555, 563, 577, 586, 605

capensis 19:194; 20:524, 531, 619; 21:563

dentition 1:177

ear 2:271

guentheri 19:194

jacksoni 19:194

jaw muscles 4:441, 481

lineatus 19:100, 152, 194

lunulatus 19:123, 152, 194; 20:619

modestus 19:166, 194; 20:523–525, 529, 531, 619; 21:563

moeruensis 19:194

niger 19:100, 152, 162, 194

werneri 19:123, 152, 194; 21:563

Apatosaurus, lymphatics 6:455

Apertotemporalidae, shell 1:336

Apertura

externa nasi (see External naris)

externa recessus scalae tympani 21:486

interna recessus scalae tympani 21:488, 500

latealis 20:438, 525

lateralis of recessus scalae tympani 20:441– 442, 497, 525, 527, 562, 569

narium externa (see External naris)

Apex dentis 21:544–545

(of tooth) 1:118

Aphaniotis 20:293

axial skeleton 1:258, 260

dentition 1:160

ear 2:271

Apical crest 14:159

ectodermal ridge 14:292, 400–403, 447–448; 15:63–66, 81, 105–107; 21:25–26

and caudal regeneration 15:353

and limb development 15:88–89, 107, 127

degeneration 15:86, 88, 91, 105–108, 110–111, 114, 118, 124–126, 132

differentiation 15:61, 118, 132, 135

DNA synthesis 15:92, 124

enzyme activity 15:91–92

morphogenetic activity 15:125

necrosis 15:131

protein synthesis 15:89, 92–95, 124, 126

proteolytic enzyme 15:124

regression 15:81, 114, 132, 139

RNA synthesis 15:92–95, 124, 126

ultrastructure 15:72, 93, 106

fold 14:63–66

foramen 1:144–145, 147

Apiformis 16:155

Apikale Blindsack 2:167

Apistocalamus 8:17

grandis 8:17

loriae 8:17

Aplopeltura 16:144; 19:132, 154, 224; 20:573; 21:574

boa 19:146, 152, 200; 20:568, 575, 580, 631

dentition 1:182

ear 2:271

jaw muscles 4:481

Apnea 3:16; 5:8, 229–230, 238, 242, 248, 259, 284, 287, 292, 303–304; 8:439; 10:12; 12:447; 13:1, 17–18, 22; 19:146, 154, 157, 302, 322, 325, 335, 389, 396–398, 455–457, 463, 466–470

Apneic periods 5:235–236, 243, 250, 296, 305

phase of respiration 5:285

Apneustic breathers 5:306

Apocrine 18:166

secretion 8:130–131

Apoda 19:316, 567

Apodemes 21:506, 510

Apodora 19:101

papuana 19:186; 20:440, 604

Apody (see Reduction of limbs)

Apohyal (see Cornu hyale; Corpus hyoidei)

Apomixis 15:492, 495

Apomorphy(ic) 18:10; 19:27, 37, 66, 69–70, 571

Aponeurosis 21:202, 376

Apophyseal center 1:82, 91–94, 100–101, 106–107, 109, 111–112

Apophyses 1:285, 297; 21:29

Aporosaura(us) 7:491; 12:52, 109, 111, 349, 360, 489, 493, 497–498; 16:140, 464–465, 474, 516; 18:249, 254, 257; 20:300

Aporoscelis, axial skeleton 1:268

Aposematic(ism) (=nastiness-advertising) behavior 8:5, 8; 18:198

Apostolepis 7:499; 16:190, 231; 19:227; 20:526, 564, 578; 21:512, 544

ambiniger 19:200

assimilis 19:200; 20:653

borelli 20:653

coronata 20:653

dorbignyi 19:200

erythronota 19:200

flavotorquatus 20:653

niceforoi 19:200

nigroterminata 19:200; 20:653

pymi 20:653

quinquelineata 19:200; 20:653

Appendage perfusion 12:245–246, 249, 286–300

Appendages, role in heat transfer 12:284–286

Appendicular muscles 4:1–100

musculature 21:194

skeleton 4:1–100

Appendix 14:631

testis 14:441

Appetite (see also Fasting) 13:62, 64, 66, 123, 130, 295

Appositional growth 1:82

Aprasia 16:117; 17:97; 20:130–137, 296–297

aurita 20:133, 136, 297

axial skeleton 1:242–243, 260, 266–267, 269

chondrocranium 11:58, 67, 83–85

ear 2:222, 242, 266, 271

eye 2:13, 15, 20, 26, 29, 42–43, 46, 87

inaurita 20:306

nose 2:120, 132

parathyroid 3:255

pulchella 20:297

repens 20:133, 136, 297

striolata 20:132–143, 136, 297, 306

Aproterodon, dentition 1:177

Apterygodon 21:397

Aptycholaemus 15:330; 16:256–257

axial skeleton 1:269

eye 2:26

longicaudata 20:304

APUD system 6:256

Aquatic 8:8

colubrids 20:579

habitats 5:318, 380, 451, 489

habits 1:297; 2:67, 72, 82–83, 86, 122, 130, 136, 142, 152, 159, 174, 179; 4:1, 6, 8–11, 14, 20–21, 26, 30–31, 34, 46, 56, 58, 60, 65, 91–93, 95–96, 244, 274, 277

hydrophiines 20:536

origin 20:352, 582

oxygen uptake 5:198

reptiles (see also Sea snake; Sea turtles) 12:424–430; 13:1–2, 11

respiration 5:197, 227, 321

species 5:226, 230, 243, 245, 249–250, 258, 260, 265–266, 318, 374, 387, 390–391, 486; 15:611, 616, 623, 645, 649, 665–667, 671–672, 674, 676, 679

Aqueous hydroxide solutions 5:78

environments 5:382

solutions 5:335, 339, 374

Arabia 2:322

Arachidonic acid (see also Prostaglandin) 8:522; 14: 220; 18:155

Arachnoid 9:23

Araeoscelida 7:6

Araeoscelidae origin and evolution 1:1

Araeoscelis (see also Areoscelis) 15:338, 394; 20:249, 257

dentition 1:190

gracilis 20:290

Aragonite 16:525–526, 529

in eggshells 14:82–84, 86–87, 275

Araldite 6:226

Arboreal 8:8

colubrids 20:568, 578

elapid 20:549

habits 1:297, 299; 2:87, 142, 222, 226,262, 296; 4:419; 5:265

snake 17:317

species 15:611, 616, 623, 629, 633, 641, 643, 646, 657, 665–672, 674, 676, 679

Arch of the aorta 6:317, 328

Archaeolacertas 20:167

Archaeolacerta 15:373; 21:67, 89, 96

saxicola 18:447

Archaeophis, axial skeleton 1:282

Archaeopteryx 9:167

Archaeosuchia

origin and evolution 1:2, 8

skull 4:264

Archencephalon 9:174, 177

Archenteric canal (see Chordamesodermal canal)

Archeophis proavus 20:596

turkmenicus 20:596

Archicortex 10:327

Archinephric duct (see Wolffian duct)

Archinephros 6:3

Arching of carapace 1:321

Archistriatum 10:95

Archosauria 9:19, 43, 52, 56, 58–59, 66, 78–79, 109, 135, 137–139, 296–297, 304; 19:68–75

adrenal 3:286, 309

chondrocranium 11:23, 191, 242, 245–246

dentition 1:129, 184–189

eye 2:92

lung evolution 19:72–75

origin and evolution 1:3

shell 1:311

skull 4:201–202, 268, 276–279

urinogenital system 6:114

Archisauromorpha 20:4, 250, 257

Archosauromorphs 21:185

Archosaurs 12:185; 14:529, 586, 660; 15:287

Arciform density 17:31

Arctognathus 9:299, 304

Arcualia 14:152, 514; 15:311

Arcuate fiber 10:139, 149, 155, 173, 211, 237

fossa 21:150

nucleus 18:42, 391

Ardenosaurinae axial skeleton 1:243

Ardeosaurus 15:340; 20:262, 282–284, 287; 21:172

brevipes 20:291

Area

I 10:70

II 10:70

III 10:70, 82

IV 10:70, 82, 84

V 10:74, 82, 84, 92–93

V-VI 17:558

VI 10:74, 82, 84, 92–93

VII 10:74, 84, 91, 93, 101

VII-VIII 17:556

VIII 10:74, 84, 91, 93, 97, 101

IX 10:74

X 10:75, 92

c 17:600

cellularis reuniens 9:233–235

centralis 17:105

centralis (of retina) 2:72, 76

d 17:612, 667

intermediolateral 17:647

opaca 6:110; 14:112, 121, 145, 160, 381, 505–506, 535

pellucida 6:107; 14:112, 115, 118–119, 160, 282, 381, 505–506, 513

spinal (see also Lamina, Rexed’s) 10:70, 82

triangular 17:405, 407, 413, 679

vasculosa 14:161–162, 225, 290; 15:540, 542

ventrolateralis 17:184

Arenicolous

adaptations 2:129–130

habits 3:192

Areoscelidia 9:67, 297

Areoscelis (see also Araeoscelis) 9:297

Argentaffin 6:279

cell 6:144, 255, 261, 265–266, 275, 277

reaction 3:304; 6:256, 283

Arginase 3:29

Arginine 3:23, 4042, 51; 6:228; 8:309

esters 8:327

oxytocin 6:117

-vasopressin 17:593

-vasotocin 5:385–386, 461–463, 465, 469–471, 476–477, 479–480; 6:117–118; 14:220; 15:588, 590; 18:51

vasotocin (AVT) 8:646; 12:368, 371–373

Argyrogena 16:144; 19:230

fasciolata 19:200; 20:634

Argyrophil 6:279

cells 6:244, 255–256, 265

reaction 6:256

Argyrophilic fibers 3:207

Argyrophily 3:331–332

Aristelliger 16:32, 51, 127, 138; 17:14, 97; 20:117–118, 124, 295; 21:396

axial skeleton 1:260

dentition 1:162

ear 2:239, 266, 271

eye 2:13, 22, 26, 30, 43–46, 88

praesignis 21:7

Aristotle 12:398

Arizona 5:27, 488; 12:128, 130, 464, 475; 13:204, 209; 15:45; 16:119, 519; 19:144, 232; 20:556; 21:577

ear 2:269, 271

elegans 19:200; 20:555, 634

eye 2:63

urinogenital system 6:116

Armandisaurus 20:8

explorator 20:291

Aromatase (see also Androgen; Estrogen) 18:92, 149

aromatization 18:33, 37, 41, 86, 88, 90

Arothron mappa 19:566

Arthrology 21:6, 62, 152, 177

Arousal response 10:293, 323

Arrenoidism 6:107

Arrhythmic breathing 19:376, 389

Arrhyton 16:144; 19:226

callilaemus 19:200; 20:653

funereum 19:200; 20:653

vittatum 19:200; 20:653

Arrythmia 12:239, 241

Artemia, meiotic restitution 15:479

Arterial

blood 5:63, 239, 301, 346, 358

blood gases 5:244, 247, 262

circulation 19:434

gas contents 5:259

outflow 19:386–387

oxygen 5:253, 259

oxygen saturation 19:431

pH 5:240, 244, 259, 262, 306, 353–354, 358, 360, 495

pressure(s) 5:310–311, 323; 19:346, 442

saturation 5:252

smooth muscle 12:243–244

supply 5:100

system 6:316

values 5:241

vessels 5:276

Arterioles 5:308, 459, 461, 465; 12:243; 13:19

Arteriovenous anastomoses 12:243

(a-V) communication 19:541–543, 547, 562–563, 569–570, 574

oxygen difference 5:302

Artery(ies) 5:64, 308, 323, 416, 423; 10:34; 13:19

abdominal 19:566

allantoic 15:539

anterior mesenteric 19:488, 545

anterior pulmonary 19:381

axial 19:578

basilar 9:50, 76–77, 103, 121

brachiocephalic 19:403, 428

carotid 5:64–65, 306; 14:438, 616–617; 19:125, 318, 378, 381, 390–391, 393, 395–396, 405–408, 410, 428

caudal 15:315, 321, 328

caudalis 19:569

central 19:569

cerebral 10:36

coeliac 19:430, 462, 536, 545–547, 564–567, 569

coeliacomesenteric 19:400, 546–547

colic 14:146

coronary 5:308; 19:393, 399–401, 406, 414

costal 14:146

dorsal intestinal 19:564

epigastric 14:146; 19:400

femoral 5:64–66

esophageal 19:154, 400

gastric 19:154, 545

gastric glandular 19:569

gastro-lieno-intestinal 19:547, 557

hepatic 19:154, 488–490, 569

internal carotid 9:5, 8, 18, 44, 47–48, 56, 76–77, 80–82, 84, 95, 99, 103–104, 107–108, 113–114, 117, 366; 19:318

internal mammary 19:400

intersegmental 14:146

intertruncal 19:400

intestinal 19:562, 564, 578

intrasplenic 19:540, 542–543, 550–551, 565–566, 569, 574

lienalis cranialis 19:569

linealis caudalis 19:569

lineointestinal 19:545, 557

lineopancreatic 19:564

median palatine 9:103, 114

mesenteric 10:37–38; 19:545, 564, 566

omphalomesenteric 14:146, 165, 175

penial 10:41

pineal 9:366, 371

posterior cerebral 9:46, 366

posttruncal 19:400

pulmonary (see also Aorta) 19:11, 100, 126, 132– 135, 138, 149, 154, 162, 165, 169, 327, 348, 378–379, 381, 387, 390–391, 394–398, 405, 408, 427–431, 434, 437–440, 443, 334–447, 449–451, 453–454, 457, 460–461, 467, 471

renal 10:40

saccular 9:367

sciatic 5:65; 19:405

splenic 19:536–537, 539, 545, 547, 550, 563, 565, 568, 572

subclavian 19:390–391, 393, 395–396, 428

systemic 5:257; 19:394–396, 443, 451, 454

systemicocarotid trunk 19:399

trabecular 19:540

tracheal 19:102–103, 131–132, 134

truncus coeliacomesentericus 19:563–565, 568

umbilical 15:537, 539–540, 546, 552

uterine 15:534, 537

vertebral 5:65; 19:125, 154

vitelline 14:99, 145, 165; 15:536–537

Arthropod(s) (see also Invertebrates) 5:4, 27; 8:6, 618–620, 658; 12:354, 357, 407, 415, 452–453; 20:572, 590

venom 8:7

Arthrosaura 20:189, 192

reticulata 20:301, 308

Arthus reaction 8:365, 497

Articular 4:107–108, 112, 126, 132–133, 137–138, 147, 163, 186, 204–205, 211, 215–219, 221, 223, 225, 237, 239, 258, 265, 279, 296–297, 301, 306, 315, 343, 417; 11:24, 31, 57, 59, 64, 73, 80–81, 84–85, 100, 129, 146, 151, 156, 179, 218, 237, 243–244; 20:35, 37, 74, 90, 103–104, 116, 125, 127, 130, 136–137, 148–150, 157–158, 162, 164,166, 1173, 184, 186, 194–195, 208, 216, 218, 224, 226, 239, 241, 247, 249, 273, 281, 356–357, 377, 384–385, 394, 419, 422, 425, 461, 487, 519, 521, 586, 592, 615; 21:611

cartilage 1:83, 104, 206

condyle 20:37, 90

cotyle 20:74

facet(s) 1:93, 97; 20:418

fossa 4:239; 20:239

process of quadrate 4:117

surface 20:498

Articulation (see Rotation)

Articulatory cartilage pad 20:484

process of quadrate 20:507, 511, 540–541, 562, 569

Artificial insemination 14:348, 357

respiration 5:5

Artiodactyla, bone 1:74

“Arvin” (see also “Ancrod”) 8:494–496, 498, 500, 514

Arylamidase 8:91

Arylesterase 8:91

Arylethylamin 6:256

Arytenoid cartilage 4:176–177, 179–182, 191–193

Asaccus 21:89, 96, 188, 398, 400

elisae 21:89, 399

Ascalabota 7:317–318, 320; 19:41; 21:9, 17, 116, 256, 265–266

axial muscles 11:385–386

axial skeleton 1:262

eye 2:89

jaw muscles 4:326, 418–419

thyroid 3:204–205

Ascalabotes, epiphyses and sesamoids 1:101

Ascarite 5:75, 80

Ascending pathway 10:120

process of premaxilla 11:17, 59, 111, 134, 151, 200, 218, 235, 244; 20:357, 397, 404, 420, 436–437, 445–446, 448, 454, 461, 466, 469, 483, 490, 498–499, 522–523, 536, 552–554, 557, 559

process of pterygoquadrate 11:13, 30–32, 41–42, 44–45, 52, 54–56, 66, 74, 76, 78, 93, 97, 100, 106, 110, 115–116, 123, 145, 192–193, 195, 197, 204, 206–207, 209, 211–212, 214–217, 226, 233, 238, 241

cartilage 20:364

Aschoff’s Rule 18:244, 252

Ascites 3:30

Ascorbic acid 3:292, 304–305

Asia 2:322–323

Asian coral snakes 20:534

palatine erectors 20:534

pitvipers 20:496

Askeptosaurus 9:296

eye 2:80

Aspartate 17:589

Aspartic acid 3:23–25, 40, 45

Asphyxia 5:238, 306, 321; 8:449

Asphyxic states 5:277, 287

Aspidelaps 7:503; 8:17, 442; 16:41, 121, 149, 234; 19:221; 20:457, 535, 542, 544

haemachates 20:624

lubricus 8:17; 19:195

scutatus 8:17, 442; 19:127, 168, 195; 20:537, 539–540, 545, 552

Aspidites 7:498; 12:127; 16:143, 285, 289, 303; 19:234; 20:435, 437, 443

melanocephalus 19:152, 160, 186; 20:437, 604

pit organs 2:301

ramsayi 20:433–434, 437, 604

Aspidomorphus 7:503; 8:17, 19; 19:22320:542, 544; 21:509

ear 2:272

jaw muscles 4:482

lineaticollis 8:17; 19:197; 20:626

minutus 8:19

muelleri 8:17; 19:197; 20:626

schlegeli(i) 8:17; 19:197; 20:626

Aspidoscelis 21:7, 190, 223, 226–227, 235, 338, 352, 357, 361

sexlineata 21:42

tigris 21:44, 61

Aspidura 7:227; 15:662; 19:200, 233; 20:470; 21:500–501, 531, 577, 584, 600

axial skeleton 1:287

brachyorrhos 19:200

guentheri 19:200

trachyprocta 19:200; 20:634

Aspidurini 19:233

Aspiration breathing 5:229; 19:39, 46

Aspis 5:373, 377, 379, 407; 7:505; 8:31; 12:133, 417, 419, 464, 475; 13:114; 15:47

Assertion display

definition 7:271

function 7:271–172, 276–277

lack of 7:281, 289, 293, 299

Assimilation efficiencies 5:170

efficiency 12:355

of food 5:170–171

Astra blue 6:227, 241, 265, 289, 297

Astragalocalcaneum 21:22, 111, 117, 136, 156–157, 159–173, 175–179, 181–183, 186, 191, 202, 364, 366–370, 372, 375, 377–380, 382–388, 392–393

Astragalofibulare 21:172

Astragalometatarsal ligaments 21:177

Astragalotarsal ligaments 21:168

Astragalus 1:12, 15, 20, 30; 4:57–60, 96; 14:447; 15:79–81, 110; 21:10, 29, 162–166, 172

Astral blue 14:609

Astrapotheria skull 4:281

Astrotia 5:434; 8:27; 13:7; 19:223

stokesii 8:27; 19:107, 198; 20:526

Astyanax 17:213

Asymmetry 21:19

heart 19:404, 416

lung 19:31, 95, 98, 112–114, 157, 165

of genital system 6:57–58, 81, 88–90, 110, 113

of skull 4:243

Atelectasis 19:41, 43, 349

Ateuchosaurus 9:341

chinensis 21:398

pellopleurus 20:297; 21:400

sowerbyi 20:297

Atheca (see Dermochelyoidea)

Athene 16:199

Atherini 19:219

Atheris 7:505; 8:29, 125, 144, 664; 15:660, 671; 16:44, 151; 19:108, 219; 20:508, 516, 520

axial muscles 11:357, 405

ceratophorus 8:29; 20:617

chlorechis 8:29; 19:190; 20:498 617

desaixi 8:29; 19:190; 20:617

ear 2:272

hindii 8:29

hispida(us) 8:29; 19:190; 20:617

jaw muscles 4:461, 482

katangensis 8:29

nitschei 8:29; 19:152, 164, 190; 20:499, 617

rungweensis 19:190

squamiger(a) 8:30, 125, 444, 664; 19:152, 164, 190; 20:499, 502–503, 515, 521, 617

superciliaris 8:30

Atheroscelerosis 3:26

Athleticism 19:377

Atlantal crest (Process) 20:429, 438, 470, 473, 527, 617

foramina 20:422

processes of exoccipitals 20:473, 527, 529

Atlanto-occipital joint 20:416, 474

Atlas 11:28, 36–38, 213, 226, 240, 366; 20:408, 438, 474, 478, 586; 21:228, 542

-axis complex 1:12, 15, 22–23, 204, 210–212, 226–228, 235–236, 244, 255, 257, 260, 273–276, 287–290, 300–301

vertebrae 14:435

Atomic absorption analysis 8:172–174

ATP 5:186, 192–193, 251; 11:267, 298, 308–310, 313; 12:244; 13:33, 72, 91, 177, 185, 194

ATP ase 2:288; 11:267–268, 281–282, 291, 296, 323, 335; 12:383; 13:96

ATP pyrophosphorylase 8:178

Atractaspidae 16:38, 41, 119, 143

Atractaspididae 19:100, 103–104, 116, 130–131, 133, 148, 151–152, 159, 162, 164, 166, 193, 220; 20:488, 354, 492, 522, 524, 526, 528–529, 531, , 535, 546, 548–549, 570619; 21:543, 550, 567, 571, 577, 585

incertae sedis 20:534

Atractaspidinae 8:46, 111, 151; 19:220

Atractaspis 7:505; 8:8, 30, 58, 94–95, 104, 111, 113–117, 120, 122, 125, 142, 149–151, 353, 444, 696; 10:204; 16:6, 41, 119, 143; 19:122, 149, 220; 20:536–531, 546

aterrima 8:30, 111; 19:152, 194; 20:620

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:296

battersbyi 8:30

bibronii 8:30, 111; 19:123, 194; 20:526–527, 530, 620

blood cell morphology 3:78

boulengeri 8:30; 19:152, 194

coalescens 8:30

congica 8:30; 19:194

corpulenta 8:30, 111; 18:324; 19:148, 194

dahomeyensis 8:30; 19:152, 166, 194; 20:620

duerdeni 19:194

ear 2:270, 272

engaddensis 8:30, 111, 113–117; 20:620

engdahli 8:30; 19:194

eye 2:54–56, 91

fallax 19:194

irregularis 8:30, 111, 113; 19:132, 194; 20:620; 21:537, 576

jaw muscles 4:423, 441, 462, 464–466, 482

leucomelas 8:30; 19:194

microlepidota 8:30, 111, 353, 444; 19:164, 194; 20:620

micropholis 19:194

pituitary 3:188, 192

reticulata 8:30; 19:194

scortecci(i) 8:30; 19:194

Atractus 7:499; 16:119, 144, 186, 230–231; 19:200, 228; 20:558, 563, 565, 570, 574, 576, 578; 21:531, 554

badius 19:162, 200

bocourti 19:200

carrioni 19:200; 20:649

collaris 19:200; 20:574

crassicaudatus 19:200; 20:649

duboisi 19:200; 20:558–560, 570, 650

elaps 19:200; 20:574, 577, 650

emmeli 19:200

erythromelas 19:200; 20:564, 581, 650

eye 2:55, 62

favae 19:200

flammigerus 20:650

fuliginosus 19:200

guentheri 19:200

jaw muscles 4:481

lasallei 19:200

latifrons 19:200, 229

lehmanni 19:200

longimaculatus 19:200

loveridgei 19:200

maculatus 19:200

major 19:200; 20:555, 559, 565, 574, 577–578, 650

manizalesensis 19:200

modestus 19:200

multicinctus 19:200

nicefori 19:200

occidentalis 19:200

occipitoalbus 19:200

orcesi 19:200

pamplonensis 19:200

paucidens 19:200

peruvianus 19:200

poeppigi 19:200

punctiventris 19:200

resplendens 19:152, 200; 20:559

reticulatus 19:200

santaemartae 19:200

torquatus 19:200; 20:559, 570, 650

trilineatus 19:200; 20:650

ventrimaculatus 19:200

werneri 19:200

zidoki 20:650

Atresia

of esophagus 14:31

of oocytes 14:53, 64, 66, 341

Atretic body (see Corpus atreticum)

follicles 16:360

Atretium 8:691; 19:233

jaw muscles 4:481

schistosum 19:200; 20:646

yunnanensis 19:200

Atria 5:62, 279–280, 285, 287, 289

Atrial

blood 5:285

defect 19:436

depolarization 5:296

diverticulum 19:408

funnel 19:394

input 19:388

myogram 5:293

systole 5:280; 19:385

tissue 5:87

volume 19:381, 398

Atrioturbinal (see Preconcha)

Atrioventricular

canal 19:390

conducting system 5:292

funnel 19:381, 384, 402, 410–412, 415–416

junction 5:278; 19:400, 402, 416

node 10:11

opening 19:381, 404, 410

orifices 5:280

ostia 19:426–429

ring 19:382–383, 410

valve 5:278–280, 287, 289; 19:382, 384, 386, 390, 394–395, 405, 411, 413, 415–416, 427–429

Atrium(a) (see also Vestibulum) 3:238, 246, 252, 256; 6:326, 331, 381, 444, 446; 19:125, 325, 330, 376, 378–379, 381–382, 385, 388, 390, 393–394, 398–399, 401–416, 426–427, 429, 431–432, 434, , 447–449, 451–452, 457, 471–472

Atropine 5:236–237, 305, 308, 322, 325; 8:473, 482, 517, 523, 654; 10:13, 21, 24, 27, 33, 36–37, 39–41, 43; 12:247; 19:452, 468

sulfate 5:103

Atropoides 19:220

mexicanus 20:612

nummifer 19:152, 190; 20:612

picadoi 20:612

Attractant signals (see Pheromone, chemical

cues)

Attraction sphere 6:110–111

Attractivity (see Pheromone; Sexual, female

behavior)

Audition 2:193, 208, 223, 232, 235, 261–262

Auditory

afferent 10:291

capsule (see Otic capsule)

foramen 11:14, 26, 43–44, 98, 112, 138, 140, 160, 218, 221, 224, 231

ganglion 11:27, 214, 237

meatus (see Recessus oticus externus)

nerve (see also Vestibulocochlear nerve) 11:15, 26–27, 106

ossicles, reinforcements 11:34–35

pits 14:428

representation 10:293

system 10:173

tube (see also Eustachian tube) 2:196–197, 201, 222, 224, 226, 232, 242, 262; 4:163

vesicles 14:428; 15:14

Auerbach’s plexus 6:270

Aulacephalodon 9:299

Aulacoplax ear 2:271

Aulax (see Subconchal recess)

Aulura 21:644, 674, 676

anomala 21:635, 674, 676–677, 689, 731

axial skeleton 1:272

Aurantia 6:246, 264

Auricle 9:50; 10:12, 15–18, 20

Auricles 5:59, 307–308

Auricular appendages 19:403, 413

plate 11:237

sinus 6:318

Auriculoventricular bundle 10:12

junction 10:12

sulcus 19:400

Ausführungsgang (see Nasopharyngeal duct)

Äussere Nasendrüse (see External nasal gland)

Äussere Nasenhöhle (see Vestibulum)

Äussere Nasenloch (see External naris)

Äussere Nasenöffnung (see External naris)

Äussere Nasenfortsatz (see Lateral nasal

process)

Australia 2:323–324

Australian elapids 20:532

Austrelaps 7:224; 8:17, 193, 246–247, 251, 260, 262, 288, 293, 295, 334, 358, 376, 471, 473, 478, 483, 506, 519; 12:132; 13:308, 310–311; 15:49, 533, 546, 560, 654; 16:149, 483, 520; 19:222

superbus (not Denisonia) 8:71, 193, 246–247, 251, 260, 262, 288, 293, 295, 334, 358, 376, 443, 456, 471, 473, 478, 483, 506, 510; 19:197; 20:626

Autarchoglossa 7:317–320; 18:164–165, 204; 19:21, 41; 21:9, 17, 116–117, 255, 265–266

axial muscles 11:385

eye 2:89

thyroid 3:204–206

Autarchoglossan lizards 16:34–37

Autapomorphy(ic) 20:354, 394, 423, 436, 485

Autarchoglossa 20:137, 284

Auto-amputation 15:385, 387

Autoantibodies 3:34, 36; 14:649

Autodiastly 11:192

Autografts 14:15, 639

Autolysis 6:55

Automated titration 5:67

Autonomic ganglia 8:474

ganglion 6:42

nerves 11:266

nervous system 10:1–46; 15:591

central connection (see Parasympathetic

nervous system; Sympathetic nervous

system)

septum 1:239, 268–271, 280, 299

Autophagosome 3:326, 328, 337–338

Autopharmacological mechanisms 8:437, 484, 500, 506–507, 519–527

Autopod 15:70, 72, 74, 77–79, 86, 88, 115, 129

differentiation 15:17, 62, 116

suppresion 15:136–137

Autopodium 21:59

Autopolyploidy 15:495

Autoradiography (see also Radioautography) 1:75; 8:451, 461; 18:98, 102, 459

Autoregulation 12:144, 252

Autoshaping 7:615

Autotomizing vertebra 1:239, 280

Autotomous adaptations 15:326

Autotomy (see Caudal autotomy)

adaptive value 15:341–348

age effect 15:348–349

and blood loss 15:322, 328

and caudal fat 15:323–324, 346

and caudal muscles 15:317–321, 323

and predation 15:341, 349

and Reissner’s fiber 15:324

and tail function 15:341–348

and temperature 15:322, 349–350

basal 15:344

center 15:324

distribution among reptiles 15:340

experimental 15:322–324

frequency 15:349

incidence of 15:348–349

mechanism 15:322–324

neurological component 15:324

neuropsychological factors 15:324

plane 15:315

segment 15:316, 320–323, 328, 332, 360

septum 15:308, 310, 312, 315–319, 321, 326, 328, 335, 352, 359, 361

sex differences 15:348

spontaneous (see also Caudal autotomy) 15:322

Avascular posterior extension of lung 5:232

Aversion, delayed illness induced 7:588–589

Aversive stimulus 7:559

Avertin 5:45

Aves (including both Latin and commonly named

taxa; see also Birds) 19:51, 53, 58, 74, 315– 316, 516, 537–538, 560–569, 576–578

adrenal 3:264, 275, 284, 286–287, 298, 309, 312

axial muscles 11:361, 371

blood cell morphology 3:83

blood cell numbers 3:98

blood chemistry 3:14, 18–19, 32, 44–46

chondrocranium 11:7–8, 10, 21, 23, 38–39, 123, 192, 221–222, 230, 236, 238, 242, 245–246

ear 2:233, 262–263

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:81, 84, 89, 106, 109

eye 2:19, 32, 40, 53, 82, 84, 86, 90

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:152, 168

histology of gut 6:232, 269, 274, 277,283, 302

jaw muscles 4:289, 293, 316, 415

lymphatics 6:316, 447, 458

muscle tissue 11:266–268, 271, 282, 289, 291, 294–298, 317, 323, 334–335, 338

nose 2:103–104, 176

origin and evolution 1:2

pancreas 3:328–329, 335

parathyroid 3:235

pituitary 3:159, 165, 196

skull 4:245, 251, 278

thymus 3:111, 115–116, 120, 124

urinogenital system 6:2–4, 6, 8, 18–19, 21, 31–32, 35–36, 56, 77, 80, 91, 110–111, 114, 118, 120

Avian

air sacs 19:22, 63

blood 5:256

circulation 5:28, 288

kidney 5:494–495, 497

lung 19:4, 63, 71–73

red cells 5:251, 256

salt glands 5:414, 426, 433, 438–440

spleen 19:578

tissues 5:206

urine 5:384

ventricular pressure 19:446

Avoidance 18:425

Axial

bending 21:48, 224

member of double cell 2:3, 35, 37–38, 44–47, 57, 59–60, 85

muscles 4:1, 21, 61, 72

musculature 11:283, 355–435

shield (see Axillary shield)

skeleton 1:106, 301–311, 321–322, 324, 327–328, 331–332; 21:192, 217

-subundulatory locomotion 21:56

Axillary

gland 18:191, 195, 197

ligament 21:265

plexus 6:389–390

pore (see also Gland) 18:191

shield 1:314–315, 335

sinus 6:318, 320, 322, 324, 327, 345, 354–355, 357–360, 376, 382–383, 385, 389–392, 397–398, 456

trunk 6:319

vein 3:203; 6:323

Axillo-jugular anastomosis 6:391

Axis (see also Atlas-axis complex) 11:37–38, 41, 137, 240, 266; 20:408, 586; 21:229

Axon sorting 21:198

transport 17:176

Axonal swelling 2:280

Axons, neurosecretory 3:138

Axotomy 18:438

Azan 3:146, 148–149, 153–154, 186, 285, 295, 299–300

Azemiopinae 19:219; 20:494, 611

Azemiops 8:30, 117, 122; 16:44, 151, 232; 19:104, 219; 20:495, 498–499, 503–504, 507, 512, 514, 516, 518–519

chondrocranium 11:164

feae 8:30, 117; 19:152, 190; 20:495, 497–499, 611

jaw muscles 4:441, 458, 460–462, 464, 482

Azo dye 6:237–238, 270, 276, 281, 283, 290

reaction 3:304

Azocarmin 3:146, 148, 151

Azorubin S 3:146, 151

Aztecs 8:80

Azure A 8:122

dyes 3:86

Azurophilic granulocytes (see Azurophils)

Azurophils 3:74, 86–87, 103; 14:603, 606–608

Azurophily 3:86–87

Azygous lymphatic system (see Perivertebral lymphatic system)

vein 6:396

 

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