Biology of the Reptilia: Index C

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C cells of pancreas 3:338<>

C fiber 9:414; 10:13<>

Cabrita, eye 2:13<>

Cacophis 8:18; 13:301, 308–311; 15:654, 662; 16:149, 482–483, 520; 19:222<>

churchilli 20:626

harriettae 8:18; 19:152, 197

kreffti 8:18; 19:197

squamulosus 8:18; 19:197; 20:626

Cacops, origin and evolution 1:23<>

Cadea 21:635, 644, 657, 661<>

axial skeleton 1:271–273

blanoides 21:626, 644, 658–569

eye 2:24

palirostrata 21:658–660

Caecilia (see Gymnophiona)<>

Caecilians 16:8, 112<>

Caecum 6:176, 188–189, 192, 273, 289, 350, 356; 8:631–633, 644; 12:350; 14:439<>

Caenophidia(n) 8:58, 151; 9:161–162; 16:40–44, 143–152; 17:199, 216; 19:103, 119, 140, 151; 20:395, 470, 474<>

axial muscles 11:399, 411, 413, 428, 431–432

chondrocranium 11:136–169, 172, 174, 203–204

eye 2:54, 91

internal relief of gut 6:193

jaw muscles 4:414, 430, 440–448, 468–469

pancreas 3:323–324

pit organs 2:279

urinogenital system (see also Colubroidea) 6:30, 113

Caffeine 3:23; 8:295, 566<>

Cagemates 5:24–25<>

Cages 5:22–24, 26, 83, 103<>

metabolism 5:96

Caiman 5:37, 44, 51, 53, 136, 155, 167, 235, 248,289, 294, 300, 321, 337, 367–368, 373, 377–381, 384, 386–389, 391, 393, 403; 7:239, 507, 570, 596–597, 603–604, 609, 631–632, 634, 636, 642–643, 656, 662–663; 8:49, 595–596, 598, 600, 602, 613–614, 630, 646–651, 653, 661, 675; 9:40, 44–53, 59, 82, 92, 108, 117–118, 381, 412, 418–423, 426–428, 430–431, 433; 10:82, 85, 100–101, 122, 134–135, 161, 163–165, 171–275, 179–180, 182–183, 185–186, 190, 203, 215, 218, 220–221, 223, 228–230, 235, 293–294, 297, 313, 317, 325–326, 330; 12:35, 135–136, 188, 247, 288, 337, 383, 402, 408–411, 459, 473; 13:18, 65, 81, 307; 14:334, 336, 338, 344–345, 349–350, 352, 355, 377, 419, 428, 436, 446, 641; 15:392; 16:16, 18, 28, 113, 135, 280, 533, 558; 17:176, 184–186, 190, 193, 324, 328, 506, 513–515, 524, 533, 535–536, 544, 561–562, 565–567, 610, 626; 19:81, 429, 453, 512<>

adrenal 3:269, 286

axial muscles 11:372

axial skeleton 1:228

blood cell morphology 3:78, 83, 85

blood chemistry 3:11, 23, 28, 30, 45, 49–50

crocodilus 18:99, 200, 203, 328, 440, 442, 453; 19:3, 34, 36, 39, 41, 81, 392, 419, 438, 454, 500, 526

dentition 1:143–144, 146–147

ear 2:270, 272

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:87, 89, 110

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:130, 136, 138, 143, 184–185

internal relief of gut 6:212–218

latirostris 18:328; 19:34, 36, 82

lymphatics 6:316, 324–325, 335, 342, 344, 346, 349, 354, 358, 367, 370, 378–379, 381, 389, 394, 397, 403–404, 407, 413–414, 417–418, 422–424, 427–428, 431–432, 434, 436, 446

muscle tissue 11:273, 317, 333, 336

nose 2:144–145, 148–149

parathyroid 3:245, 247

pituitary 3:191

skull 4:201–202, 212, 220–221, 223, 227m 230–233, 237–238, 241, 243, 246

thymus 3:116

Caimanoidea, skull 4:279<>

Calabaria 7:498; 8:690; 16:37, 128, 143; 17:209– 210, 213; 19:104, 125–126, 235; 20:353, 424, 435–436, 440, 445, 460–461, 464, 491; 21:529–530, 545, 547–549, 554, 574–576, 578, 585, 590, 592, 596<>

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:287, 297

ear 2:271

jaw muscles 4:480

pancreas 3:324

pit organs 2:301

reinhardtii 19:166, 188; 20:433, 444, 460, 462–463, 609

Calamaria 7:227, 499; 8:69; 16:119, 144, 232–233; 19:201, 228; 20:556, 563; 21:474, 488, 497, 538, 541, 575, 589<>

acutirostris 19:201; 20:631

albiventer 19:201

bicolor 19:152, 201

bitorques 19:201

borneensis 19:201

carnensis 19:201

crassa 19:201

curta 19:201

dentition 1:181–182

ear 2:271

everetti 19:201

gervaisi(i) 19:201; 20:631

grabowskyi 19:201

griswoldi 19:201

javanica 19:201

jaw muscles 4:444, 469, 481

lateralis 19:201

leucocephala 20:500

leucogaster 19:201; 20:631

linnaei 19:201; 20:631

lovii 19:201

lumbricoidea 19:201

melanota 19:201

modesta 19:201

muelleri 19:152, 201

multipunctata 19:201

nuchalis 19:201

pavimentata 19:201; 20:631

schlegeli 19:201

septentrionalis 19:201; 20:631

urinogenital system 6:27, 113

virgulata 19:152, 201

Calamariinae 19:228; 20:551, 561, 570, 574, 631; 21:513<>

Calamariini 19:133, 159<>

Calamarinae, jaw muscles 4:441<>

Calamelaps 7:499<>

ear 2:227, 269, 271

eye 2:91

unicolor 20:619

Calamodontophis 15:647; 19:101<>

Calamoichthyes 19:563<>

Calamorhabdium 19:201, 228<>

Calcaneum 1:12, 15, 20; 4:57–60, 96; 14:447; 15:79– 80; 21:10, 29, 162–166, 171–172, 182<>

Calcification 21:29<>

in limb development 15:74

of cartilage tube 15:369, 374–375, 382

of eggshells 14:84, 86, 113, 211

Calcified cartilage 1:85–86, 89, 91, 94–97, 99–100, 102, 104, 106–107, 111, 208<>

matrix 1:49

tissue 1:129

Calciform cell 6:91<>

Calcite 14:82, 359, 367, 369, 371–372; 16:528–530<>

Calcitonin gene-related peptide 17:686–687<>

Calcium 3:1–2, 4–7, 13, 34, 36–38, 53, 235–236, 240, 243, 250, 257, 259; 5:53–54, 58, 60, 67, 482; 6:101, 295; 11:8, 267, 273–274, 288–289, 292, 296, 299, 304–306, 308, 314–316, 335; 12:240, 243, 252, 327–333, 345, 351, 354, 363–364, 366, 383; 13:85–87, 92, 178; 16:527, 529<>

and viviparity 15:616

balance 1:313

CaCl2 8:566

carbonate 16:528–529

carbonate in eggshells 14:82, 359; 15:3

clotting time 8:340

content of eggs 14:375

dietary 14:211, 375

excretion 5:483

gluconate 3:257

heparin 5:61

in blastocyte 15:569

ions 8:170, 172–173, 260–261, 266, 269, 465–466, 468–469, 487, 526

loading 5:483

metabolism 14:210, 376

mobilization 14:360, 376

phosphate 3:38; 8:566

plasma levels 14:341

requirements of embryos 14:86, 200

Calconite 16:525–526<>

Calechidna 19:135, 219<>

atropos 19:191

caudalis 19:127 (as Bitis), 191

cornuta 19:191

heraldica 19:191

inornata 19:191

peringueyi 19:152 (as Bitis), 191

schneideri 19:191

xeropaga 19:191

Caledoniscincus 21:397<>

Calibration 5:32<>

Caliciform cells 15:194<>

Caligo 16:173<>

Callagur 12:358, 426; 14:80, 179, 183; 16:354, 391, 436<>

borneoensis 18:315, 322

Callinectes 5:342<>

Calliophis 7:503; 8:18, 106; 15:654; 16:149, 181, 203, 232–233, 287; 19:221; 20:535, 544<>

beddomei 8:18

bibroni 8:18; 21:610

bivirgata 20:537, 544, 621

boettgeri 8:18

calligaster 8:18; 19:152, 196

ear 2:272

gracilis 8:18; 19:152, 196; 20:544; 21:610

intestinalis 20:544

iwasakii 8:18

japonicus 8:18; 19:114 (as Hemibungarus), 152, 196; 20:537

kelloggi 8:18

macclellandi(i) 8:18; 19:152, 196; 20:544

maculiceps 8:19; 19:196

melanurus 8:19; 21:610

nigrescens 8:19; 19:196

sauteri 8:18

Callisaurus 5:130, 144; 7:8, 10, 16, 165, 189, 271, 274–275, 310, 425, 451, 453, 476; 9:340; 12:100, 103, 110, 460, 471, 488; 13:217, 237, 309, 311; 14:200; 16:11, 22, 53, 116, 139, 211–212, 464–465, 514, 565, 568; 20:80, 84, 89; 21:42, 68, 308<>

axial skeleton 1:269–270

chondrocalcium 11:86

draconoides 18:257, 264, 362; 20:291, 305; 21:7, 44, 190

ear 2:223, 265, 270

eye 2:26, 28

nose 2:119, 125, 128

urinogenital system 6:73

Callopistes 9:157; 12:116; 15:343; 16:7, 9, 13, 35, 56, 141; 20:176–179, 181–182, 184, 300; 21:233<>

axial skeleton 1:270

dentition 1:163–165

flavipunctatus 20:308

maculatus 20:180, 308

Calloselasma 8:35–36, 172, 187, 192, 262, 300, 317, 325–326, 332–333, 335–336, 340, 347, 357, 362, 374, 496, 498, 500, 513, 528, 696; 15:655; 16:214, 288; 17:382; 19:219; 20:510<>

acutus 8:35, 172, 187, 244, 262, 300, 312, 317, 326, 333, 335, 340, 446, 485, 492, 494, 528

rhodostoma (see also Agkistrodon) 8:35, 192, 237, 325, 332–333, 336, 347, 357, 362, 374, 446, 472, 490, 493–496, 498–500, 513, 696; 18:324; 19:191; 20:613

Calodactylodes aureus 20:306<>

Calodactylus, eye 2:26, 31

Calopisma martii 20:654<>

Calorific flux 2:292<>

Calorimeters 5:82<>

Calorimetry 5:318<>

direct systems 5:81–82, 130, 197

indirect systems 5:70–71, 77–79, 81–82

Calotes 7:164, 276–277, 487; 8:626, 632–633, 677– 678; 9:3–4, 7, 20, 157, 251, 331; 12:107–108; 13:210, 216, 308; 14:617, 626–628, 636, 641, 643–644, 648, 652, 658, 661; 15:7, 27, 43, 61, 74, 80–81, 89, 91, 135, 151, 159, 331, 366, 375; 16:52, 114, 137, 464–465, 473, 512; 17:457, 467, 469, 596; 18:441; 19:22, 78, 406–407, 417, 488–489, 516, 544; 20:92, 96–101, 103, 105; 21:7, 24, 26, 76, 88, 120, 122–123, 145, 164, 181, 209, 396<>

adrenal 3:265, 280

axial skeleton 1:258

calotes 20:293

chondrocranium 11:91–92, 94–95

cristatellus 20:293

dentition 1:148, 159–160

ear 2:238, 266, 271

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:101

eye 2:14, 27–28

internal relief of gut 6:177, 182

jaw muscles 4:312, 315, 326–330, 333–337, 339, 402, 413, 416, 469, 477

jubatus 20:293

lymphatics 6:453

muscle tissue 11:278, 282–283, 293, 336

mystaceus 18:348, 469; 20:293, 305

nose 2:119, 124, 129, 142, 154, 178

ophiomachus 20:293

pituitary 3:192

urinogenital system 6:13, 30, 43, 51, 58–59, 99, 197–108, 119

versicolor 18:189, 272–273, 348; 19:487–488, 498, 506, 525, 550, 552, 560, 579; 20:293, 305; 21:53, 190

Calotte (see Attraction sphere)<>

Calumma (“Calumna”) 20:105, 295<>

parsoni 20:306

Calycal process 2:35, 43, 58, 60<>

Calyptotis 21:399<>

lepidorostrum 21:400

ruficauda 20:297; 21:400

scutirostrum 20:297; 21:400

temporalis 21:400

thorntonensis 21:399–400

Camarasaurus 9:98, 100–101<>

Camouflage (see Antipredator mechanisms,<>

crypsis; Coloration, cryptic; Mimicry)

Camphor 8:475, 565<>

Camptosaurus 9:61, 101<>

Campylodon prevostianum 20:631<>

Canada 2:321<>

Canal of Hering 19:504<>

of Schlemm 2:16–17, 20, 50–51, 65, 70–71, 75; 17:215–216

Canaliculate fangs 20:488, 495, 512, 532, 551<>

Canaliculus(i) 1:55, 126; 19:494<>

Canalis carotis internus 4:116<>

cavernosus 11:219

Cancellous bone 1:51, 53–54, 64, 71, 73<>

conversion 1:53, 74

medulla 1:54, 59, 77

spaces 1:52, 72

trabecula 1:51, 53–54, 62, 68, 71

Cancer 14:664–665<>

Candida 19:521<>

Candling of embryos 14:168, 191, 193, 195, 198, 225, 462<>

Candoia 7:382, 498; 12:127; 15:646; 16:143, 202; 19:235; 20:448, 450; 21:553, 578<>

aspera 19:188; 20:606; 21:578

bibroni 19:188; 20:448, 607; 21:578

carinata 18:312; 19:188; 20:448, 607; 21:578

jaw muscles 4:480

pit organs (see also Enygrus) 2:301

“Canine” tooth (see Caniniform tooth)<>

Caniniform tooth 1:27, 119, 124, 151, 157, 159, 160, 164, 184–185, 189, 193<>

Canis 16:57, 403<>

blood chemistry 3:23, 34, 45

lupus 19:58–59

pancreas 3:333

Cannula 5:64, 66, 101–102, 433<>

Cannulated blood vessels 5:63<>

Cannulation 5:61, 65, 96, 101–102, 415–416, 423, 430–431; 8:593<>

Cantoria 16:232–233; 19:228<>

annulata 19:201

violacea 19:201

Cap-Chur-Sol 5:53<>

Capacitance 11:284, 287–289; 19:304, 317, 323, 327<>

Capillaries 2:17, 23, 41, 53, 70,76, 161, 176, 289, 307, 310; 3:29, 139, 142–143, 148–150, 163–166, 201, 211, 236, 246, 248, 254, 288, 326–328, 334, 337, 339, 341–342; 5:66, 308, 460–461; 6:30–31, 85, 98–100, 103, 237, 448<>

allantoic 15:550–551, 553

chorionic 15:550

fetal 15:551, 553, 557, 564, 593

maternal 15:551, 557, 564

uterine 15:550, 555, 561, 593

Capillary bed 5:416<>

channels 5:387

circuits 5:276

filtration 19:346–348

net 19:14–15, 17, 77

oncotic pressure 19:347

permeability (see Membrane permeability)

pressure 5:276

tube 5:61, 102

Capitate process of laterosphenoid 4:257<>

Capitatum 21:126<>

Capitellum 4:16–17<>

Capitulum 4:107<>

of rib 1:201–202, 209, 212, 217, 227, 229–230, 237, 287, 301

Capric acid 18:194<>

Caprylic acid 18:194<>

Capsule (see also under specific organs) 11:322–323<>

long 11:319, 321–322, 327, 330–331

of external nasal gland 2:176

of Jacobson’s organs 21:562

of the shoulder joint 4:34

of the venom gland 4:450–451, 453, 455, 457; 8:117

short 11:319, 320–321, 330–331, 334

Capsules for the Jacobson’s organs 21:562<>

Captive breeding 14:207–217, 336, 356–360, 460, 496<>

diet and feeding 14:210–212, 216

lighting 14:209

temperature 14:208–209

Captivity 8:97<>

reptiles 13:290, 296–299

Captorhinidae 19:74; 21:82<>

origin and evolution 1:11, 14

Captorhinomorph(s) 17:220; 21:120<>

Captorhinomorpha 9:68, 138, 296; 19:74<>

dentition 1:151

eye 2:80

origin and evolution 1:1, 7, 12, 14–18, 20, 22, 25, 27, 30, 36–40

Captorhinus 9:296; 15:337; 21:166, 171<>

bone 1:71–76

dentition 1:127, 151

origin and evolution 1:14

Capture 5:21<>

methods 16:336–337, 344, 365

capture bias 16:336–338

lizards and snakes 16:339–340

turtles 16:337–339, 365

Caput femoris (see Head of the femur)<>

humeri (see Head of the humerus)

Carapace 1:9–10, 209–210, 213, 217, 222, 224–225, 312, 314–315, 319–323, 325, 327, 329–330, 333–334, 337; 3:222, 243; 4:3, 9, 11, 13–14, 21, 23–24, 52, 55, 61, 66, 72, 91, 94–95; 5:88, 93, 234, 305; 6:335, 358, 374–375, 447; 11:362, 366, 368, 372, 423, 428; 14:151–154, 156, 165, 279, 312, 536; 18:191; 19:18, 20, 404<>

development 14:96, 101, 123–124, 152–154, 176, 281, 292, 294, 296–297, 299, 309–310

ossification 14:176, 313–314

Carassius 7:614<>

hybrid origin 15:493

meiosis 15:479, 498

thymus 3:127

Carbachol 8:91–92, 460, 605; 10:19; 12:230, 253<>

Carbamylation 8:224<>

Carbamylcholine 8:457<>

Carbohydrate(s) 3:29, 236; 5:169, 172, 206; 6:227, 296–297; 8:44–45, 47; 12:287, 353; 18:186, 192, 199; 19:511–513, 524<>

Carbon 3:45<>

dioxide (see also PCO2; Acid-base balance; Respiratory

gases and embryos) 3:13–14, 17; 5:49, 70, 73, 172, 239, 241, 243–245, 249, 320, 343, 346, 360, 372; 12:245, 428–430, 444, 447; 13:22–14, 32–33, 37–38, 40, 137, 240, 246; 19:64, 154–156, 298–300, 302–306, 315–316, 320–323, 329, 336, 343, 345, 466–467, 470

absorbent 5:80

absorption 5:74–75, 77

contents of blood 5:343–344, 357–358

disposal 5:81

elimination 5:100, 247

output 5:80

production 5:79–81, 129–130, 174, 360

receptors 5:245

sensitivity 5:241, 243

transmission in placenta 15:561

transport 5:250

dissociation curve 19:469

elimination 19:469

exchange 19:467

flux 19:466–467

metabolic 19:305

monoxide 3:17, 20; 19:323, 327

storage 19:467

β-Carbonapthoxycholine iodide 8:360–361<>

Carbonate 5:58<>

Carbonic<>

acid (see Acid-base balance)

anhydrase 3:13, 45; 5:478, 481; 6:231, 249, 255, 264, 295; 12:363

anhydratase 6:252

Carbonyles, lipidic 3:293<>

Carboxyl group 6:234<>

Carboxypeptidase 8:613, 615–616<>

Carcinoma (see also Pathology) 8:512, 516; 19:522–523, 544<>

Carcinus 5:342<>

Cardenolides 16:158<>

Cardiac<>

anatomy 19:376–387, 392–397, 403, 408, 426–430, 436, 447, 454

acceleration 10:14

bodies 19:319

cartilage 19:387, 396, 404, 410

cavities 19:411

chambers 19:377

cycle 5:276, 282; 19:385, 388, 428, 432, 436, 442–443, 445–446, 450

design 19:379–398

distributional patterns 5:288

electrical activity 5:87

energy 5:277

failure 5:193; 8:480

function 12:176, 237; 19:387–392, 397–398

glands 6:243, 268

inhibition 5:308

innervation 19:402–403, 452

lung 19:33–34, 100, 102–106, 126, 129–134, 138–139, 177

muscle (see also Muscle, cardiac) 5:8–9, 160, 164, 200–206; 19:379, 387, 392

output 5:247–248, 275, 277, 281–282, 284, 292, 297–298, 300–302, 304, 316, 318, 323–326; 8:480; 12:237–238, 242–243; 19:340, 377, 435

plexus (see Precardiac sinus)

puncture 3:2, 93–94; 5:61–63, 350

rate 13:19–20, 25, 27, 69

region 19:111, 126, 138, 148, 169, 319

region of stomach 6:163, 165, 180–181, 200, 202, 214, 243, 268, 355, 410, 413

rythym 3:13, 17

shunt (see also Cardiac shunting) 12:176; 13:1, 21–22, 25–27

sympathetics 5:307

tissue 5:87

vagal fibers 5:308–309

vector 5:92

Cardiac shunting (see also Shunting) 19:300–301, 318, 325, 328, 330, 340, 346, 388–390, 392, 398, 425–474<>

adaptation or atavistic relic 19:473–474

bi-directional 19:432–433, 435, 438, 449, 458

definitions 19:430–436

in crocodilians 19:437–441

in testudines and squamates 19:411–449

left-right 19:469–472

mechanisms 19:435–451

net 19:443–444, 459, 461, 472

physiological significance 19:462–472

physiological states 19:455–463

activity 19:459–460

thermoregulation 19:460–461

ventilation 19:455–459

regulation 19:451–455

adrenergic 19:452–454

cholinergic 19:451–452, 454–455, 458

non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) 19:451, 454–455

right-left 19:450, 463–469, 473

Cardinal lymphatic (see Lumbar trunk; Thoracic<>

duct)

veins 6:326, 381; 14:438

Cardiocephalus, origin and evolution 1:20<>

Cardiorespiratory synchrony 5:303, 322<>

Cardiostimulating activity 8:480<>

Cardiotachometers 5:90<>

Cardiotoxin (Cardiotoxicity) 8:197–207, 217–218, 234, 356, 441, 449–451, 454, 461, 468, 470, 473, 477–479, 483, 486, 500, 506, 510, 512, 517–518, 526<>

amino acid composition 8:198–201

Cardiovascular anatomy 19:426–430<>

anatomy of crocodylians 19:429–430

anatomy of testudines and squamates 19:426–429

changes 5:311

function 5:7, 193, 225, 306

parameters 5:51, 321

pulmonary function 19:348

responses 5:306, 322, 325

system 5:275, 302, 312; 11:267; 19:319

development 14:436–438

system (failure) 8:449, 480, 484

Caretta 5:257, 347, 386, 415–418, 420, 422; 7:350, 464, 642–643, 654; 8:670; 9 :72–73, 164; 12:140–141, 143, 327, 337, 341, 375, 430; 13:8, 11, 14, 25, 39, 59, 307, 310; 14:9, 26, 79, 94, 101, 114, 119–120, 131, 139–142, 149–150, 152, 154, 162, 166, 168, 178, 209, 217, 221, 223, 225, 227, 236, 238–239, 271, 273–274, 276–281, 285, 287, 289, 291, 293, 205, 297–298, 300–303, 305, 307–309, 311–312, 314–316, 686–687, 691, 712; 15:269–71, 292; 16:112, 341, 362–363, 365–367, 391, 398, 400, 403–405, 436, 538, 544, 552, 577; 17:184; 19:20, 69, 324, 405<>

adrenal 3:265, 269, 275–276

blood chemistry 3:4, 8, 13–15, 30, 35, 43–45, 50

caretta 18:192, 315, 327, 466; 19:19, 42, 77, 351, 354, 404, 417

eye 2:67–70, 72

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104– 109, 112, 114, 117, 122–125, 131, 154, 163, 173, 180–181

histology of gut 6:243–244, 269

internal relief of gut 6:243–244, 269

limbs 4:2–3, 11, 18, 41, 45–50, 65, 67, 75, 78, 83, 85, 88, 90, 94, 100

lymphatics 6:317, 331, 349, 389, 410–412, 416–418, 421, 424, 426, 428–430, 434–437, 442, 444, 446, 448–452, 456–458

nose 2:104, 108

shell 1:324

urinogenital system 6:32, 107, 117

Carettin, shell 1:315, 323, 329, 334<>

Carettochelyidae 7:464; 12:136; 14:80<>

axial skeleton 1:213, 215

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:154

limbs 4:20, 53, 90–91

nose 2:184

shell 1:314, 334, 336

Carettochelyoidea, axial skeleton 1:210, 217<>

Carettochelys 13:4; 14:79–80<>

eye 2:67–69

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:154

limbs 4:3–4, 11, 14, 17, 20–21, 30–31, 34–35, 38, 40–42, 45–47, 49–51, 54, 56, 58, 60, 91, 93–94

nose 2:106, 114

shell 1:326–328, 334

Caribbean 2:321<>

Carinascincus 21:397<>

Carlia 8:687; 12:111; 13:309; 20:140, 142, 145; 21:400<>

Carminophily (see also Erythrophily) 6:115<>

Carnivora<>

bone 1:74

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:109

Carnivore 8:611, 620, 632–633<>

Carnivorous lizards 13:301<>

Carnivory 5:169, 388, 391–392, 396, 406, 490–491, 494<>

Carnosaur 9:55, 79, 89, 93<>

Carnosauria 19:74<>

dentition 1:121, 186, 187

skull 4:269

Carnosine 11:292; 17:685; 18:454<>

Carosaurus 21:65, 82, 90<>

maechesetti 21:123

Carotenoid<>

granule 9:408

pigment 3:3, 26, 33

vesicles 18:306

Carotid<>

arch (see also artery) 10:9

artery 3:3, 113, 115, 203, 235, 238, 245, 248, 252–253; 6:329, 381, 385–386; 20:382, 390, 399, 430; 21:512, 528

blood flow 8:439

body (see also Parathyroid) 12:246; 19:317– 319, 385

labyrinth 19:319

receptors 5:245

foramen (see also Internal carotid artery) 20:503, 511, 513

sinus 12:246

Carotids 5:316<>

Carotiskörperchen (see Parathyroid)<>

Carpal fascia 4:39<>

ligaments 21:125

mosaic 21:318

plexus (see Lymphatic plexus of the wrist)

Carpale(s) 1:109; 15:77, 80–81, 86, 117; 21:25–27, 29, 59, 111, 115–120, 122–126, 129, 132, 136, 162, 283, 286, 292, 306, 316, 318, 395<>

I 21:126

II 21:126

III 21:126

IV 21: 120, 126

V 21:126

development 14:160

ossification 14:313

praepollicis 21:176

Carpet python (see Morelia)<>

Carphodactylines 20:117<>

Carphodactylus 15:328; 16:259; 20:118, 122, 296; 21:396<>

Carphophis 7:100, 206, 215, 217, 220, 222, 224, 228, 499; 8:610, 691; 12:128, 130–131, 456, 464; 13:293, 301, 309–310, 312; 15:45; 16:119, 483, 519; 19:228; 20:560–561, 570, 578<>

amoenus 19:201; 20:556

ear 2:227, 269, 271

eye 2:61

parathyroid 3:248

vermis 20:650

Carpometacarpal joint 21:311<>

Carpus 4:3, 17, 19–20, 34–35, 39, 41, 45–46, 92, 266; 6:388; 15:79, 115<>

Carrier peptide 17:595<>

Carrion location 18:468<>

Carsosaurus, epiphyses and sesamoids 1:108<>

Cartilage 11:5, 7, 10; 19:8–9, 18, 20, 31, 33–35, 37, 68, 117–119, 144–145, 166–167, 387, 393, 404, 406, 409, 428; 20:355–356, 358–360, 481; 21:568<>

arytenoid 19:116, 118–121

azygous 19:116

bone(s) 11:5, 10, 19, 58–59, 123, 150–151, 216–218, 241–243; 14:126

canal 1:95–100, 103–104, 107

columns (see Growth columns)

cricoid 19:116–120

destruction 1:97

formation 15:386–387

hyaline 19:22, 121

in caudal regeneration 15:350, 356

induction by ependyma 15:363–364, 372

invertebral 15:308, 374

laryngeal 19:118

notochordal 15:374

of Jacobson’s organ 11:18, 48, 54, 72, 79, 88–89, 92– 93, 97, 121, 138–142, 152, 157, 160, 162–167, 171, 176–177, 182, 193–194, 202, 225, 232

of nicitating membrane 2:10, 63, 74

tracheal 19:123, 126

tube

calcification 15:369, 374–375, 382

formation 15:357, 359, 371–372, 382, 385, 392

implantation 15:363, 389

in mature regenerate 15:368, 370–372, 374–375

Cartilaginous<>

bridge 19:117

cone 1:84, 86, 92

nasal capsule (see also Nasal capsule) 21:580– 581

rings 19:20, 26, 31–32, 36, 120–121, 127, 139, 144, 169

rod 19:412–413

snout 20:380–381, 388, 402, 404, 420, 454, 456, 484, 500, 557, 569

Cartilago<>

arytaenoidea (see Arytenoid cartilage)

cordis 19:387

cricoidea (see Cricoid cartilage)

hypochiasmatica 11:21, 45, 52, 55, 66, 76, 93, 112

parietotectalis 4:251

thyreocricoidea 4:177, 179–181, 191–193

thyreoidea (see Thyroid cartilage)

transiliens 1:108; 4:105–107, 125, 132, 136, 138–139, 141, 146, 148–149; 11:216

Caruncle 14:108, 294, 296, 308, 361, 374, 405–407, 411, 413, 415, 449–451, 498–499, 511<>

Caruioidea 20:196<>

Casarea 8:690; 16:141; 18:433, 436–437; 19:218; 20:424–425, 429, 440, 451, 466, 470, 476– 478, 480; 21:556, 585, 587–588, 602, 606<>

axial skeleton 1:283, 291

dentition 1:179

dussumieri 18:312; 19:189; 20:475, 610

jaw muscles 4:430

pit organs 2:301

Casea 9:298, 300<>

Caseididae 9:127<>

Casein 8:91, 321, 615<>

Caseinase (see also Protease) 8:313<>

Caseinolytic activity (see also Protease) 8:139, 165–166, 323, 329–340<>

Casmerodius 16:204<>

Casque (see also Parietal crest) 11:100–101; 20:41, 83, 106, 108, 110, 112–113, 115<>

Castor canadensis 21:336<>

Castration (see also Ovariectomy) 3:218; 6:44, 75, 87, 104, 115<>

and progesterone levels 15:581

effect on genital development 15:151, 180, 243–246

Cat(s) 5:1; 7:191, 600; 8:455, 457, 463–464, 467, 474–475, 481, 509, 517, 651; 9:431; 10:92– 93, 97, 181, 230, 310, 315; 13:27<>

Catabolism 5:183, 185; 8:636<>

protein 3:25

Catalase 8:257<>

Catecholamine(s) (see also L-Dopa; Dopamine;<>

Epinephrine; Norepinephrine) 5:294, 307–308; 6:256; 8:194, 518, 527; 10:10, 178, 187, 248–249, 251; 12:230, 237–239, 243–244, 246; 17:156–158, 328; 18:316, 394; 19:316, 353

sympathomimetic 3:264, 307, 309

Catecholaminergic fiber 10:15, 253–254, 257, 261–262, 264, 270, 272, 275<>

neuron 10:252, 255, 257, 279

pathway 10:269

Caterpillar(s) (see also Invertebrates) 8:596, 626<>

Cathepsin 8:526<>

Catheterization 5:96<>

Catheterized blood vessels 5:63<>

Catheters 5:43, 60–61, 64, 98–99, 239, 281, 301, 350<>

Cation 5:490<>

Cationic composition 5:428<>

load 5:11

Cations 3:13, 45; 8:170<>

Cattle 5:170; 8:605, 633<>

Caudal<>

artery (see also Tails) 1:208; 6:346; 15:315, 321, 328, 335

autotomy 1:268–271, 280, 299; 11:272; 16:31, 34, 37, 58; 21:57

age 16:240–242

ancestral state (see evolutionary trends)

body size 16:256, 260–261

brightly colored tails 16:238, 252–254,263– 265, 267

constraints 16:247

correlations 16:242–243, 255–260, 262–263

costs and benefits 16:237, 243, 246–253, 255–259, 261–262

ease of autotomy 16:244–247, 253–255, 259–260

“economy of autotomy” 16:260, 263

effects on behavior 16:255

evidence of effectiveness 16:238–239, 242, 248, 267

evolutionary trends 16:237, 244–246, 258–259

experimental studies 16:239, 242, 248, 254–255, 267

frequency 16:239–242

future research 16:267

growth 16:250, 265

hibernation survival 16:250

histology and anatomy 16:237–238, 244

in nature 16:239–243, 267

interspecific variation 16:241–242, 262–263

intravertebral and intervertebral 16:244– 246, 253, 255–259

locomotor effects 16:248–249, 255–259, 266–267

loss of ability 16:244–246, 255–258

mechanisms 16:244

neurological factors 16:245, 261–263

nonpredatory 16:241, 251

ontogenetic loss 16:256, 259–261

phylogenetic patterns 16:31, 34, 37, 58–59, 237, 244, 259

postautotomy behavioral changes 16:255

postautotomy tail movements 16:254–255

predation intensity 16:206, 239–243

predator inefficiency 16:241–243

re-evolution 16:258–259

reproductive capacity 16:250, 264–266

restriction to caudal base 16:259–260

short-term changes 16:261–262

snakes 16:189, 259, 265–266

social status 16:250

strategy 16:238

survivorship 16:242, 267

tail size 16:253

taxonomic distribution (see phylogenetic

patterns)

temperature effects 16:261

theory 16:237–238

threshold 16:261–263, 267

unpalatable tails 16:256

bellows hypothesis 19:156

braincase 20:416, 426, 458, 525

collectors 6:347, 379, 392

collectors of the oviduct 6:346

fin 1:297; 14:450

ganglia 5:237

gastric collectors 6:413

glands 15:344, 367

luring 16:47–48, 212–214

muscles (see Muscle, caudal)

nerves 15:324

pancreatic collectors 6:427

pinch 5:50

pulmonary collector 6:434

regeneration 14:5; 16:244, 248, 250, 256, 265–267

abnormal 15:370–374

after amputation 15:359, 373

and age 15:381

and energy requirements 15:347, 365–366, 382

and hormones 15:351, 378, 382–384

and photoperiod 15:381

and sex 15:381

and skin shedding 15:381

and temperature 15:358, 381

apical cap 15:353–355, 360, 385–386

biochemistry of 15:366

blastema (see Blastema formation)

DNA synthesis 15:352, 358

histochemistry of 15:366

rate of 15:374–384

role of ependyma 15:360–365

role of nerves 15:350, 360–365, 378

role of spleen 15:382, 384

rib 1:208, 225, 233, 238, 268, 295

scales 15:321

sequence 15:325, 329

shield 1:333

thymic lobe (see Posterior thymic lobe)

trunk 6:319

vein 6:30–31, 403, 453–454; 15:315, 322, 328

vertebra(ae) (see also Vertebrae, caudal) 1:203, 205–206, 225–226, 233–235, 238–241, 244, 247, 255, 264, 266–271, 273, 279–280, 284, 294–297, 299–300; 4:62; 21:322, 353, 356

Caudifemoralis 21:29, 54, 331, 335<>

brevis 21:323

longus 21:206, 323

Caufield’s method 3:304<>

Causinae 19:219; 20:507, 611<>

Causus 7:390, 505; 8:8, 31, 122, 125, 250, 262, 296, 307, 318, 326–328, 338, 340, 353, 444; 16:44, 46, 122, 152, 155, 191–192, 288; 19:108, 219; 20:495, 498, 500, 503–504, 507, 512, 516–519<>

axial muscles 11:357

bilineatus 8:31; 19:191; 20:611

blood cell numbers 3:103

chondrocranium 11:164, 166–168

defilippi(i) 8:31, 125; 19:191; 20:611

ear 2:270, 272

eye 2:61

jaw muscles 4:458–463, 482

lichensteini 8:31; 19:191; 20:498, 500, 503, 519, 611

maculatus 8:31; 19:152, 191; 20:611

nose 2:121, 135

pit organs 2:280, 297

resimus 8:31; 19:191; 20:498, 503, 611

rhombeatus 8:31, 250, 262, 296, 307, 318, 326–328, 338, 340, 353, 444; 19:127, 191; 20:498, 611

urinogenital system 6:29–30, 94

Caval volumes 19:454<>

Cavernous<>

bodies of hemipenis 6:443–444

sinus 3:165

tissue (see Erectile tissue)

Cavia aperea procellus 19:58<>

muscle tissue 11:280–282

Caviconchal recess 2:145–147, 150–151, 173–174<>

Cavity (see also Cavum)<>

abdominal 19:533, 535, 545, 561

arteriosum 19:378, 382–386, 388–390, 392, 412, 427–429, 441–443, 445–446, 451

body (see also coelomic; pleuroperitoneal;

visceral) 19:27, 38, 63, 71, 75, 96, 148, 157, 348, 487, 560

buccal 19:115, 118

coelomic (see also body; pleuroperitoneal;

visceral) 19:27, 151, 376, 487

dorsale 19:427–428

hepatic 19:487

latero-dorsale 19:412

nasal 19:115–116

nasi proprium 19:115

nuchal (=precardiac) 19:101, 125, 134, 138, 141

pericardial 19:376, 404, 411

peritoneal 19:20, 487

pharyngeal 19:306

pleural 19:41

pleuroperitoneal (=postcardiac) (see also body;

coelomic; visceral) 19:4, 39, 101, 487

pulmonale 19:378, 383–390, 392, 412–413, 415, 427–429, 441–443, 445, 447–451

venosum 19:382–390, 392, 412, 415, 427–429, 441, 443, 445–446, 449, 451

visceral (see also body; coelomic; pleuroperitoneal) 19:485

Cavum<>

acustico-jugulare 11:213

arteriosum 5:278–280, 287

capsularis 20:31, 33, 72

cochleare 11:25–26, 55, 213; 20:390

conchale (see also Conchal space) 11:19, 46, 49–50, 57, 71, 77, 86, 88–89, 92, 102, 104, 109, 120, 142, 171, 178

dorsale 5:279

epiptericum 9:9, 11–12, 23, 25, 58; 11:24, 30–32, 105–106, 116, 123–124, 144, 155, 186, 188, 190, 212, 214, 219, 225–226, 238, 241; 20:23, 203; 21:511, 513, 518, 520, 523–524, 538, 541

extraconchalis (see Extraconchal space)

latero-dorsale 5:279

nasi proprium (see also Nasal cavity) 2:100– 102, 104–105, 108–113, 115–118, 121–139, 141, 144–151, 153–154, 156–160, 161, 164, 169–174, 176–183

pulmonale 5:278–279, 281–282, 286–287

supraseptale 9:10, 29

venosum 5:278–282, 287

ventrale 5:278

vestibuli 11:25, 55–56, 121, 203, 213

vestibuli anterius 11:55, 203

vestibuli posterius 11:26, 55, 203

Celestes 15:331, 628, 671; 16:512<>

Celestial orientation 18:269<>

Celestus 7:495<>

crusculus 20:308

occiduus 19:28, 78; 20:308

Celiac<>

artery (see Coeliac trunk)

plexus (see Gastric collectors)

Cell(s) 5:60, 85, 358, 400, 422, 439–440, 473, 486<>

α-cell 18:154

amacrine 17:59–70, 106, 108, 110, 148–149, 159, 623–634, 652, 658, 662, 677, 683

B 19:540, 569

basal (undifferentiated) 18:427; 19:115

β-cell 18:154

biliary 19:518

bipolar 17:40, 54, 80, 106, 110, 145–147, 157

blood 19:58

chromaffin 17:622

chromaticity 17:50, 95, 143

ciliated 19:9, 12, 15, 20, 44, 146, 149

Clara 19:44

columnar 19:115

commissural 10:75, 117

cuboidal type 19:2, 14

culture 8:509–511

death 14:159, 424, 560–561, 682

in limb development 15:108

interdigital 15:81

migration 14:115, 570, 680

movement 14:92, 115

dendritic 19:556

division 19:504

dopaminergic 18:445

dorsal median 10:76

ductular 19:504

endothelial 19:16, 506, 569

eosinophils 19:519, 561

epithelial 19:16, 20, 22, 25, 42, 47, 497

erythrocyte 19:323, 348, 503, 508, 521, 553–554, 558–561, 564, 566, 568

fibrocyte 19:108

follicular dendritic 19:556

funicular 10:75

ganglion 17:70, 106, 110, 149–155, 157, 175, 303, 343

glomus 19:317

goblet 19:9, 20, 44, 69, 504, 506

Golgi 17:515–516

granule 17:497, 513–514; 18:454

granulocytes 19:521, 544, 549–550, 554, 558–559, 560–561, 563, 566, 568

hedge 19:44, 47

hepatocyte 19:488–489, 491, 493–504, 506– 508, 511, 513–514, 517, 519, 524

horizonal 17:36–38, 45–54, 87–89, 106, 108, 110, 143–147, 288

interplexiform 17:70, 157

interstitial 19:550, 553, 556, 559

intrinsic 17:286–293

Kupffer 19:506

leiomyocyte 19:540–541, 547, 549, 552, 556–557, 559, 569–570

leukocyte 19:520

lipocyte 19:508

local circuit 17:515

lymphoblast 19:549

lymphocyte 19:511, 540, 549–550, 554–556, 561, 563, 569, 571

macrophage 19:543–544

magnocellular secretory 17:597

medullary respiratory neuron 19:312

melanomacrophage 19:486, 500, 502, 508–510, 518, 523, 543–544, 563, 566–568

melanophore 19:508

membrane(s) (see also Plasma membrane) 3:121, 336; 5:418

mesenchymal 19:506–511, 650

mitral 18:441, 443, 447

electrophysiology 18:453

monocyte 19:508

motor neuron 19:314

myeloid 19:564

myofibroblasts 19:511, 541, 570

neural crest 18:305

neuroendocrine 19:44, 46

neuroepithelial 19:64

periglomerular 18:441

permeability 3:13

phagosome 19:508, 511

pigment 19:508

pit 19:511

plasma 19:511, 549–550, 554, 569

pneumocyte 19:28–29, 36

primordial germ 19:114

Purkinje 17:497–498, 506, 511, 513, 515–516, 536–540, 564, 566

pyramidal 19:506

radial 17:273, 282, 338

renal tubular 19:522–523

reticular 19:549, 554, 556

retinal 19:94

Schwann 17:370, 372, 437

secretory 19:9, 20, 44, 47, 49

serous 19:9, 20, 44, 47, 69, 156

squamous type I 19:14

stellate (=Ito) 19:506, 508, 510–511

supporting 18:427–428

sustentacular 19:317

T-lymphocyte 19:540

thrombocyte 19:566, 568

type 5:413, 425, 433

undifferentiated basal 18:427, 436–437

volume 5:68

water 5:492, 495

Cella media (see Intermediate region)<>

Cellophane striping of skin 12:409–412, 422<>

Cellular<>

bases 5:161

bone 1:45, 49

cords of adenohypophysis 3:140–141, 143–145, 148, 150, 152–153, 155–156, 159–160, 165–166, 168–174, 176, 178, 181–183, 188–190, 193

cords of adrenal gland 3:269, 276–279, 281– 288, 291, 296–298, 300, 306, 309–310

cords of pancreatic islets 3:328–329

cords of parathyroid 3:236–237, 239, 245–249, 254, 258

physiology 5:74, 210

specialization 5:424

Cellulose 5:170, 403; 8:627, 631<>

Cellulolytic activity 8:633–634<>

Celosomia 14:153<>

Cement 1:118, 125–126, 129, 145, 147, 190<>

line 1:47, 142, 145

Cementum (see Cement)<>

Cemophora 7:227, 499; 8:610, 691; 16:9, 119, 144, 230, 286, 295, 305; 19:232; 21:501<>

coccinea 19:201; 20:635; 21:501

copei 20:635

ear 2:271

eye 2:63

Cenomanian 20:584<>

Cenothermy 12:19<>

Cenozoic 4:265–270, 280; 20:489<>

Center<>

of gravity 21:61

of mass 21:45

Centers of ossification 1:324; 20:361<>

Central<>

column of epaxial muscles (see M. longissimus)

fovea (see Fovea centralis)

gray (grey) 10:141, 143, 149, 153, 157–158, 164, 168, 187; 17:417–418, 422, 424, 599–600, 610, 621; 18:42

lacuna 1:286

leaflet 19:14–15, 17

length (see Intracolumnar variation in central

length)

lumen 19:10

nervous system (CNS) (see also Brain study) 2:287, 293, 296; 5:53, 193, 242, 309–310, 317, 326; 12:215, 229, 237, 254–255; 13:90, 94–95; 18:345, 395; 19:312, 314–315, 521

development 14:432–435, 514

effect of venom 8:475–480

neural control mechanisms 5:306

pattern generator 21:51

shield (see Vertebral shield)

stem 9:2

stills 5:55

vascular shunts 5:8, 241, 247, 257

Centrale 4:18–20, 60; 15:77, 79, 81; 21:25, 117, 120–122, 124, 126, 164, 166, 168<>

Centralia 21:25<>

Centrifugal input 17:149<>

Centrifugation 5:66, 82<>

Centrifuge tubes 8:96<>

Centriole 2:35; 3:121; 9:315; 15:414<>

Centro-acinar cells 3:327<>

Centrophorus calceus 19:562<>

Centrorhynchus, blood cell numbers 3:104<>

Centrum (see also Intercentrum) 1:19, 22–23, 33, 106, 201–202, 205–207, 209–213, 217, 219, 222–223, 225–229, 232–234, 236, 238, 240, 245–249, 255–259, 267–268, 271, 273, 275–277, 280, 283–284, 286, 289–291, 294–295, 297, 299–301, 322; 4:56; 11:36, 82, 240, 365, 370, 411<>

and fracture plane 15:312, 331, 339

development 15:311–312

nonaitotomous 15:331

ossification 15:312–314

structure 15:308

Cephalerpeton, origin and evolution 1:20<>

Cephalic<>

condyle of quadrate (see also Otic process of

quadrate) 2:200; 20:364, 376–377, 384, 393, 400, 405, 408, 412, 418, 429, 432, 435, 438, 447, 451, 480, 484, 487, 531–532, 549, 579, 591

gland activity 5:102, 430

integument 5:382

phase 10:25

salt-secreting glands 5:11, 101, 370, 387, 408

thymic lobe (see Anterior thymic lobe)

Cephalins (see Phosphatidal ethanolamines)<>

Ceramodactylus, blood cell morphology 3:88<>

Cerastes 5:133; 7:505; 8:31, 247–248, 250, 288– 289, 296, 318, 328, 338, 353, 357, 366, 372, 444, 470, 664, 696; 9:158; 15:46, 655–656, 659, 671, 677; 16:44, 48, 152, 191, 193, 213, 538; 19:219; 20:499, 506, 516, 520<>

adrenal 3:281, 294

aegyptiacus 20:618

axial muscles 11:357, 396, 398, 406, 409–410, 419

blood cell morphology 3:78

cerastes 8:31, 98, 248, 250, 262, 288, 290, 296, 318, 328, 338, 357, 366, 372, 444, 470, 664; 19:60, 81, 131, 191; 20:618

chondrocranium 11:146, 164, 166–168, 186, 202

ear 2:272

internal relief of gut 6:193, 209

jaw muscles 4:482

pituitary 3:148, 153, 155, 187

thyroid 3:209, 228

vipera 8:31, 247, 338, 366, 444, 696; 18:324; 19:191; 20:618

Ceratobranchial (see also Cornu branchiale I) 4:427, 430; 11:28, 36, 40, 42, 57–58, 72, 79, 83, 85, 90–91, 95, 98, 107, 110, 117, 119, 123, 133–134, 136, 138, 141, 150, 159–160, 168, 170, 174, 178, 180, 183, 196, 198, 204–205, 211, 214–216, 231, 240–241<>

Ceratohyal(s) (see also Cornu branchiale I; Cornu<>

hyale) 2:229–230; 11:15, 24, 28, 33–34, 36, 40, 42, 45–47, 79–80, 82, 90, 98, 110, 117–119, 123–124, 133–143, 136, 147, 150, 159, 183, 196, 198, 204–205, 211, 215, 231, 233, 237, 239–241, 243; 21:234

Ceratohyals 20:12<>

Ceratophora 9:331; 15:626; 20:45, 92, 96–97, 100–103, 294<>

axial skeleton 1:258

chondrocranium 11:91

dentition 1:160

ear 2:271

erdeleni 20:96, 293

eye 2:27

jaw muscles 4:477

nose 2:119, 129, 142, 154, 178

stoddarti 20:96, 293, 305

Ceratopsia 9:304; 19:74<>

chondrocranium 11:9

dentition 1:187–188

jaw muscles 4:472

Ceratopsidae, dentition 1:188<>

Ceratosaurus 9:63, 93–94, 304<>

Cerberus 8:39; 12:358, 378–380, 383, 425–427; 13:36–37; 15:45; 16:144, 519; 19:228; 20:576, 579–580<>

australis 19:201

ear 2:272

jaw muscles 4:481

microlepis 19:201

nose 2:121–122, 126, 130, 136, 179

rynchops 8:39; 19:132, 138–139, 148, 151, 154, 201; 20:630

urinogenital system 6:29, 98–100

Cercaspis 16:144, 232; 19:230<>

axial skeleton 1:287

carinatus 19:152, 201; 20:635; 21:607

Cercolophia 21:635, 644, 661–662<>

absaberi 21:662

bahiana 21:662, 731

borellii 21:661–662, 664, 731

cuiabana 21:662

roberti 21:662–663, 731

steindachneri 21:662

Cercophis 19:101<>

Cercosaura 20:186, 190<>

ocellata 20:308

Cerebellum 9:22, 47, 57, 70, 77, 81, 88, 92, 100, 102, 106, 111, 114, 118, 121, 124, 126, 133, 173, 183–184, 192–193; 10:122, 127, 133, 135, 141, 143, 151, 155, 157–158, 163–164, 166, 169, 172, 178–180, 188, 192, 202, 218, 220, 227, 233, 249, 270, 279, 289; 11:28, 237, 240; 14:129–130, 172, 432–433, 495; 17:409, 418, 524, 651<>

commissure 17:546, 548

corpus 17:497, 499–501, 504, 509, 540–541, 563

cortex 17:506, 526, 536

granule layer 10:171, 220

nuclei 17:498, 500, 506, 524, 536–537, 544, 548, 550

peduncle 17:520, 524

Purkinje layer 10:179

removal, effect on learning 7:613

Cerebral<>

artery 2:40, 75

bed 10:36

carotid artery 21:515

carotid foramina 21:533

cavity 4:226–228

carotid artery 11:11, 25, 99, 138, 160; 20:390, 399

carotoid foramen 20:427

cortex 14:433

hemisphere(s) (see also Cerebrum) 9:44, 52, 69, 72–74, 82, 84, 86–87, 90–91, 95, 97, 103, 107, 109, 112–113, 115, 117, 123, 134, 176, 178, 184, 187–188, 200, 238, 258, 305; 11:22, 24, 32, 155, 187, 240; 14:128, 130, 432, 434; 21:512

lobes 5:94

vein 11:187; 21:522

ventricle 12:230

Cerebrospinal<>

contacting cell 10:259, 265–266

fluid 6:399; 8:452; 10:258; 19:301, 314, 345

Cerebrum 5:310; 9:22, 44, 46, 52, 57, 72–73, 80, 82, 84, 86, 90, 95, 97, 99, 103, 106–107, 109, 113, 115, 117, 119–120, 123, 125, 127–128, 130–135, 138, 305; 12:235<>

Cerrophidion 19:220<>

barbouri 19:191

godmani 19:191; 20:613

Ceruloplasmin 3:32<>

Cervical<>

fascia 4:166, 187, 319

lymphatic ring (see Lymphatic ring of the neck)

mechanism of turtles 11:361–363, 368, 371

plexus (see Jugular-subclavian plexus)

plexus development 15:83–84

region 20:584, 586

ribs 1:217, 219, 226, 237, 252, 254, 259–261, 301; 19:128; 21:74, 217, 225, 227, 229

shield 1:315, 317, 334

spinal cord 5:310

spinal nerve 4:164, 173–174, 188

sympathetic nerves 3:203; 5:309; 8:654

vagotomy 5:245

vagus 5:307

vertebrae 1:203–205, 207, 209–221, 226–229, 235–236, 244, 246–249, 254–261, 275, 281–282, 288, 293, 300–301; 2:196; 4:21, 166, 173, 188; 11:362; 21:229

Cervico-brachial plexus 15:84<>

Cervicomandibularis 20:256, 377, 547<>

Cervidae, antler regeneration 15:303, 325<>

Cervix of oviduct 6:94<>

Cervus elaphus 18:88<>

Cestoda (see also Parasitic disease) 19:521–522<>

Cetacea 19:538, 569, 574–575<>

muscle tissue 11:292

pelvic limbs 15:131

Cetiosaurus 9:98<>

Ceylon 2:323<>

Chaematortus 7:499<>

Chalarodon 7:50, 104, 270, 274, 476; 9:149, 151–153, 155, 157; 14:57; 18:433, 436; 20:45, 79–81, 84, 87–88, 90; 21:57, 87, 115, 141, 144, 146, 160, 362, 368, 388, 398, 400, 403<>

axial skeleton 1:252, 262, 269

ear 2:270

eye 2:26

jaw muscles 4:477

madagascariensis 20:85, 291, 305; 21:199

Chalazae 14:200, 377<>

Chalcides 7:141, 288, 307, 492; 8:687; 9:19, 157, 251, 332, 366; 12:111; 14:29, 625–626, 628–629, 636, 712; 15:115–117, 122, 360, 388, 530,532, 538, 542, 546–548, 550–553, 555–559, 561, 571, 583, 585, 592, 594, 636–637; 16:117, 141, 350; 17:605; 18:447; 20:43, 45, 138, 144–145, 147, 149, 297; 21:27, 85, 89, 95, 105, 165, 186, 360, 362, 368, 385, 398, 400, 403<>

adrenal 3:265, 268, 300

armitagei 21:403

axial muscles 11:357, 383–387

axial skeleton 1:248, 257, 266–267

bedriagai 21:398

blood cell morphology 3:77, 81, 87

blood cell numbers 3:96

chalcides 21:186, 403

chondrocranium 11:65–67

colossi 21:398

dentition 1:128

ear 2:267, 271

ebneri 21:399

eye 2:14, 27

ghiari 21:398

guentheri 20:297

histology of gut 6:255, 278

jaw muscles 4:478

lanzai 21:398

levitoni 21:399

lymphatics 6:346, 382, 414, 426–427

manueli 21:398–399

mauritanicus 21:403–404

mertensi 21:403

mionecton 21:399–401

montanus 21:398

muscle tissue 11:277, 336

nose 2:120, 139

ocellatus 18:45–46, 429–430, 438, 459, 495; 19:550, 552, 561, 579; 20:297, 307; 21:26, 84, 122–124, 155, 356, 398

parathyroid 3:255, 257–258

pituitary 3:192

polylepis 21:398–399

pulchellus 21:399.

ragazzi 21:398

sexlineatus 21:398

simonyi 20:297; 21:398

thierryi 21:400

thymus 3:112, 117

thyroid 3:207, 227

urinogenital system 6:38, 51, 61, 67, 87, 96, 98, 100, 102, 106–107, 110

viridianus 21:398

Chalking (see Egg, shell)<>

Chamaeleo 7:164, 182, 262, 273, 295–299, 310, 315, 359–361, 369–370, 373, 470–471; 8:619, 662, 679–680; 9:3–4, 20, 151–154, 157, 235, 251, 306, 331, 335, 338, 366; 10:137, 166, 175, 203, 230, 235; 12:118–119; 13:300, 311; 14:28, 46, 48, 192, 695, 712; 15:4–6, 14–15, 18–19, 24, 43, 48–50, 52, 86, 152, 179, 212, 235, 240–241, 428, 628–630; 16:6, 115, 122, 137, 462–465, 473–474, 512, 531; 17:13, 29, 31, 54–55, 99, 185, 193, 198, 250, 317, 513, 515, 561; 18:309, 320; 19:23, 78; 20:105–106, 108–110, 113–114, 295; 21:24, 26, 45, 51, 72, 98, 141, 152, 155, 169, 195, 216, 224, 227, 229–230, 232, 234–235, 238, 240, 242–243, 245, 247, 260, 273–276, 279, 285–286, 288, 290–291, 295–301, 303, 307–308, 313, 316, 320, 337–338, 347, 352, 356–357, 361, 368–369, 382–383, 389, 391, 400<>

adrenal 3:280, 293

affinis 20:306

africanus 19:23, 78; 20:306

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:204, 241, 247, 249, 255–256, 267

basiliscus 19:78

bitaeniatus 20:295, 306

blood cell morphology 3:76

blood cell numbers 3:103

blood chemistry 3:5, 9, 28

brevicornis 18:351, 361–362; 20:43, 108–110, 295

chamaeleon 18:433, 447; 19:3, 24, 51, 67, 78, 407–408, 417; 20:110, 295, 306; 21:7, 144

chondrocranium 11:36, 95, 100

cristatus 20:306

dentition 1:161

dilepis 18:350–351; 20:108, 110, 295, 306; 21:56

ear 2:221, 223, 238–239, 250, 266, 271

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:98–99, 101, 104

eye 2:13–14, 27–28, 30, 32, 41

fallax 20:108

gastrotaenia 18:351

gracilis 18:351

histology of gut 6:269, 287

hoehnelii 18:350–351; 20:295; 21:84, 86, 94, 125

internal relief of gut 6:177–178, 181–185, 187

jacksoni(i) 18:309, 317, 350–351; 20:109–110, 306; 21:7

jaw muscles 4:315, 340–347, 407, 415–416, 477

johnstoni 20:306

lymphatics 6:355, 359, 361, 408–409, 440–441

muscle tissue 11:278, 293, 336

namaquensis 18:351

nasutus 18:351, 361–362; 20:110, 295

nose 2:119, 124, 128, 142, 159, 164, 167, 172

pardalis 18:350

parsonii 18:351

pituitary 3:144, 160, 172

senegalensis 21:208–209

thymus 3:113

tigris 20:110

urinogenital system 6:21, 26–27, 29–30, 37, 49, 54, 57, 61, 72, 82, 92, 94–95, 102, 110, 113

willsii 18:351, 362

Chamaeleolis 7:299, 476; 15:329; 16:249, 257; 20:83, 90<>

axial skeleton 1:269

dentition 1:155

urinogenital system 6:84

Chamaeleon bitaeniatus 20:295<>

Chamaeleonidae 5:145, 172, 229, 394; 6:229, 296, 298; 7:9, 164, 262, 295–299, 318, 320, 360, 369–370, 377–378, 416–417, 446, 470–471; 8:46, 66, 624, 662, 679–680; 9:8, 161, 163, 251, 330, 338; 12:5, 99, 118–119; 14:28, 48, 712; 15:6, 43, 50–51, 86, 193, 330–331, 333, 341–342, 416, 428, 532, 628–629, 664, 667–669, 674; 16:28–31, 115, 122, 137, 245, 257–258, 294, 454–455, 465, 512; 19:11, 21, 38, 41, 70; 20:15, 23, 40–46, 53, 55, 71, 76, 78–79, 91, 94, 100, 105–197, 109, 111, 113; 115, 252, 254–256, 258, 260, 262, 269–271, 273–274, 281, 306; 21:13, 16, 41, 52, 58, 60, 64–66, 68, 71, 76, 78, 80, 86–87, 94, 99, 104, 106, 111–112, 116, 123, 125, 129, 136, 141, 143, 148, 153, 156, 164, 176, 208, 216, 220, 224–225, 246–247, 250, 254–255, 257, 260, 266, 269–273, 281, 285, 288, 290, 295, 299, 306–307, 398, 400<>

adrenal 3:280

axial muscles 11:357–358

axial skeleton 1:204, 207, 241–242, 247, 249–250, 253, 255–256, 258–263, 267, 269

blood cell morphology 3:76, 78

blood chemistry 3:3, 28, 31

chondrocranium 11:63, 95–102, 108, 121, 195–197

dentition 1:161

ear 2:222–223, 238–241, 261, 266, 271

eye 2:13, 20, 27, 31, 87, 89

internal relief of gut 6:177

jaw muscles 4:289, 315, 339–347, 413–415, 417–419, 477

nose 2:119, 127, 131, 133, 139–140, 142–143, 178

pituitary 3:136, 143–146, 151, 154, 170–172, 192, 194

taxonomic literature 2:320

thyroid 3:205

Chamaelinorops 15:330; 16:257; 21:279<>

urinogenital system 6:84

Chamaelycus 19:225; 20:556, 561<>

christyi 19:201

fasciatus 19:201; 21:606

parkeri 19:201

Chamaesaura(us) 14:48; 15:122, 325, 629, 676; 20:150, 152–157; 21:398–399, 404<>

anguina 20:299, 307; 21:141

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:242, 252, 255, 258, 260–262, 265, 269

chondrocranium 11:70

ear 2:245–246, 271

jaw muscles 4:368–369, 479

macrolepis 20:299

Chamber(s) 5:48, 71; 19:4, 6–9, 18–22, 24–26, 28, 30–31, 33–35, 37, 41–42, 48, 55, 57, 63, 68–70, 72, 74, 76, 107, 111, 113, 128–129, 132–133, 135–136, 147, 149, 169, 377<>

animal 5:73–80, 103–104, 166

compensating 5:74, 79

heart 5:276, 279

metabolism 5:83, 174, 189

ventricular 5:289

volume 5:48

Chameleon(s) 10:9, 42, 221–222, 241; 21:477<>

Chameleontidae 19:22, 26, 36, 38, 49, 67, 70, 387, 407–408, 523<>

Champsosauridae, skull 4:245, 267<>

Champsosaurus 9:296<>

dentition 1:151

nose 2:152

Channichthyidae 19:377<>

Chapinophis xanthocheilus 20:650<>

Chara, apomixis in 15:492<>

Character<>

coding 20:583

convergence 7:91–95

displacement 7:83, 91–95, 441–443

Characteristic dimension 12:282, 290<>

Charasia blanfordiana 20:294<>

Charcoal 8:566<>

Charina 7:498; 12:127; 13:309–310; 16:38, 54, 128, 143, 252; 19:235; 20:444, 452, 457–460, 464; 21:554, 576<>

adrenal 3:281

bottae 19:105, 116–117, 120, 131, 140, 160, 188; 20:444, 458–461, 608

ear 2:269, 271

eye 2:51

jaw muscles 4:480

pancreas 3:323, 329

pit organs 2:301

reinhardtii 20:609

trivirgata 20:444, 453–454, 456–461, 466, 470, 608

Chasmatosaurus, skull 4:273<>

Cheek<>

plate 21:504

teeth 1:121, 124, 150–151, 155, 163–164, 186, 192

Chelidae 5:154, 192; 7:459; 12:136; 14:102, 194, 197, 215, 239; 19:19<>

axial skeleton 1:210, 215, 219

blood chemistry 3:50

chondrocranium 11:218

ear 2:270

eye 2:67–68

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104, 154, 156

internal relief of gut 6:161

limbs 4:2, 55, 91, 100

nose 2:114

shell 1:334, 336

Chelodina 5:135, 489; 10:34; 12:192; 14:81, 102, 178, 185–186, 191–192, 213, 215, 222; 16:17–18, 127, 134, 354, 393, 439, 532; 17:477, 479, 485<>

axial skeleton 1:211, 219, 225

blood chemistry 3:9, 23, 34, 50

ear 2:270

eye 2:68

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104– 105, 108, 110–112, 118–120, 123–125, 154, 158, 163, 166, 170, 173–174

internal relief of gut 6:161, 163, 167, 172–174

limbs 4:2, 14, 24, 26, 32, 34–35, 38, 41–42, 45–47, 50–51, 65–68, 71–72, 75, 79–80, 82, 88–89

longicollis 18:198, 260; 19:19, 77, 335, 337, 354, 400, 417, 453, 474

muscle tissue 11:320, 327, 331–332, 336

pancreas 3:321–322

Chelomacryptodira 19:19, 35<>

Chelonia (see Testudines)<>

Chelonia 5:183, 188, 196, 248, 320, 353, 367, 386, 394, 420, 422, 451–452, 455, 458–459; 7:349–351, 464, 616, 623; 8:59, 633, 660, 670; 9:9, 11, 22, 33, 43, 72–74, 154, 164; 10:168, 183; 12:140, 143, 195–197, 247, 327, 337, 342, 370, 375, 408, 427; 13:11, 14, 18, 25, 39, 56, 102–103, 106, 109, 121, 125, 132, 161, 175, 190, 192, 205, 276, 278, 280, 292–293, 297, 307–308, 310; 14:79, 81–82, 86, 88, 94–95, 114, 118, 124, 126–127, 133–134, 136–137, 139, 144–145, 148, 150, 157–158, 162, 177–179, 193, 197, 201, 207, 210, 213–214, 218, 220–223, 225, 227–228, 236–239, 271–281, 283, 285–286, 289, 291, 293, 295, 297–298, 300–303, 305, 308–312, 314–316, 529, 603, 636, 687, 692; 15:91, 151, 264, 273–274, 592; 16:112, 362–363, 365–367, 391, 397–398, 400–401, 404–405, 408, 416, 418–419, 436, 538, 544, 552, 576–577; 17:16–17, 137, 185, 204; 19:20, 324<>

axial muscles 11:356, 362

blood chemistry 3:4, 8, 13–14, 19, 44, 50

chondrocranium 11:213, 220, 223

ear 2:270

eye 2:67–68

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104– 105, 112, 116–117, 126, 131, 154, 156, 162, 165–166, 173–174, 180–181

internal relief of gut 6:160, 162–164, 170– 171

limbs 4:2, 11, 14–15, 17–18, 54, 56–57, 100

lymphatics 6:447

mydas 15:179–180; 18:33, 95, 191–192, 197, 236–237, 240, 315, 325, 466; 19:60, 77, 300, 303, 340, 354, 404–405, 417, 428, 460, 474, 511, 525

nose 2:104, 107–108, 112–114

parathyroid 3:237

thymus 3:115, 117

urinogenital system 6:405, 16, 28, 45, 117

Chelonians 20:257<>

Cheloniidae 7:464; 8:46, 660, 670; 9:71, 251, 306; 12:5–6, 136, 140–142, 342, 379; 13:205, 209; 14:26, 80, 94, 271, 274, 281, 311, 313–314, 317, 712; 15:264; 16:112, 361, 391, 399, 412, 436, 525–526, 540–541, 551–553, 576; 19:19, 513<>

adrenal 3:275

axial muscles 11:356, 362–363, 366, 370–371, 424

axial skeleton 1:211, 213, 215, 225

blood chemistry 3:17, 52

chondrocranium 11:223–225

ear 2:270

eye 2:68

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104, 154, 180, 182

histology of gut 6:235

internal relief of gut 6:160, 163, 170

limbs 4:2, 14, 17, 20–21, 24, 26–27, 30–32, 35, 38–42, 45–47, 49–50, 53–56, 58–60, 65, 74–76, 79–80, 82–83, 85, 88–91, 93–96, 100

nose 2:111–114, 175–177, 181, 184

parathyroid 3:237

shell 1:315, 323–324, 329, 334, 336

Chelonioidea<>

axial skeleton 1:213, 215, 217, 224

eye 2:67

internal relief of gut 6:160–161, 218

Chelus 7:475–476; 13:7, 23–24, 34; 14:84, 178, 215; 16:25, 27, 134, 393, 439<>

axial skeleton 1:211, 221, 224–225

eye 2:83

fimbriatus 19:354

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:154, 157, 160

internal relief of gut 6:161–162, 164–165, 167, 172, 174

limbs 4:3, 14, 100

nose 2:104, 106–108, 110, 113–114

pancreas 3:321

Chelydra 5:53, 60–61, 135, 153–154, 173–175, 192, 194, 200, 202, 205, 233–235, 142, 257–258, 281, 284–285, 304, 307, 309, 319, 336, 338, 341–347, 349–350, 356, 358–359, 367; 7:143, 344, 350, 460, 464, 568–569, 590–591; 8:377, 602, 611, 613–616, 629, 648–649, 653, 670; 9:16, 21, 25, 54–55, 67, 114–115, 117–118, 164, 173, 180, 185, 189–190, 194, 196, 211–213, 225–228, 230, 240, 251, 253–254, 306; 10:203, 230; 12:34, 66, 138, 190–191, 289, 328, 335, 337, 351–352; 13:6, 15, 18, 36, 38, 64, 68–70, 86, 88–90, 98, 103, 120, 125, 137, 161, 164, 205, 218–219, 298, 310; 14:9, 26, 79, 81–82, 84, 86–89, 92, 94–96, 99–101, 104, 108–109, 112–114, 116–119, 121–138, 154–155, 158–166, 168–169, 181, 184–185, 193, 195, 202–204, 209, 215, 220–224, 226–233, 236–240, 271, 278, 280, 282, 444–445, 512, 514, 531–532, 612, 617, 626–628, 631–632, 635–640, 642–643, 645, 655, 662; 15:70, 75–76, 81, 264, 269–271, 273–274, 281, 587; 16:26, 56, 112, 122, 131–132, 134, 337, 341, 347, 354, 362, 367, 391, 402–404, 436, 526, 537–538, 544, 546, 552–553, 559–561, 564, 566, 568–569, 578–582; 17:31, 38, 40, 45, 85, 87, 186, 189, 193, 198, 209; 18:466<>

adrenal 3:275

axial skeleton 1:216

blood cell numbers 3:94

blood chemistry 3:2, 4, 8, 19, 28, 34–35, 42–45, 50

bone 1:52

chondrocranium 11:207, 213–215, 217, 220–222

ear 2:257–258, 265, 270

eye 2:68, 72–73

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:103, 119, 123, 153, 162, 166, 173, 179–181

internal relief of gut 6:160, 162–164, 166–167, 174–175

limbs 4:3–4, 6, 11, 26, 31, 34, 45, 48–50, 54, 56, 75–76, 79, 93, 95

lymphatics 6:456

nose 2:104–105, 108–110, 113, 160, 177, 181

parathyroid 3:237

serpentina 18:251, 327, 465; 19:19–20, 77, 303, 354, 442, 474, 487, 525, 547, 578

serpentina osceola 18:250

thyroid 3:209, 222, 226

urinogenital system 6:30–31, 38, 64, 69, 99–100, 102

Chelydridae 7:344, 459–460; 8:46, 69, 660, 670; 9:251, 306; 12:136–137; 13:7; 14:26, 80, 104, 171, 195, 215, 219; 15:201, 264; 16:112, 122, 133–134, 391, 399, 412, 436, 525–526, 551–552; 19:19<>

adrenal 3:275

axial skeleton 1:213, 215, 224–225

blood chemistry 3:28, 31, 44

chondrocranium 11:220–222

ear 2:265, 270

head nuscles and visceral skeleton 4:103, 153, 156

internal relief of gut 6:160

limbs 4:10, 13, 20, 53, 55, 60, 66–67, 70, 90–91, 95

nose 2:113

parathyroid 3:237

shell 1:334, 336

Chelydrinae<>

axial skeleton 1:213, 215, 225

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:103, 153

nose 2:113

Chelyidae (see Chelidae)<>

Chelys (see also Chelus) 5:241–244, 247, 249, 254, 257–258, 264, 336, 353<>

fimbriatus 19:354

Chemical<>

absorption methods 5:79

agents 5:70

anesthetics 5:50

communication (semiochemical mediation) 18:115, 155, 170–171, 174, 178, 181–182, 190, 193

composition of blood 5:225

cues (signals) 18:115–117, 119, 123–124, 127–134, 136–142, 145, 147–148, 157, 159–165, 168, 171–186, 193–195, 197, 205–206, 465–494

discrimination, snakes 7:587–589

reaction rates 5:28

signature 18:153

Chemoreception 18:178, 191, 197, 205, 425, 465; 19:312–320<>

chemoarchitecture 17:445–447

chemoreceptor 18:161

chemosensory investigation 18:116, 123–124, 132, 142, 177–179, 189

evolution of 19:316–317

intrapulmonary 19:304, 320, 322

locomotion of arterial receptors 19:318

Testudines 7:623

Chemoreceptor 19:301, 312–323, 343–345<>

arterial 19:317–319

central 19:314–317, 343–344

intrapulmonary 19:320–323

sensors 5:305

ventilation 19:318–319

Chemotaxis 8:472<>

Chenodeoxycholic acid 19:514<>

Cherminotus 20:235–238, 240–241<>

longifrons 20:303

Chersina 7:460; 8:377; 12:137, 191; 16:400<>

angulata 18:46

Chersodromus 19:154, 224<>

liebmanni 19:201

Chersydrus 8:663; 12:332, 340, 359, 378–379, 426; 13:29, 32, 36–37<>

axial muscles 11:395

axial skeleton 1:285, 295

eye 2:51, 55–56, 83

jaw muscles 4:480

urinogenital system 6:30

Chest cavity (see Thoracic cavity)<>

Chevron bone(s) 1:106, 208, 225, 233, 239–240, 244, 247, 255, 265–268, 279–280, 295; 11:36; 15:318–319<>

Chewing 10:25<>

Chick 21:332<>

amnion 14:160, 169

and testudinine limb tissue 14:158

blastoderm 14:121

blood vessels 14:165

chorionic ectoderm 14:551–552

ectodermal explants 14:527

effect of temperature 15:281

embryo 14:10, 113

extra-embryonic membranes 14:380

eye muscles 14:430

hypopysectomy 15:247

limb development 15:62, 89

limb regeneration 15:390

orientation 14:79

ribosomal crystals 14:69

stages of development 14:13, 588

torsion 14:390

vitelline membrane 14:118

wing bud 15:70

wingless 15:107

yolk sac 14:119

Chicken(s) (see also Gallus) 5:338; 7:600; 8:376, 378, 457–459, 462–463, 465, 467, 472, 510–512, 601<>

Chief cell 10:25<>

cells of parathyroid 3:236, 254

cells of stomach (see also Serous cells) 6:261, 264, 301

member of double cell 2:3

Chiggers 14:553<>

Chile 2:322; 16:7, 60<>

Chilling, effect on development 14:107, 187<>

Chilomeniscus 7:499; 13:237; 16:144, 230; 19:201, 232; 20:556, 560; 21:497<>

cinctus 19:201; 20:635

ear 2:272

savagei 19:201

stramineus 19:152, 201

Chilonyx 9:294<>

Chilopoma 19:104, 234<>

nigronuchalis 19:201

rufipunctatus 19:164, 201

Chilorhinophis 19:131, 220; 20:226, 528, 530–531; 20:585<>

butleri 19:152, 194

carpenteri 21:543

gerardi 19:195; 20:620

Chilorhynophis 7:499; 8:51, 60, 67, 658, 691; 16:144<>

Chimaera 19:537<>

Chimeric tissue combinations<>

chick-alligator 14:426–447

chick-quail 14:440

mouse-alligator 14:426, 431–432

quail-turtle 14:240

Chimpanzee 8:504<>

Chin gland (see Gland, chin)<>

wiping/rubbing (see Behavior, chin wiping/

rubbing)

China 2:323<>

Chinemys 7:642–643, 648–650; 14:212, 220; 16:135; 17:17, 49, 93, 143; 18:435<>

blood cell morphology 3:88

reevesii 18:47, 315, 327, 435, 438, 451, 455–456; 19:354, 537, 578

Chionactis 5:133; 7:216, 499; 12:128, 130, 464; 13:107–108; 14:543; 16:22, 144, 230; 19:232<>

ear 2:272

eye 2:61

occipitalis 18:256; 19:164, 201; 20:635

palarostris 19:201

thyroid 3:213, 221, 227

Chirindia 16:114; 19:557; 21:624, 635, 644, 648<>

axial skeleton 1:272

chondrocranium 11:126, 132

ewerbecki 21:626

mpwapwaensis 21:626

orientalis 21:626

rondoensis 21:626

swynnertoni 21:731

Chironius 5:133, 148; 7:499; 16:144; 19:230<>

bicarinatus 19:201

carinatus 19:127, 201; 20:635

exoletus 19:201

flavolineatus 19:201

fuscus 19:201; 20:635

grandisquamis 19:201

monticola 19:201

quadricarinatus 19:201

scurrulus 19:127, 201

Chiroptera 9:85, 160<>

pancreas 3:341

Chisel-shaped teeth 1:121, 124, 148, 191<>

Chisternon, shell 1:333<>

Chitin, digestion 8:590, 618–621, 656, 658<>

Chitinase 8:618–621, 657–658<>

Chitinolytic enzyme 8:613, 616, 657<>

Chitobiase 8:618–620, 657–668<>

Chitobiose 8:618–620<>

Chitotriose 8:618–620<>

Chitra 16:135<>

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:154

limbs 4:20, 60, 92, 96

Chlamydosaurus 7:360, 487; 8:678; 15:343; 16:137; 20:101, 103; 21:53, 220, 232, 234– 236, 266, 268–269, 275–276, 279, 338, 345, 347, 350, 352, 357, 361, 379, 383, 391<>

axial skeleton 1:255, 258

dentition 1:158, 160

ear 2:271

internal relief of gut 6:177, 182

jaw muscles 4:477

kingi 20:305; 21:53

Chlamydoselachus 19:572<>

anguineus 19:562

Chloralose 10:326<>

Chloride 3:1, 3–7, 13–17; 5:11, 54, 67, 102, 387–388, 422, 428, 481; 8:175; 12:326–335, 341–349, 351–354, 356–357, 369, 375–379, 383–385; 13:85–87; 14:315<>

ion 8:168–170

titrator 5:67

Chlorine 5:23<>

Chloroform 5:49, 51, 280; 18:162, 203<>

methanol extractions 18:151, 154–155, 186

methanol solution 18:153, 169

Chlorophis (see Philothamnus)<>

Chloro-tosylamido-amino-heptanone 8:330<>

Choana 2:101, 104–105, 107, 112–114, 116, 118, 122–126, 131–135, 137–140, 142, 145–146, 151–152, 160, 168, 170, 172–173; 4:117, 140, 203–204, 209–210, 212–222, 225, 235–236, 252–254, 256, 265, 273, 276– 278; 11:19, 60–62, 88–89, 120–122, 152, 208–209, 218, 234, 244; 19:115; 20:14–15, 18, 24, 69, 88, 100, 112, 116, 122–124, 128, 145, 149, 166, 173, 175, 180, 185, 189, 191, 202, 204, 209–210, 214, 217–218, 221, 238, 244, 248, 264, 266, 276, 383<>

Choanae 14:420–421, 424, 427; 21:545–546, 552<>

Choanal<>

canal 2:153; 20:372, 376, 383–384, 393, 400, 410, 419, 429, 431, 470, 510, 543, 548, 576

cartilage 11:176–177

diverticulum 2:168

duct(s) (see also Nasopharyngeal duct) 20:188

fenestra 11:72, 234

flap 2:113–114, 163

fold 2:116, 118, 122–123, 126, 134, 137–140

groove (see also Lateral choanal fissure) 2:122, 125–126, 138–141, 143–144, 172; 11:17–18, 46, 48, 61, 79, 103; 20:138, 155, 158, 163, 166, 171, 173, 181, 191, 204, 214, 221, 225, 234, 265–266, 276, 282, 284

papilla 2:107, 113–114

process 21:554, 570–571

process of palatine 20:357, 389, 397, 399–400, 5–2-404, 407, 410, 414, 417–418, 421–422, 425, 427, 429, 433, 443–445, 447, 451, 453, 455, 457, 459, 462–467, 469–470, 472–473, 476, 480–483, 486, 499, 504, 512, 514, 516–517, 527, 529, 532–533, 538–540, 542–543, 545, 558–559, 562, 565–566, 571, 575–577

ridge 2:113–114

septum 4:212

tube (see also Nasopharyngeal duct) 2:116– 119, 122–123, 126, 131–143, 137–138, 140, 149, 166; 20:24, 242, 245, 348

vacuity 11:54

Choanenfalte (see Choanal fold)<>

Choanengang (see Choanal tube; Nasopharyngeal<>

duct)

Choanenrinne (see Choanal groove)<>

Choanenspälte (see Choana)<>

Cholangitis (see also Pathology) 19:522<>

Cholecystitis (see also Pathology) 19:522<>

Cholecystokinin 17:591–592, 600, 660–662; 18:54<>

-pancreozymin 8:617

Cholestasis 19:493<>

Cholesterides 3:293<>

Cholesterol 3:26; 6:43, 76–77, 80, 102; 8:517, 621, 625, 647, 658; 12:416; 14:314, 341; 18:123, 153–155, 169–171, 194, 203; 19:349–351, 513<>

ester(s) 3:26; 18:155

in seminiferous tubules 15:242

Cholesterone 18:123<>

Cholic acid 8:624–625; 19:513–514<>

Choline 5:495; 6:43; 8:466, 470; 19:501<>

Cholinergic 8:621<>

control 5:325

drugs 11:335

fiber(s) 5:237, 308; 10:11, 13, 17–18, 20–21, 24–27, 34, 36–37, 39, 41, 43; 12:237–238, 243

innervation 5:11, 236, 309

mechanisms 12:247; 13:19

nerves 5:429; 6:270, 284

(nicotinic) receptor 8:438, 461–463

secretomotor innervation 3:341

vasoconstriction 5:310

vasoconstrictor fibers 5:276

Cholinesterase 5:416; 8:91, 189, 528; 11:276, 293<>

activity 8:91

Cholinomimetics 12:230<>

Cholophidia(n) 20:594–596; 21:471, 535<>

Chondrichthyes 9:154, 156, 160, 166–168, 248; 19:535, 537, 543, 562–563, 565, 572, 576–577<>

chondrocranium 11:7

viviparity 15:529

Chondrichthyian fish 14:7, 586<>

Chondrification 14:153, 159, 435<>

Chondrioconts 3:289, 301<>

Chondriome 3:289, 301<>

Chondrocranium 4:249–251, 259; 9:2, 5–8, 59; 11:1–263; 14:124, 126–127, 135, 172, 312, 428, 431, 514; 20:5–6, 8–10, 12, 28, 49, 206, 361<>

fully formed 11:15, 48–57, 66, 76, 9394, 120–123, 140–150, 158, 160, 166, 169–170, 172–173, 207–216, 232–240

Chondrocytes 15:356, 369<>

Chondrodactylus 7:292, 294, 465; 12:120, 122; 16:115, 205, 252, 254, 260; 19:27<>

angulifer 19:26, 78; 20:306; 21:7, 128, 133, 186–187, 189, 396

bibronii 21:265, 396

dentition 1:162

eye 2:22, 30

Chondrogenesis 21:26–27<>

in limb development 15:72–81, 115

Chondroide Stützgewebe 1:108<>

Chondroitin 1:89, 92, 97<>

Chondromesoderm 15:20–22, 24<>

Chondropython (see also Morelia) 5:190; 7:498; 12:127; 16:143, 285, 289; 21:584<>

axial muscles 11:357, 399, 404–405, 408, 410

axial skeleton 1:297

ear 2:271

pit organs 2:302

viridis 18:324; 20:605

Chondrostei 19:563, 565<>

Chorda dorsalis 9:2, 7<>

tympani 4:120–122, 144; 21:482, 593–596, 605, 614

tympani branch of facial nerve 11:15, 24, 28, 34–35, 63–64, 68–69, 79, 106–107, 118, 124, 146, 148–149, 160, 187, 214, 239

tympani nerve 2:197, 201, 229, 233

Chordae tendinae 19:410–413, 415<>

Chordal canal 14:390<>

Chordamesoderm 14:50<>

Chordamesodermal canal 14:96, 113–117, 282, 285<>

Chorio-omphalic membrane 15:540, 542, 545, 575<>

Chorio-omphalo-allantoic membrane 15:542, 547–548, 555<>

Chorio-vitelline placenta (see Placenta, yolk sac)<>

Chorioallantoic<>

circulation 14:333

grafting 14:5

grafts 3:225

membrane 14:194–195, 372, 447; 15:539, 544, 549, 551–552, 554, 557–558, 560; 19:473

placenta (see Placenta, chorio-allantoic)

respiration 14:362

vessels 14:374, 378, 461–462

Chorioallantois 14:170–171, 193, 195, 197, 240, 365, 379, 401–403, 512; 16:550<>

Chorioamniotic connection 14:168, 170–171<>

Chorioid 2:5, 24–25, 33, 40, 51–52, 65, 75–76<>

fissure 2:18, 20, 22, 70; 14:132, 173, 288, 290, 292, 509–510

plexus 2:16, 23–24, 41, 53; 14:129, 172, 433–434

Chorion 6:91; 14:18, 99, 166–169, 378–380, 400–401, 505, 512, 551; 15:18, 549–550<>

Chorionic<>

epithelium 15:534, 549–550, 554, 556–558, 560, 563–564, 575

membrane 15:543

vesicle 15:555

Choristerodera 9:296<>

Choristodera, skull 4:245<>

Choroid plexus 2:208; 9:192, 259, 261; 11:214, 240<>

Chromaffin<>

reaction 3:268, 303–304, 311; 6:283

tissue (see also Adrenal tissue) 3:264, 288, 298, 311

Chromatin 2:156; 3:75, 121–122, 137, 144, 169, 172–174, 176, 179, 181, 184, 289; 6:279; 14:44, 50, 57, 59, 61, 619; 19:503–504<>

Chromatography 3:23, 40, 202, 214, 307, 309; 8:1, 177<>

affinity 8:193

cellulose 8:177

gel permeation 8:183–185

ion exchange 8:300, 322

anion 8:178, 181–182

cation 8:179–181

paper 8:177

silica gel 8:183

starch gel 8:183

thin layer 8:183

Chromatophore(s) (see also Coloration, chromatophore) 3:192, 275; 6:450; 10:9, 42–43; 14:529<>

Chrome alum 6:229, 248, 275, 291, 294<>

alum hematoxylin 3:329–330

Chromic hematoxylin 3:137, 163<>

Chromium 3:39; 5:68<>

Chromolipoids 3:295–296, 305<>

Chromophily 3:75, 83, 85, 87, 144–145, 148, 155,157–158, 162, 166, 169–173, 176, 178, 183–185, 190, 193–194, 311<>

Chromophoby 3:86, 141, 148, 155, 158–159, 162, 171, 176, 188, 207–208, 211, 220<>

Chromosome(s) 4:264; 14:51, 53, 55; 16:402<>

complement 15:433–434, 476

lampbrush 14:52

micro 15:476

number 15:414, 428, 437, 461–463, 467, 469, 474–476, 478–479, 491, 494, 497

Chronic denervation 11:330<>

Chronotropic 12:238, 240, 243, 246<>

effect 10:12–13, 33

effects 5:307–308

Chronotropy 19:402<>

Chrysemys 5:33, 39, 135, 153, 168, 173–175, 199–203, 205, 209, 258, 336, 347, 368, 389–391, 394, 448–449, 461, 463, 466, 470–471, 476; 7:101, 113–114, 142, 149, 343, 346, 349–350, 415, 419, 422, 443, 460–461, 464, 555, 564, 568–570, 574–575, 581–584, 596–597, 600–603, 610–611, 614, 616, 619–621, 626–631, 633–636, 638, 640–643, 651–656; 8:59, 377, 597, 599, 602, 611–616, 626, 629, 636–637, 640–644, 653, 660, 671; 9:8, 21, 235, 251, 261, 306, 323; 10:6, 32, 92, 181, 183, 187, 203, 209, 225, 230, 232, 235, 251–255, 258–265, 267–272, 274–278, 280–281, 313, 327; 12:137, 139–140, 191–192, 194, 229, 236, 240, 289, 334, 367, 426, 459, 470; 13:8, 13–14, 39, 60, 65, 72–73, 75, 81–82, 85–89, 92–93, 96–98, 101, 103, 106, 110–111, 113, 116, 118, 120, 123–124, 204, 219, 235, 252–255, 257–259, 261, 263, 265, 280, 289, 293, 297, 300, 302, 307, 309; 14:26, 78–79, 81, 88–89, 92, 94–95, 99, 101, 105, 108, 110–114, 116–119, 124–132, 134–160, 162–163, 166–170, 177, 179, 181, 183–184, 193, 203, 208–210; 217–219, 221, 223–226, 228–240, 271, 278, 280, 282, 307, 312, 360, 512, 635–636, 639–640, 645, 655–656, 663, 691, 712; 15:81, 170, 248, 264, 270–271, 276, 283–284, 588–589; 16:112, 337, 345, 351, 356, 358, 360, 363, 365–366, 368, 391, 397, 399–400, 403–405, 416–417, 419, 436, 538, 543, 546, 552–553, 566, 568, 570–573; 17:8, 10, 13, 161, 184, 186, 206, 318, 328, 457, 498–500, 508, 528, 534–535, 598, 662, 675; 18:466; 19:473<>

adrenal 3:265, 275–276

blood cell numbers 3:94–95, 102

blood chemistry 3:4, 8, 14, 17, 20–21, 26, 34–36, 39, 49–50

chondrocranium 11:205–207, 212, 216, 219, 221, 227

ear 2:265, 270

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:88

eye 2:33, 72

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104, 114, 123, 153, 156, 166, 179–181

histology of gut 6:238, 252, 274

internal relief of gut 6:160, 162–163, 167

limbs 4:2–4, 6, 8–13, 16, 21, 35, 60, 70, 91

lymphatics 6:447, 456

nose 2:104, 110, 153–154, 157–158, 160–161, 165, 169–170, 177, 181

parathyroid 3:237–239, 241–243

picta 18:46, 95, 197, 251, 253, 259–260, 269, 327, 465; 19:354, 456–458, 474, 503, 516, 525

picta belli 18:442

pituitary 3:165

scripta (see also Pseudemys) 9:306–309, 311–313, 316–322, 324–329, 334, 373; 10:92, 96, 203, 257, 290, 293, 313; 19:417

shell 1:316, 321–322, 325

thymus 3:117–118

thyroid 3:213–214, 217, 226

urinogenital system 6:4–5, 8, 11, 13, 16–18, 20, 22, 28, 30–31, 35–36, 50, 52, 58, 64, 74, 77, 92–93, 96–98, 100, 106–108, 118

Chrysopelea 7:499; 16:39, 51–52, 57, 119, 123, 144, 232; 19:146, 230<>

ear 2:272

ornata 19:122, 147, 201; 20:635

paradisi 19:152, 168, 201

pelias 19:201

rhodopleuron 19:201; 20:635

taprobanica 19:201

Chuckwalla (see Sauromalus)<>

Chymotrypsin 8:472, 613–616<>

Chymotrypsinogen 8:614<>

Cichlasoma (see Mouth brooding)<>

Cilia 2:35, 58–59, 73, 156–157, 160, 162, 204, 207, 209, 211, 213, 215, 239, 245–246, 254, 258, 260; 3:122, 126, 326, 338–339; 6:12, 32–35, 46–47, 65, 67–69, 85, 87, 89–95, 106, 232, 235, 237, 241–242; 14:416, 620, 697, 707; 19:353<>

chorionic cell 15:561

rete cell 15:158

somatic cell 15:104

testicular cell 15:157

Ciliary<>

artery 2:12, 23, 40–41, 52–53, 71, 75

body 2:2, 17–20, 22–24, 41, 51, 64–65, 69–71, 75, 82–83; 10:239

ganglion 2:41, 74

muscle 2:5, 20–21, 23, 65, 75, 82, 86

nerve 2:11, 40–41, 49, 294

pedicle (see Pedicle)

process 2:64, 69–71, 75, 82, 86

roll 2:6, 51–53

vein 2:51

Ciliated<>

cell 2:158

cells of esophagus 6:235, 237–242, 301

epithelia 8:48

neck of uriniferous tubule 6:14–15, 17, 32–33, 36

Cilium 9:315, 346<>

Cimoliosaurus, eye 2:80<>

Cineradiographs 5:282, 289–290<>

Ciona 17:623<>

Circadian<>

component 5:152

differences 5:210

metabolic rhythms 5:167

oscillations of metabolisms 5:166–167

rhythms 5:35–36, 166; 12:227–228; 13:213– 214

activity 18:249–259

entrainment 18:230

mechanisms of entertainment 18:230

miscellaneous rhythms 18:273–274

multioscillator organization 18:230–231

organization 18:233

orientation 18:268–270

pacemaker 18:247

of photoperiodic photosensitivity (CRPP) 18:270

physiology/model 18:246–248

role in photoperiodism 18:270–273

terminology 18:230–231

thermoregulatory 18:259–268 2-oscillator models 18:249, 253–254, 257–258

Circaetus 16:6<>

Circannual (=Circannian, Circannial)<>

cycles 5:34

rhythms 13:214–215; 18:232

adaptive significance 18:274–275

clock 18:276

definition 18:275

hypothesis 18:277

refractoriness 18:275–276

reproductive 18:275–278

role of pineal 18:277

senses 5:169

Circuit ground 5:84<>

Circular dichroism spectra 8:356<>

muscle of iris (see Iris sphincter muscle)

muscles 6:237, 269, 280, 287–289, 419, 423, 451

plexus of external ear 6:375

Circulation (see also Blood flow) 5:100, 225, 275, 281, 288, 306, 310<>

rate 8:599

Circulatory adaptations 5:318<>

effects 8:481–485, 666

patterns of vertebrates 5:277

system 3:1; 19:376, 398

Circumferential ridge 21:150<>

Circumfenestral crest 2:226–228, 252; 11:182– 183; 20:427, 447, 525<>

Circumferential lamellae 1:45, 60<>

Circumflex-iliac vein 6:448<>

Circumorbital bones 2:79<>

Circumorbital elements 20:355–356, 362, 364, 367, 376, 382, 392, 399, 408, 416, 422, 428, 432, 439–440, 458, 479, 484–485, 491, 518, 526, 567–568, 570, 576<>

Circumventricular complex 9:246<>

organ 17:607

Cirrhosis (see also Pathology) 19:519, 521, 523<>

Cistecephalus 9:299<>

Cisterna chyli 6:320–321, 331, 336, 338, 343–344, 346, 348–357, 361, 365–366, 393, 398, 402, 406, 413–415, 417, 419–421, 423–424, 427–429, 434, 441–443, 446–447, 454<>

Cisternae 3:128, 210, 239, 327–328; 11:273–274, 304, 316<>

Cisternal septum 2:218, 242, 244, 249, 252, 255, 257–259<>

Citrate 3:1<>

synthetase 5:200

Citric acid cycle 3:46; 19:498<>

Citronellic acid 18:199<>

Citronellol 18:203–204, 467<>

Citruline 3:23<>

Cladosaurus 9:304<>

Claireascincus 21:397<>

Clamp 5:40<>

Clara cells 19:44<>

Claraziids 20:250<>

Clark electrolysis cell 5:78<>

Clark’s column 10:77–78, 83, 117, 122<>

Classical conditioning, definition (see also Respondent<>

conditioning) 7:558

Classification 21:5, 8<>

of snakes 1:178–180

of turtles 1:336

Clathrin 19:494–495<>

Claudius 16:25, 27, 128, 131–132, 134, 392, 402, 437<>

blood chemistry 3:50

limbs 4:4

nose 2:114

Claustrum 10:330<>

Clavicle(s) 1:19, 311, 327–328; 4:12, 23; 6:385, 390; 14:151; 21:10, 12–13, 16, 30, 32, 59–60, 62, 68, 74, 76, 83, 85–87, 89–97, 99, 135, 220–224, 228, 233–234, 247, 252–258, 268<>

primordia 14:155

Clavicular fenestra 21:95<>

Clavodeltoideus 21:212, 259<>

Clavotrapezius 21:222–225<>

Claws 4:10, 19–22, 59–60, 88, 92, 94–96; 21:48, 50, 130, 133, 187–188<>

Cleaning 8:6<>

Clear cell (see Mucous cells)<>

layer cells of skin 12:403–405

Cleared and stained material 20:360, 372, 378, 510<>

Cleavage 14:13, 17–18, 29–30, 95–96, 112–113, 278, 280, 282–283, 499–501, 516; 15:3, 7–9, 19<>

of egg 3:36

Cleft lip 11:175–176<>

and palate 14:426, 453, 456, 458–459

palate 11:43, 50, 61, 175–176; 15:136

Cleidoic egg 14:18, 196, 236; 18:17<>

Cleithrum 4:12; 14:152; 21:76, 253<>

Clelia 7:499; 8:663; 16:144, 231; 19:226; 20:650<>

bicolor 19:201

clelia 19:201; 20:650

equatoriana 19:201

jaw muscles 4:481

occipitolutea 19:201; 20:650

rustica 19:152, 201; 20:650

scytalina 19:201

Clemmys 5:320; 7:346–347, 349–350, 461, 464, 596–599; 8:377, 660, 671; 9:164; 12:54; 13:97–98, 103, 110–111, 120, 123–125; 14:78, 80, 88, 90, 104, 112, 118, 131, 138, 145, 162, 164–165, 177, 180–181, 184, 190, 195, 206, 210, 215, 218–221, 226, 229, 235, 278, 512, 645; 16:135, 337, 391, 404, 412, 437, 551; 17:531<>

adrenal 3:275–277, 302

axial skeleton 1:225

blood cell morphology 3:76, 85

blood cell numbers 3:95, 102, 105

blood chemistry 3:8, 29–30, 38, 40, 42, 44

ear 2:265, 270

eye 2:38

guttata 18:251, 260, 315

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104– 105, 107–108, 117–119, 123, 126, 153, 157, 162–164, 166, 175, 178, 180–181

histology of gut 6:233, 266, 280, 283, 294, 301

insculpta 18:315

internal relief of gut 6:160, 169, 174

limbs 4:2, 4, 6, 11, 53, 55

marmoratus 18:192

nose 2:104, 110, 153, 155, 163

pituitary 3:142, 158, 189

shell 1:316, 325

thyroid 3:209, 213, 219, 222–223, 226

urinogenital system 6:18, 28, 30, 32, 49, 58–59, 64, 75, 77, 80, 83, 91, 93, 98, 106, 116, 120

Cleopatra 5:407<>

Clevosaurus 15:339; 20:69; 21:64, 78, 90, 111–112, 143, 145, 151–152, 171–172, 185, 396<>

hudsoni 20:291

Clidastes 9:76<>

dentition 1:171

skull 4:269

Climate space 12:276, 292–293, 295<>

Climbing 21:38, 46, 49–50, 58<>

Clinical laboratory procedures 5:59<>

Clitero-penis 14:442<>

Clitoris 6:407; 15:234<>

Cloaca 1:282, 293, 295; 3:214, 243, 271; 4:62, 77; 5:10, 40, 57, 97–98, 102, 197, 249, 372, 381–385, 389, 391, 398, 401, 422, 447–448, 458, 465, 468, 471, 477, 480–481, 483, 488, 496, 498; 6:2, 12–13, 19–20, 24–29, 44, 52, 54–55, 65, 67, 85, 87–93, 105–106, 113–114, 177, 190, 211, 272–273, 287, 289–293, 332, 334, 342, 344, 352–353, 361, 365, 392, 394– 395, 403, 406, 422, 434–435, 443, 453–454, 458; 8:646; 10:66–67; 12:326, 363–364, 366–374, 385–386; 14:439; 19:461<>

development 14:144–145; 15:151–152, 185–210, 212, 216–223

structure 15:207–211, 215

-vesicular lymphatic net 6:435

Cloacal<>

aperture 6:273–274, 287, 300, 403, 406–407

bones 21:141, 146

bursae 5:327, 391; 12:367; 14:144–145, 174, 220

cannula 5:97, 372, 381

chamber 15:186–187, 189–192, 194–197, 202

collections 5:471

contents 5:96

cues 18:117, 120, 127, 129, 133, 137–139, 144, 160, 163, 170, 172, 184–188, 195, 204, 467

excretion 5:438

flow 5:228

fluid 12:345–346

function 5:496

gaping 18:25–26, 41

gas exchange 13:38–39

gland(s) 6:227, 229, 296–299; 15:203; 18:116– 120, 123, 127, 132, 143–144, 158, 160, 165– 166, 190, 192, 194, 199–202, 204–205

lymphatic vessels 6:334, 336, 342, 345, 372, 404, 406–407, 424

membrane(s) 5:381; 14:145, 174; 15:189–190, 197, 200, 205, 216, 219, 225–226, 228–229, 231–232, 234, 239

modification of urine 5:100

muscles 14:221

papilla 6:26–27

plexus 6:320, 361, 404, 406, 428, 443–444

reabsorption 5:98, 450, 458, 477

regulation 5:468

respiration 3:17

rubbing 18:117, 171, 173–174

sac 6:296; 18:119–120, 122, 133, 137, 477

salt 5:413

sinus 6:402, 407

sniffing 18:173

sphincter 6:296

temperature 5:33, 376; 12:20

urates 5:413

urine 5:98, 481, 488

vent 18:137, 155–158, 165–166, 172–178, 182–188, 192, 195–199, 202, 205

vertebrae 1:203, 241, 263–266, 273, 277–279, 282–283, 287, 291, 293–294

water loss 12:444

Cloaco-colic sphincter 6:217<>

Clock (see Entrainment, clock)<>

Cloelia anomala 20:653<>

Clonal reproduction (see also Parthenogenesis;<>

Parthenogenic species) 15:413–415, 433– 435, 437, 456, 478, 493, 495, 498, 504

Clonophis 7:499; 19:234<>

kirtlandii 19:127, 201; 20:556, 646

Closed-chamber technique 5:49–50<>

Clotting (see Coagulation)<>

proteins 19:514

Clupeiformes 19:566<>

Clutch<>

bimodality 14:188, 192

energy 13:244, 247

frequency (see also Fecundity) 14:213, 215, 218, 342; 15:676

lizards 7:188–191

methods for estimating 7:189–191

snakes 7:226–227

multiple 14:217

number 15:39, 612

size (see also Fecundity) 14:9–11, 14, 218, 239, 272, 344, 350–351, 497; 15:501–502

crocodilians 7:231, 237

effect of female size 7:187, 227

intrapopulational 7:188, 227, 231, 237

latitudinal trends 7:187–188, 226–227

size and number (see Life history methods;

Life history traits)

volume 15:611

weight 15:39, 611

CM-cellulose 8:178<>

Cnemaspis 7:466; 21:89, 95, 148, 188, 396<>

chanthaburiensis 21:396

ear 2:271

eye 2:23, 26

jaw muscles 4:478

occidentalis 21:400

petrodroma 21:400

quadtuorseriata 21:88

spinicollis 21:399–400

Cnemial crest 4:58, 67; 21:158–160<>

Cnemidophorus (see also Aspidoscelis) 5:6, 130, 141–144, 160, 162, 171, 178–179, 181, 188, 491; 7:8, 10, 51, 56–57, 69, 71, 83, 87, 94, 96, 100–101, 104, 140, 145, 148–149, 160–161, 167, 170–173, 176–177, 179, 181–182, 185–189, 192–193, 263–264, 277–282, 288, 307–310, 313, 366–367, 373, 490, 644–645, 660; 8:606, 688; 9:373; 10:203, 229; 12:54, 65, 110, 115–116, 130, 145, 174, 299–301, 377, 379, 460, 471, 489, 493; 13:58–59, 74, 76, 78–79, 94, 100–101, 103, 105, 107–108, 117–119, 121–122, 124–126, 135, 157, 166, 172, 183, 190–191, 207, 214, 221, 237, 296, 308–309, 311; 14:29, 641–642; 15:44, 416–417, 423–427, 430–435, 437–441, 443–450, 453, 455–457, 459–460, 467– 483, 485–491, 493–497, 499, 501, 503, 505, 507–509, 511–512, 514, 584, 589; 16:9, 14, 16–18, 22–23, 50, 55, 66, 118, 134, 141–142, 242, 248, 339, 342, 463– 465, 474, 518; 18:86, 90, 99, 433; 20:174, 176–184, 301; 21:84–85, 96, 220<>

adrenal 3:280

angusticeps 20:300

axial muscles 11:357

blood cell morphology 3:77, 87

blood chemistry 3:5, 9, 48

chondrocranium 11:71

dentition 1:163–164

deppeii 20:301

ear 2:243, 267, 271

inornatus 18:4, 38, 89–92, 102

jaw muscles 4:351, 478

lemniscatus 21:205

murinus 20:308

muscle tissue 11:275, 336

nose 2:120, 127, 132, 137, 180

pituitary 3:156, 173

sexlineatus 18:175, 254, 346, 485; 20:301

sonorae 20:179, 181, 308

tigris 18:181, 329; 20:179, 181, 301, 308

uniparens 18:4, 13, 37–39, 91, 102, 276–277; 20:179, 181–183, 308

urinogenital system 6:26, 38, 42, 59, 73–74, 79, 81, 87, 89, 97, 99–100, 104, 107

CNS (see Central nervous system)<>

histidine residues 5:240

Coagulant 8:334, 592<>

fraction 8:333

protein 8:320

Coagulase 8:176, 178, 189, 192, 315<>

Coagulating<>

factor (enzyme) 8:334, 491–494, 527

system 8:334

Coagulation (see also Blood clotting) 3:29, 33–34, 52; 8:340, 438–440, 490–500, 504, 507<>

disorders, treatment 8:438

venom actions on 8:334

Coarse-fibered bone 1:55<>

“Coarsely-bundled” bone 1:49, 145<>

Coated vesicles 14:65<>

Cobalt 3:38; 6:295;<>

ion 8:242, 245

thiocyanate paper 5:104

Cobra (see Naja; Hemachatus)<>

Cobramin 8:510, 517<>

Cobrotoxin 8:197, 201, 207, 225, 228, 355–356, 454, 457–458, 464, 470, 478, 512<>

valency 8:355

Cobsan’s organ 18:127<>

Coccidiosis (see also Pathology) 19:522<>

Cochlear 14:136<>

aqueduct 2:209

cavity 20:11, 31, 34, 72, 112, 114–115, 270

connection 10:223

crest 20:33–34

duct 2:196, 199, 203–204, 209–216, 219–220, 223, 227–229, 231, 234, 236–254, 256–263; 10:220; 11:28, 42, 103, 106, 148, 213–214, 237

ganglion 2:253, 258, 260

portion of otic capsule 4:251; 11:41–43, 54–55, 67, 74–75, 93, 137–139, 170, 174, 203, 230–238

prominence 11:52, 93, 110, 140, 163, 233

ramus of vestibulocochlear nerve 2:209–210

recess 2:202–203, 216, 220, 229–230, 236, 247–248, 251–252, 256–257, 259–261; 20:112

window 2:197

Cockroach 12:374<>

Coefficient<>

of allometry (see also Allometry) 9:153, 157, 159–161, 164–166

of encephalization 9:164

of variation 19:101

Coelacanth 15:529<>

Coelenterate 17:639<>

Coeliac trunk 6:349, 354, 413, 417<>

Coelom 6:2–6, 8–9, 12–17, 26, 85, 91–92, 105–106, 113, 269, 288, 317, 342, 350–353<>

Coelomic<>

cavity 19:487

compartments 19:27

epithelium (see also Peritoneum) 6:8, 14, 20, 50–54, 56–57, 81, 85, 87, 92, 108–109, 112, 269, 272, 280, 288–290, 336, 343, 351–352, 412, 416, 422, 424, 427, 429, 434, 458

fluid 3:18, 30; 6:12

space 19:376

wall 19:151

Coelomoduct 6:2, 56<>

Coelopeltis 7:499<>

Coelophysis, dentition 1:186<>

Coelurosauria 9:89; 19:72–74<>

dentition 1:186

Coelurosauravus 20:250, 290<>

Coeranoscincus reticulatus 21:403<>

Coevolution 18:178<>

Cog 19:395, 397, 440<>

-valve 19:393–394

Coggeria naufragus 21:403<>

Coiled terminal 9:418, 436<>

Coiling of embryos 15:15–18<>

Cold<>

acclimation 5:164

anesthesia 5:52

-blooded 12:20–21

-blooded prey 2:296

exposure 12:234, 236

immobilization 5:52–53

neurons 2:279, 293–294

temperature (see also Acclimation; Temperature;

Temperature dependence) 13:53–59, 62–64, 67–73, 83, 91–93, 100, 228, 128, 134, 303

-tolerant species 5:161

torpor (see also Hibernation) 14:185, 201

Coleodactylus 20:118, 295<>

Coleonyx 5:130, 144; 7:292, 295, 369, 371–372, 418, 422–424, 465, 634, 637; 8:680; 10:294; 12:121–124, 360; 13:237; 14:584–585; 15:341, 344, 346–349, 365–366, 379, 382; 16:115, 138, 205–206, 239, 250–252, 254–255, 261, 265–266; 17:23, 97, 100; 18:170; 20:59, 124, 127, 267, 295; 21:66, 80, 89, 95, 135, 141, 145–146, 172<>

adrenal 3:279

axial skeleton 1:246

blood cell morphology 3:76

blood cell numbers 3:96, 104

blood chemistry 3:9

brevis 21:146, 398

chondrocranium 11:79–80, 83, 198

dentition 1:148, 161–162

ear 2:223, 239, 242, 266, 271

elegans 20:306; 21:146, 396

eye 2:14, 20, 29, 35, 42–45

histology of gut 6:255

jaw muscles 4:348, 350, 478

mitratus 21:146, 396

nose 2:119, 125, 127, 130

reticulatus 21:146, 396

urinogenital system 6:95

variegatus 18:170, 182, 243, 253–254; 20:121, 306; 21:146

Colibri coruscans 19:58<>

Colinus 7:572<>

Collagen 6:42, 57, 82, 85, 236, 280, 450–451; 8:90; 9:329, 408, 417–418, 431; 11:322–324; 12:413; 14:56, 375, 459, 528–529, 534, 536, 569, 701; 18:200; 19:14, 16, 108–109, 126, 487, 490, 494, 504, 506, 511, 539–540, 547, 549–550, 552, 557, 559, 569; 20:356, 359, 407<>

fibers 1:49, 92, 129, 145, 313; 20:415

in apical ridge 15:66

Collagenase 8:324; 14:561, 567, 470<>

Collagenolytic 8:324<>

Collagenous<>

capsule 8:67

connective tissue 8:76

Collaginous fibers 2:159, 198, 233, 283–285<>

Collateral<>

circulation 5:64–65

fossae 21:127–128

ligaments 21:154

Collecting<>

duct 6:7–8, 13, 17, 20–21, 25, 34–38, 42–44

methods 5:20–21, 26

segment of uriniferous tubule (see Terminal

segment of uriniferous tubule)

tubule (see Collecting duct)

Collectors 5:20–21<>

Collet cilic (see Neck of uriniferous tubule)<>

Collodion 5:99; 18:127<>

Colloid<>

cells 3:209

osmotic pressure 3:29–30; 5:10, 59, 458; 19:514

Colloidal iron 8:122<>

urates 5:496

Collorhabdium 19:228<>

williamsoni 19:201

Colobodactylus 20:186, 189, 193<>

taunayi 20:189, 301, 308

Colobosaura 20:189–190, 192–193<>

mentalis 20:187, 190, 301, 308

modesta 20:301

Colombia 2:322<>

Colon 5:57, 383–384, 389, 401; 6:167, 169, 172, 174–176, 186–190, 192, 203, 205, 208–212, 216–217, 219, 221–222, 272, 277, 287–293, 337, 349–350, 404, 419, 422–423, 435<>

Colonic temperatures 5:33<>

Colonization 5:255<>

Colopus 12:122; 15:328; 16:115, 260; 21:186, 189, 396<>

eye 2:22, 30

kochi 21:396

wahlbergii 21:396

Color (see also Temperature regulation, color<>

change) 12:276

attributes 18:327

brightness 18:304, 327, 329, 390, 396–397

change 12:276; 18:304–325

behavioral 18:312, 314, 316

dermal chromatophore 18:306–308, 316, 318, 321

developmental 18:312

diel cycles 18:321

environmental effects 18:319–321

environmental factors 18:316–319

hormonal and neural effects 18:309

hormonal regulation 18:316–319, 338–340, 391

morphological 18:310–314, 321–323, 330, 371, 386

neural regulation 18:319, 390

ontogenetic 18:312, 323–325, 330, 338, 340, 393

physiological 18:300, 302–303, 307, 309–323, 330, 340, 348–350, 352, 361, 371, 386, 390–391, 398

definition 18:304

discrimination 10:314–315

hue 18:304, 390, 396–397

induction

by hormone 18:338–340, 365–370, 373–376, 398–399

epinephrine 18:309, 317, 339

estradiol effects 18:365–370

FSH 18:366

inhibited by corticosterone 18:365

progesterone 18:339, 365–368

testosterone 18:339, 353–354, 365–368

infrared 18:327

interspecific differences 18:393

marks 1:318

modification by painting 18:335–336, 341–342, 353, 355, 357–361, 380, 384–385, 397

modification by staining 18:351–352, 361

pattern 1:318

pattern (coloration) 15:469, 481, 484

distribution in families 7:272–273, 276–277, 281–282, 289, 293–295, 297–299

functions 7:272, 297

perception 18:303–304

pigmentary effects 18:304

saturation 18:304, 327, 329, 396–397

vision (see also Senses) 18:325–330, 390, 394, 397

blue insensitivity in lizards 18:328, 330

Coloration (see also Antipredator mechanisms;<>

Caudal autotomy; Coral-snake mimicry;

Mimicry; Senses; Tails; Thermal balance) 18:25

absorbed light 18:304

aggression 18:331–334, 338–339, 347–348, 350–353, 378, 380, 384–385, 394, 397

aposematic 18:300–301, 333

attentiveness 18:347

autonomic responses 18:319

background matching 18:302, 312, 322–323, 385–392, 399

barometric pressure 18:320

basking 18:389

blanching 18:318

breeding 18:330

bright tail 18:323–325, 360, 396

caudal autotomy 18:388, 396, 399

caudal luring 18:324–325, 393

chromatophore 18:305–306

calcium channel blockage with lanthanum

chloride 18:310

dermal 18:306, 308

mosaic chromatophore 18:305–307

oil droplets 18:327

polychromatic 18:306

temperature effects 18:321

courtship 18:334, 339, 348, 351–352, 360, 376–377, 379, 381

courtship rejection 18:355–356, 358–360, 362, 365, 370–373, 378, 381, 383, 393, 398–399

cryptic 18:299–301, 303, 324, 332, 351, 355, 372–373, 386–387, 392, 396

development 18:322

dewlap 18:299, 333–334, 336, 340–344, 383–385

dominance 18:334–336, 338, 344–345, 349–352, 394, 396

dorsal 18:300

environment 18:319

epigamic 18:331

eyespot (eyepatch) 18:344

female 18:337, 339, 343, 355–385

adaptive hypotheses 18:378–379

geographical variation 18:383

head 18:348–350, 352–355, 358, 398

hearing 18:388

humidity 18:319

hyperpigmentation 18:317

intermedin 18:316

juvenile 18:338–339, 358–359

male 18:332–333

male breeding 18:333–355

maturity hypothesis 18:380

mimicry 18:301, 316, 324, 339, 394

monomorphic 18:332, 336, 357

Munsell system of color notation 18:304, 329

neck 18:358

polymorphic 18:334–336, 338, 398

postorbital eyespots 18:318, 344

reflected light 18:304

seasonal (breeding) 18:312, 315, 322, 330, 339, 354, 356, 359, 363

seasonal (nonbreeding) 18:312, 386

sex recognition 18:331–334, 337, 340, 352, 357–361, 376–380, 398

sexually dimorphic 18:299, 312, 314–315, 330–355, 357, 370, 376, 392, 397

structural 18:3–4-305, 339

subordinance 18:334, 344–346, 350–352, 394

tail 18:333

tail autotomy 18:388, 396, 399

taxonomic, distribution in females 18:371

territoriality 18:332, 348–349, 359, 382

thermoregulation 18:300–303, 386–391, 394, 397, 399

throat 18:335–339, 358, 365, 370, 382

tongue 18:316

transmitted light 18:304

ultraviolet shielding 18:302

ventrolateral 18:316, 333, 336, 338, 350, 359, 361, 372, 396–397

Colorimeter(ry) 5:67, 69<>

Coluber 5:133, 347, 488; 7:100, 114, 202, 205–206, 212–213, 216–220, 222–223, 225, 227–228, 389, 393, 396–397, 499–500, 644–645, 663; 8:39, 85, 91, 94, 377, 655, 663, 691; 9:158, 252; 12:128, 131, 464, 471, 475; 13:78, 82, 97, 102, 104–105, 107–108, 111, 113, 115–117, 119–120, 122, 124, 127–133, 161, 163, 181, 187, 309, 312; 14:653, 664; 15:19, 27, 45, 212, 565; 16:11, 23, 41, 53, 56, 119, 123, 144, 197–198, 200, 231–232, 482–483, 519, 531, 534, 538, 566, 568, 570–571; 17:394; 18:161; 19:98, 157, 230, 507; 21:501, 512, 586<>

adrenal 3:269

algirus 19:152, 201

axial muscles 11:357, 395, 399–401, 407, 409, 414

axial skeleton 1:289, 293–294, 299

blood cell morphology 3:78, 84–85

blood cell numbers 3:97–99

blood chemistry 3:5, 10, 34, 39, 44, 46, 48–49, 51

caspius 19:152, 201; 20:635

“Coluber” 19:202

constrictor 18:118, 476; 19:99, 109–110, 125, 127, 201, 356; 20:635–636

constrictor constrictor 18:161, 330, 442

constrictor flaviventris 18:138

constrictor priapus 18:52

cypriniensis 19:202

dahli 19:202

dentition 1:181

diadema 20:641

dorri 19:202

ear 2:269, 272

elegantissimus 8:94; 19:202

eye 2:52–53, 55, 62–63

fasciolata 20:634

flagellum 20:636

florulentus(is) 19:114, 168, 202; 20:636

gemonensis 19:202; 20:636

hippocrepis 19:202; 20:636

histology of gut 6:278

jaw muscles 4:481

jugularis 19:164, 202; 20:636

karelini 19:202

keniensis 19:202

laurenti 20:636

lymphatics 6:331, 338, 356, 361, 373, 409, 433

muscle tissue 11:277–278, 317, 320, 336

najadum 19:202; 20:636

nose 2:179

nummifer 19:202; 20:636

“obscurus” 19:202

parathyroid 3:248–249

quatuorlineatus 20:639

ravergieri 8:39, 91, 663; 19:60, 81, 202; 20:636

rhodorachis 19:202; 20:636

rogersi 19:202

“rudis” 19:202

schmidti 20:636

smithi 19:202

socotrae 19:202

spinalis 19:202; 20:636

“strictor” 19:202

thymus 3:114

thyroid 3:203, 227

“trilineatus” 19:202

urinogenital system 6:15, 43, 65, 85, 92

variabilis 19:202

ventromaculatus 19:142, 202; 20:636

viridiflavus 19:121, 202; 20:636

Colubridae (colubrids) 5:192, 406; 7:9, 206, 220–221, 388, 391, 393–397, 399, 499–503; 8:4–5, 8, 39–42, 46, 69, 74, 83, 87, 90, 142, 148, 150–151, 626, 663, 691–694; 9:163, 368; 12:126–131, 446, 467; 13:2; 14:30, 642, 653, 659, 665, 712; 15:533, 663–664, 666–667, 671; 16:40–41, 119–121, 123, 128, 144–149, 164–165, 167, 181–182, 286–287, 295–296, 307, 343, 454–455, 483, 485–486, 493, 519–520; 19:95, 103, 110, 116–117, 122, 125, 127–128, 131, 141, 146, 150–152, 157–158, 165–167, 170, 199, 224–234, 236, 399, 412, 415–416, 505–506; 20:353–354, 363, 471, 482, 488, 516, 518, 522, 536, 540, 546, 550–560, 562–563, 567, 569–576, 578–580, 582, 592, 630; 21:521, 565, 567, 578, 587, 602, 606, 613<>

adrenal 3:281

axial muscles 11:357, 380, 395, 397, 399, 402–403, 411, 413–414, 430–432

axial skeleton 1:281, 284, 286–287, 290–291, 295–296, 299

blood cell morphology 3:78–79

blood chemistry 3:28, 31, 34, 50–52

chondrocranium 11:136–162, 203

dentition 1:173, 175–176, 178–182

ear 2:227, 240–241, 253, 269, 271–272

eye 2:92

histology of gut 6:296

internal relief of gut 6:193

jaw muscles 4:422, 441, 446, 448, 455, 481–482

nose 2:121, 140

origin and evolution 1:6

pancreas 3:328

parathyroid 3:247–248

pit organs 2:279, 295, 297

pituitary 3:136, 145–147, 149, 151–154, 157, 161, 184–185, 193–195

taxonomic literature 2:320

urinogenital system 6:97, 113

Colubrinae 19:230–232, 236; 20:500, 535–536, 551, 555–556, 561, 565, 567, 570, 581, 634<>

axial skeleton 1:293

dentition 1:178

jaw muscles 4:441, 448–450

Colubrini 19:230, 236<>

Colubroidea 19:95, 149, 159; 20:363, 367, 376, 395, 420, 437, 444, 448, 457–458, 468, 473–474, 483, 487–493, 500, 507, 519, 526, 530–532, 535, 539–540, 547–548, 557, 584, 592, 597, 611; 21:564, 566, 571, 576, 582, 584–587, 592, 596–597, 603–605, 610<>

axial skeleton 1:281, 285–286, 290, 299; 8:58, 73, 658, 691–694

dentition 1:179–184

histology of gut 6:244, 287, 299

pituitary (see also Caenophidia) 3:136, 140, 145, 149, 154, 157, 183, 195

Columba 10:69, 77–79, 84–85, 93–95, 101, 180–181, 189–193, 278; 17:533, 565<>

eye 2:38, 58

livia 19:51, 53, 58

muscle tissue 11:291, 294

Columella 4:156, 250–251; 9:16; 20:337, 365, 384, 389, 391, 393, 418, 434, 441–442, 445, 447, 453, 455, 463–465, 473, 497, 502–503, 505, 507, 509, 511, 513, 526, 538, 540–541, 562, 564, 569<>

auris (see also Stapes) 11:25, 31, 33–35, 43, 45, 47, 57, 59–60, 68, 71, 76, 79–81, 84–85, 99, 103, 105–107, 110, 112–115, 117–119, 124, 132–134, 136–140, 146–149, 151, 153, 160, 163, 170, 173–174, 182–183, 185, 195–196, 198, 200, 204, 206–207, 209, 214–215, 219–220, 222, 224, 226, 228, 238–240; 14:136–137, 173; 20:34

cranii 20:23

pars interhyalis 4:250–251

Columellar<>

apparatus 2:198–199, 201, 221–223, 226, 231, 242, 262; 11:9, 28, 31–35, 44, 46, 54–55, 57–59, 67, 79–80, 83, 90,99–100, 106–107, 118, 123–124, 132–134, 136, 149, 193, 195–196, 198, 205, 207, 211–213, 215, 221, 238–239, 241

cartilage 20:505, 507, 509, 511, 527, 540

fold 2:201

Combat (see also Social behavior and aggression) 16:399<>

dance, serpents 7:387–392

Commercial supplier 5:26<>

venom(s) production 8:9, 561

Commissure(s) 20:11<>

accessory 10:89, 117

anterior 10:306

dorsal gray 10:70, 76, 123

habenular 9:222, 225, 227, 245, 247, 257–261, 263, 280–282, 285, 289, 325, 327–328, 335–337, 363, 366, 369; 10:177, 306, 318

infima 10:207, 213, 237

posterior 9:193, 225–226, 228, 245–247, 255–257, 259–261, 263, 270, 275, 280–281, 285, 289, 307, 309, 325, 327–328, 335–337, 363, 366, 369; 10:145, 227

posterior pallial 9:245, 247, 285, 335–337

tectal 17:323, 328

Common<>

carotid artery 3:113–114, 116, 243, 253

ciliary artery 2:52

coccygeal vein 6:448

crus (see Membranous common crus; Osseus

common crus)

garden studies 16:500

iliac lymphatic vessels 6:342

tectum 20:11

Communal hibernation 13:60–61, 107–108, 113, 116, 122–127, 129–134<>

Communication, social (see Social communication)<>

Community<>

desert lizard

Australia 7:2, 10–11, 15–18, 23–27

Kalahari 7:2, 7, 10–11, 15, 17–18, 23–27

North America 7:2, 8, 10–11, 17–18, 23–27

productivity 13:295–297

Compact bone 1:46, 62, 65, 68, 73–74, 313<>

Compacted coarse-cancellous bone 1:51<>

Comparative<>

analysis 5:2

anatomy 5:275, 288; 10:275

approach 18:4–5

methods 16:24, 50, 66–69, 294–295, 389–390, 393, 443, 446, 450, 485–487, 498–500

physiology 5:210

Comparisons, biological 18:8<>

Compartmentalization 5:226<>

Compass<>

and circadian clock 18:268–270

orientation

celestial cues 18:268–270

definition 18:268

photoperiod effects 18:268, 270

Compensated circuit 5:32<>

Competition (see also Exploitative competition;<>

Interference competition; Interspecific

competition; Oscillating competition) 7:35–124; 12:4, 32, 46, 55, 60–61, 300, 302; 13:130; 16:416, 499; 18:156

character displacement 7:91–95

coefficients 7:56–57

definition 7:37–38

effect on morphlogy 7:97

habitat shifts due to 7:88–91, 147

intrapopulation variation in 7:96–97

population density effects 7:95–96

Complement 14:653, 655–656, 661–662<>

fixation 8:360

system 8:379–381, 497–498, 522–523

Complex sensory structures 9:431<>

Compliance 11:300, 302, 305; 19:48–49, 61, 67, 69, 75–77, 308, 349–350, 352<>

Compound bone 20:356–357, 369–370, 375, 377– 379, 385, 389, 391, 394, 399–401, 409–411, 418–419, 421, 423, 425, 430–431, 433–434, 441, 445, 447, 452–453, 461, 463, 465, 467, 471, 473–474, 479–481, 483, 487, 493, 497, 501–502, 505–507, 509, 511, 513, 519–523, 530, 532–533, 538–539, 541, 543, 550, 552, 562, 566, 569, 580–581, 596; 21:599–602, 604, 606, 608–611, 613–614<>

Compressed teeth 1:121, 157, 165, 168–170, 178–179, 181, 184, 186–187, 193<>

Compresseur<>

courbe (see M. compressor glandulae accessorius)

droit (see M. compressor glandulae)

Compression phase of breathing cycle 5:243<>

Compressor 8:113<>

Compromise 5:4<>

Compsemyidae, shell 1:336<>

Compsemys, shell 1:333<>

Compsophis 19:101<>

Computer analysis 5:83<>

Computers 5:94<>

Concanavalin A 3:29; 14:643<>

Concentric lamellae 1:46<>

Concha (see also Lateral Grenzfalte; Posterior<>

concha) 2:102–103, 109, 112, 117, 122–124, 126, 130–137, 145–151, 158, 168, 170–174, 183–18421:575

(part) (see Anterior concha; Posterior concha)

anterior 2:103

externa of the quadrate 21:475

of Jacobson’s organ (see also Mushroom body) 11:15, 17–18, 48, 92, 96, 106, 109–110, 120, 127, 129, 140–143, 152, 160, 163, 165–166, 173, 176, 193–194, 202

media 2:103

nasalis 4:250

posterior 2:103

Conchae 14:421; 18:427<>

Conchal<>

cartilage 20:379–380, 559

cavity (see Conchal space)

process of prefrontal 20:427; 21:587

process of septomaxilla 20:357, 415, 425–427, 437, 441, 447, 462, 467, 477, 479, 502, 507, 523, 527, 538, 541, 543, 559, 562, 5666, 569–571; 21:571, 575

ridge 11:210, 212; 20:379, 360

space 2:126, 131–136, 178–179

zone 2:116–117, 122, 131–132, 134, 138, 149, 171

Conditioned<>

response 7:558; 10:314

stimulus 7:558

Conditioning (see also Classical conditioning;<>

Instrumental conditioning; Learning;

Respondent conditioning; Trial and error

conditioning) 8:2

Conductance (see Thermal conductance)<>

Conduction (see Thermal balance)<>

Conductivity 5:55<>

Conduit<>

choanal (see Nasopharyngeal duct)

respiratoire (see Nasopharyngeal duct)

Condyle (see also Rotation) 1:205–206, 213, 217, 219, 222, 226, 231, 234, 245–247, 250, 268, 271, 274, 276, 284, 286, 288, 290, 300; 20:72, 231; 21:108, 116, 545<>

Condylotrochlear gutter 21:101, 105, 110<>

Cone 17:40, 85–86, 91, 143, 157, 215<>

accessory 17:13

double 17:13, 17, 40, 91, 137–138

papillary 17:215

Conepactus 8:318<>

Cones 2:32–36, 38, 54, 56, 58, 62–63, 65, 72–73, 77, 84–87, 90–92<>

of bone 1:92

transmutations of 2:54, 62, 84–85, 91

Confidence limits 5:138, 140–141, 149–150<>

Conformation 8:356<>

Confounded discrimination 7:604<>

Congenital abnormalities 11:4, 43<>

cardiac abnormalities (see also Pathology) 19:430

Congilatus 14:48<>

Congo 2:324<>

red 6:246; 8:569

Conical teeth 1:121, 124, 151–153, 157, 159–161, 169–171, 173, 175, 178–179, 181, 184–186, 189–191, 193<>

Coniophanes 7:500; 8:39; 13:308; 16:144, 205; 19:229<>

bipunctatus 19:152, 202

ear 2:272

fissidens 19:152, 202; 20:577, 650

imperialis 8:39

longiquus 20:650

piceivittis 19:202

quinquevittatus 19:202; 20:650

schmidti 19:202

Conjuctiva 2:9–12, 15, 74–75<>

Conjunctival circulation 2:53<>

sac 5:416

space 2:9–11, 15, 49, 83; 11:50, 84, 143

Connectin 11:292<>

Connecting bundle between Mm. depressor<>

mandibulae and sphincter colli 4:309, 313<>

Connective tissue 1:149, 184, 190, 312, 331; 2:154, 156, 159, 160–162,164, 175–176, 195, 198, 200, 202, 204, 207–210, 216, 218, 220, 224–225, 230, 233, 236, 242, 248, 250, 252–253, 257, 259, 282–283, 289, 307–308; 3:112, 118, 120, 122–123, 125, 127–129, 139, 148, 165, 178, 183, 201, 207, 236, 245–246, 248, 251, 254, 268, 270, 275–278, 281, 286, 288, 341; 6:31, 42,47, 56–57, 75, 83, 85, 89–92, 98–99, 233, 239, 244, 268–270, 272, 279–280, 284, 287–289, 291, 293, 296, 447, 450–451, 453–454; 15:308, 312, 315–317; 18:200; 19:12, 14, 42, 44, 108, 121, 145, 148–149, 151, 376, 381–382, 395–396, 401–402, 405, 411, 429–430, 487, 490–491, 539–540, 542, 547, 549, 553<>

tissue fibers 1:146

loose tissue 6:269

reticular tissue 6:268

Conolophus 5:420, 427–429; 7:191, 365, 476; 8:632, 682; 13:170; 15:330, 342, 374; 16:139, 256, 283, 300, 531, 559, 566, 568; 20:88, 269<>

axial skeleton 1:269

dentition 1:154, 156

internal relief of gut 6:188; 12:54, 100, 295, 302, 376, 384

jaw muscles 4:477

subcristatus 19:525; 20:304

Conophis 8:39; 15:647; 16:123, 144; 19:227<>

lineatus 8:39; 19:202; 20:653

vittatus 19:202; 20:653

Conopsis 15:647, 671, 675; 16:119, 133; 19:232<>

biseriatus 19:202

jaw muscles 4:481

nasus 19:202; 20:636

Conservation 14:7, 272, 274, 317, 373, 460; 16:584–585<>

and temperature sensitivity 15:282

of energy 5:160, 167–168

of water and salt 5:383–385, 438, 458

Conspecific odors (see also Pheromone) 18:470– 474<>

Constancy of nerve-muscle supply 21:196<>

Constant pressure volumetric system 5:72, 74<>

proportion group ratio 5:206

volume chamber 5:72, 78

volume respirometers 5:78

Constraints (see Life history traits)<>

Constricting mechanism 8:4<>

Constriction 20:396<>

of prey 19:158

Constrictor<>

ear 2:269, 271

nose (see also Boa) 2:120, 136

Constrictor<>

of the lateral sublingual salivary gland 21:595–597

muscle of naris 2:46–147

superficialis 4:101

Consumption coagulopathy 8:440, 496–497<>

Contact<>

cements 5:99–100

pheromone 18:142

Contamination 5:26<>

Contia 7:500; 12:128; 13:237; 19:228; 20:572<>

ear 2:272

pancreas 3:326, 333–338, 340–341

tenuis 19:202; 20:650

Contour plots 12:291, 295<>

Contractile<>

cell 6:42

cycle 5:293

element 19:541, 570

Contractility 5:8–9; 19:389, 446, 497<>

Contraction time (see also Shortening rate) 11:280, 285, 288, 297–298, 308–309<>

Contractions<>

non-cholonergic 8:439

non-histaminic 8:439

Contrahentes 21:313, 324, 365<>

Control of effector organ 10:11<>

Conus 2:4–6, 16, 20, 23–25, 33, 40–41, 53–54, 65, 72, 76, 84; 14:437<>

arteriosus 19:379, 381–382, 387, 396, 404, 406–407, 410, 412

papillaris (see also Conus) 11:84

Convection (see also Thermal balance) 12:167, 278–283, 290, 296, 307, 445–446<>

strategy 19:65

Convective movement of blood 5:225<>

Convergence 4:267–271; 19:19; 20:360, 401, 522, 528, 551, 578–579, 583<>

Conversion factor 5:70<>

Convoluted tubule (see Proximal segment of<>

uriniferous tubule)

Convulsin 8:196<>

Convulsions 8:439, 449<>

Cooling 19:157, 469<>

signal 5:27–28

Coomassie brilliant blue 8:189–190, 343<>

Cophosaurus 7:160, 262, 271, 275, 310, 451, 453, 476; 16:29, 53, 116, 130, 139, 211–212, 248, 253, 350, 464–465, 514; 20:84, 86–87, 89, 291<>

chondrocranium 11:86

texanus 18:362; 20:291, 305

urinogenital system 6:59

Cophoscincopus 21:397<>

Cophotis 7:276–277, 299, 487; 9:339; 12:108; 15:626, 669, 674; 16:137; 20:94, 100, 294<>

axial skeleton 1:250, 258

ceylanica 30:305

ear 2:271

eye 2:27

jaw muscles 4:477

nose 2:119, 129, 142, 154, 158, 178

Copper 3:32<>

in eggshells 14:374

ions 8:170, 172–173

phthalocyanin 6:270

Coprodacum 6:272<>

Coprodaeum(deum) (see also Cloacal aperture;<>

Colon) 15:185, 190, 193–194, 199, 201, 203–204, 207, 209–211, 215; 18:116

Copula (see Corpus hyoidei)<>

Copulation (see also Mating) 3:218–219; 6:44, 65, 73, 78, 94, 105, 118; 14:213, 215–216, 218, 338–339, 347–348, 352, 497; 15:206, 432, 458; 16:209; 17:25–26, 28, 47, 49, 56, 358, 374–376, 378–379, 381<>

evidence for 15:431, 461

plug 18:52–53, 155–158

pseudo 15:459–460

Copulatory<>

mechanism 1:311

organ(s) (see Phallus)

development 15:151–152, 210–241, 243

effect of sex hormones 15:247, 263

evolution 15:210

plug 6:44

Coracobrachial matrix 21:78<>

Coracobrachialis<>

brevis 21:31, 212

longus 21:31, 212

Coracoid 4:13–14, 21, 28, 31–35, 92–94, 173, 191, 266; 14:155–156; 21:10, 12–16, 29, 33, 40, 62, 69–78, 80, 83–84, 94, 98, 103, 218, 224, 236, 243, 248, 250, 254, 259, 264–267, 270–272, 274–276, 279<>

fenestrae 21:74, 267, 270

foramen 21:30

plate 21:30, 33, 270, 278

process 21:83, 276

Coracosternal<>

angle 21:62, 64, 70–71, 99, 270

articulation 21:63, 65, 70–73, 87, 98–99, 234, 236, 240, 247, 267, 270, 274

Coral snakes 16:5, 15, 35, 42–43, 53–54<>

Coral-snake mimicry 16:155, 174–191, 202<>

aposematic coloration 16:133, 183–187, 203

concordant geographic patterns 16:174, 183–187, 191–192

crypsis versus aposematism 16:175–178

dual mimics 16:185–186

fossoriality 16:179

frequency models and mimics 16:180–183

geographic patterns 16:169, 181–184, 230–234

innate avoidance 16:176, 179, 187–191

Mertensian mimicry 16:183

Müllerian mimicry 16:183

nocturnality versus diurnality 16:179

paradox of deadly model 16:183

predators 16:178–180

senses of predators 16:178–180, 184, 189–190

unpalatability 16:183

Corallus 7:498; 8:625–626, 662; 14:665; 16:143; 17:373, 382, 392, 424, 426; 19:188, 235; 20:448, 450–452; 21:512, 529<>

annulatus 19:148, 188

axial muscles 11:357

caninus 19:131, 161, 188; 20:607; 21:606

chondrocranium 11:169, 174

dentition 1:179

enydris 20:607

hortulanus (formerly C. enhydris) 19:131, 188; 20:447, 607

internal relief of gut 6:193, 196–197

pancreas 3:323

pit organs (see also Boa) 2:290–293, 295, 301–302, 305, 307, 310

ruschenbergerii 20:447, 457, 461, 607

Cordylidae 5:423; 7:164, 262, 300, 318, 494–495; 8:46, 634, 680; 9:8, 161, 163, 252, 332, 338; 12:99, 108, 379; 14:48; 15:84, 325, 333–334, 340, 629, 663–664, 667–669, 674, 676; 16:35, 113, 115, 136, 138, 294, 454; 19:21, 28, 41; 20:57, 137, 150–154, 156–157, 162, 164, 247, 269, 307; 21:14, 17, 58, 80, 89, 96, 108, 124, 199, 278, 398–399<>

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:242–243, 247, 251–252, 255–263, 267, 269–270

blood cell morphology 3:77, 80–81

blood chemistry 3:28, 31

chondrocranium 11:70–71

dentition 1:167–168

ear 2:240–241, 245–246, 267, 271

eye 2:13, 27, 30

internal relief of gut 6:177

jaw muscles 4:289, 368–370, 418, 420, 479

nose 2:120, 132, 139, 178

pituitary 3:136, 145

taxonomic literature 2:320

thyroid 3:205

Cordyliformes 20:137, 150, 152, 157, 169, 171–172, 184, 253–258, 260, 264, 266, 269–271, 273–274, 285<>

Cordylinae, pituitary 3:146, 151, 154<>

Cordylus 7:164, 262, 300, 312, 368, 494–495; 8:64, 632, 680; 9:157, 164, 252, 332, 363; 10:203, 228; 12:253, 457; 15:325, 333, 629; 16:35, 54, 58, 138; 17:605; 18:437; 20:150–157, 356, 299; 21:275, 278, 288, 298, 301, 307<>

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:248, 251–252, 258, 267

blood cell morphology 3:75, 77, 83, 86–87

blood cell numbers 3:96, 98–104

blood chemistry 3:9, 28

cataphractus 20:307; 21:7

chondrocranium 11:70–71

cordylus 18:46; 20:299; 21:7

cordylus niger 18:46

dentition 1:168

ear 2:245–246, 267, 271

eye 2:27–28

giganteus 20:152–154, 157, 299, 307; 21:7

histology of gut 6:273, 288

internal relief of gut 6:177–179, 182, 185, 188

jaw muscles 4:368–370, 479

lymphatics 6:432

nose 2:120

peersi 21:7

polyzonus 20:299

tropidosternum 20:299

Core-shell model of heat transfer (see also Models,<>

energy exchange) 12:279

temperature 5:283, 297, 299, 302, 304, 312, 314–316; 12:20, 279, 317

Corium 9:408, 417<>

Cormorant 5:421<>

Cornea 2:5, 10, 15–17, 20–22, 50–51, 53, 64, 68–72, 75–76, 79, 82–83, 294; 9:342, 378<>

malformation 14:453

Corneal (end of optical axis) 2:2<>

layer (see Cornified layer)

reflex 5:50

segment of eyeball 2:15

water loss 12:445, 453–454, 472–476

Cornet (see Concha)<>

Corniculum triquestrum (see Cornu hyale)<>

Cornification 1:312<>

Cornified layer 2:154, 284, 287, 291, 305–308, 310<>

Cornu<>

anterior (see Cornu hyale)

anterius (see Cornu branchiale I)

branchiale I 4:154, 156, 158–159, 161, 166–167, 170–171, 173–175, 177, 179, 184–186, 188, 191, 310, 427

branchiale II 4:152, 154, 156–159, 161, 170, 173, 175, 177, 179, 184, 430

branchiale II ventralis 4:184

hyale 4:154, 156, 158, 160–161, 166–167, 171, 173, 177, 179, 184

majus (see Cornu branchiale I)

posterius (see Cornu branchiale I; Cornu

branchiale II)

principale (see Cornu hyale)

styloideum (see Cornu hyale)

thyreoideum (see Cornu branchiale II)

Cornua (see Hyoid horn)<>

Corogyps 16:403<>

Coronal artery 6:446<>

Coronary (see Coronoid; Cardiac; Heart)<>

bed 10:36

circulation 19:399–401

collectors 6:446

ligament 19:487

lymphatic sinus 6:446

sulcus 19:378, 405, 413

vasculature 19:399

vein 19:378, 392, 401, 404,409

vessels 19:399, 407

Coronella 5:133; 7:389, 393, 500; 8:691; 9:158, 252, 368; 12:128; 14:617; 15:648–649, 671, 675–676; 16:202; 19:202, 230<>

adrenal 3:281

austriaca 18:164, 470; 19:147, 152, 158, 164, 202; 20:636

axial muscles 11:357

blood cell morphology 3:78, 84–85

blood cell numbers 3:97, 99

coccinea 20:640

dentition 1:180–181

doliata 20:640

ear 2:272

eye 2:52–53, 55, 61–62, 92

getulus 20:640

girondica 19:202

histology of gut 6:252, 272, 278

internal relief of gut 6:193, 209

jaw muscles 4:482

muscle tissue 11:274, 336

nose 2:121

regularis 20:641

thymus 3:113

urinogenital system 6:23

Coronoid 4:104, 107–108, 112–113, 147, 203, 205, 211, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223, 239–240, 248, 258, 301, 306, 322, 329–330, 333, 359, 365, 374, 388; 11:24, 63–64, 81, 85, 119, 129, 133, 135, 157, 175, 178–179, 184, 220, 231, 244; 20:25, 35–37, 62, 74–76, 78, 89–91, 102–104, 112, 114, 116, 127, 130, 136–137, 148–150, 157–159, 164, 166, 172, 174, 182, 184, 186, 193, 195–196, 208–209, 216–217, 224, 226, 232, 235, 239, 241, 247, 249, 268, 272, 274, 276, 287, 456–357, 369, 375, 377–379, 383, 385, 389, 391, 400–401, 409–410, 412–413, 418–419, 423, 425, 430, 433–435, 441, 443, 447, 452, 459, 461, 465, 468, 471, 474, 479, 481, 487, 493, 531, 579; 21:602–604, 608–610<>

-adductor pocket 20:592

aponeurosis (see Fibrous cushion of mandibular

adductor tendon)

bone 21:605, 609–611, 614

crest 20:452

flange 20:156

process 4:104, 108–109, 114, 118, 240, 303, 306, 315, 317–318, 323–325, 333–334, 344, 350, 354, 356–357, 366–367, 369, 371–372, 374, 378–379, 382, 389–393, 395, 400–401, 404, 408–411, 439; 11:135; 20:36, 44, 46, 74–75, 78, 89, 91, 104, 114, 126, 157, 166, 186, 194, 249, 273, 277; 21:568

process of compound bone 20:412, 418, 423, 430, 444, 481, 487, 493, 522, 533, 550

recess 20:15, 25, 36

tuberosity 4:131

Corpora atretica 13:221<>

lutea 13:219; 16:359–361, 365–366; 18:361, 364, 367, 369, 376

Corpus<>

adiposum colli 4:165

albicantium 6:99

atreticum 6:82, 96–97, 102–104, 119–120

carinatum (see Corpus hyoidei)

hyoidei 4:154–156, 158–160, 168, 172, 174, 177, 179–180, 184–185, 189, 309, 446

luteum 6:1, 82–83, 96–104, 120–121; 14:341– 342; 15:579–581, 585, 587, 589, 591, 594

luteum falsum (see Corpus atreticum)

vascularity 6:98–100

of stomach 6:165, 218, 241–265, 267, 270–272, 301, 413–414

ossis hyoidis (see Corpus hyoidei)

Corpuscles (see Blood cells)<>

Corsochelys 9:57, 72–74<>

Cortex<>

ablation, effect on learning in reptiles 7:602, 637

cerebral 10:259–260, 272, 274, 276

dorsal 10:178, 253, 260, 262, 265, 270, 280, 294, 298, 303, 309, 311, 313, 316, 318–319, 321–323, 325, 327–328, 332; 18:441, 444

dorsomedial 10:328; 17:656

general (see Cortex, dorsal)

hippocampal 10:324; 17:189

lateral 10:253, 260–262, 265, 280, 294, 305–307, 309; 18:441

medial 10:253, 260, 262, 265, 280, 294, 303, 305–309, 328; 17:621–622, 627; 18:443

mediodorsal 10:318

of adrenal (see Interrenal tissue)

of adrenal gland 6:119

of bone 1:51, 73

of embryonic gonad 15:265, 269, 272, 276

of gonad 6:49–51

parahippocampal 10:328

paravermal 17:564

pyriform 10:260, 265, 324; 17:627

visual 17:296, 332, 342

Cortical<>

arousal response 8:477

bone 1:46–47, 75

canals 1:62

lamination 1:52, 67

stratification 1:65

Corticoid biosynthesis 8:517<>

Corticosteroids 3:264, 267, 311; 5:393–394, 430, 470, 480; 14:347–348, 640; 19:516, 519<>

Corticosterone 3:32; 12:371; 13:93–94; 18:340, 345–347, 365<>

Corticotoxin I 8:476<>

Corticotropes 14:686, 688, 691, 702, 709–710<>

Corticotrophic hormone 3:157, 222, 310, 332<>

Corticotrophin 5:394<>

Corticotropin 6:115; 14:702, 709<>

-releasing factor (CRF) 17:65, 72, 103, 159, 613

Cortisone 3:311<>

Corucia 9:339; 15:325, 638, 671; 16:141, 257; 20:53, 59, 63, 140; 21:338, 397<>

axial skeleton 1:269

zebrata 20:297

Corvus 16:13, 403<>

Coryophophylax subcristatus 20:294<>

Corythophanidae 21:12, 76, 95, 144–145<>

Corythosaurus, nose 2:152–153<>

Corytophanes (incorrectly Corythophanes) 7:272, 299, 360, 476; 15:329, 631, 669, 674; 16:30, 64, 129, 139, 257; 20:41, 47, 81, 83–84, 87–88; 20:92<>

axial skeleton 1:269

cristatus 20:47, 291

dentition 1:156

ear 2:270

eye 2:26, 28, 30–31

hernandesi 20:47, 291, 304

internal relief of gut 6:177, 179–180, 182–183

percarinatus 20:83, 291

Corytophaninae (corytophanine iguanians) 20:41, 43, 45, 79, 82–83, 85–87, 90, 304<>

Cost(s)<>

and benefits 12:28, 31, 37, 42, 47, 50–58, 63, 144; 13:177–179, 193, 233

of breathing 19:39, 66, 308

evolutionary 19:138

of oxidation 19:310–311

of transport (see also Locomotion) 21:56

of ventilation 19:306–312

Costa Rica 2:321; 16:7<>

Costal<>

articulation 11:374, 390

bone 1:224, 320–323, 330, 332, 336–337

breathing 14:438

buttress 1:224

cartilages 21:64

head 11:360, 378, 431

plate (see also Pleural plate) 11:369–371

shield (see Pleural shield)

sinus 6:321, 329–330, 352, 399–403

Costocoracoideus 21:212<>

Costo-vertebral articulation 1:206, 296<>

Cosymbotus 7:466; 8:680; 16:513; 18:494; 21:396<>

ear 2:271

platyurus 18:494

urinogenital system 6:63, 105

Cotton 8:633<>

Coturnix<>

chondrocranium 11:39

coturnix 18:79, 88

Cotyle 1:205–206, 210, 217, 222, 229, 233, 245–246, 250, 274, 284, 286, 290<>

Cotyloid cavity 21:147<>

Cotylorhynchus 9:297–298, 300<>

Cotylosaur(s) 9:57, 65, 138, 296; 14:151, 660; 15:337; 17:220; 21:181<>

Cotylosauria 7:6<>

axial skeleton 1:203

bone 1:70–71

chondrocranium 11:226, 246

dentition 1:127, 150–151

nose 2:183

origin and evolution 1:7

Counter<>

-current heat exchange 5:375

-current recycling of water 12:291

mechanisms 5:10

Coupled enzyme system 5:67<>

Coupling 18:253, 258, 278<>

coupled multioscillator system 18:245, 271

coupled oscillators 18:242, 247

coupled system 18:249

Courtship (see also Mating; Pseudosexual behavior;<>

Sexual behavior) 14:209, 216, 338–339, 355, 496–497; 18:26–27, 40–41, 46, 49, 424–426, 467

behavior (see also Stereotyped behavior) 18:115, 119, 124–125, 132, 137–138, 143–153, 156–158, 165, 170–173, 175, 182–183, 185–186, 188–190, 192, 194–197, 202, 204

by females 18:355

female initiation 18:483

inhibiting pheromone 18:158

pheromone 18:202, 204

she-males 18:483

Covariance 5:146, 152<>

Coverable badge hypothesis 18:333<>

Cow(s) 5:338; 8:511<>

Cowles and Phelan hypothesis, trigger mechanism 18:475, 495<>

Crabs 5:428; 12:354, 356; 20:554<>

Crampton’s muscle 2:16, 18–19, 21–22, 70<>

Crane 14:7<>

Cranial<>

adductor tendon 4:131–134, 136, 139, 146

cavity 2:12, 203, 237–239, 246–248; 11:4, 11, 23–24, 26, 62, 83, 105, 128, 131–132, 134, 155, 158, 163, 168, 174, 187–188, 201, 220, 223, 242; 20:422, 449

-cerebral relation 9:1–38

flexure 14:129, 290, 386, 388, 432, 456

indices 4:207–208

kinesis 4:288–291, 311, 313, 3155–317, 326, 339–340, 361, 407, 413, 420–421, 434; 11:4, 7, 58, 64, 100, 101, 107–108, 125, 135, 159–162, 164, 175, 178, 198–199, 227, 245–246; 20:367

measurements 4:206–207

muscles 11:5, 7, 9, 228

nerve(s) (see also Nerves; Nuclei) 9:9–17, 55, 183; 11:136, 160, 183, 217, 220, 223; 14:136, 309, 417, 432, 434, 495, 514

neural crest 20:7

pancreatic collectors 6:427

pulmonary collector 6:434

rib 11:222, 238

suture 20:8, 62, 252, 590

sympathetic nerves 2:11–12, 147, 177, 197

table 21:504

water loss 12:473–475

Cranio-quadrate passage 4:204–205, 211, 214, 217, 219, 221, 226, 255–257; 11:30, 215, 219, 242; 21:511, 518<>

Cranio-vertebral joint 11:3–4, 29, 36–39, 56, 121, 144, 180, 213, 226, 238, 241, 245–246, 367<>

Craniocervical<>

foramen (external foramen for exit of the

craniocervical trunk carrying glossopharyngeal

vagus, and hypoglossal components) 20:525, 527, 529

hinge (see Cranio-vertebral joint)

trunk 20:567

Craniofascial<>

abnormalities 14:421, 452, 456, 458–460

development 14:8, 332

Craniosacral region 10:2<>

Cranium 9:1–3; 19:94<>

Crassostrega 13:260<>

Crayfish 12:229<>

Creatine phosphate 5:187; 11:309–310; 13:72, 177, 194<>

Creatinine phosphate 5:193<>

Crenadactylus 7:293–294, 466; 21:133, 396<>

Crenation 8:489<>

Creosote bush 5:170<>

Crepuscular habits 2:22<>

Crest (on dorsal surface of skull) 2:152–153<>

Cretaceous 4:265–267, 270, 280; 5:143, 395; 20:594–595<>

fossil 20:353, 368

reptiles 15:340

Cribriform plate 20:490<>

Cricoid cartilage 4:176–177, 181, 191; 11:79<>

Cricosaura 20:L158, 160–162, 299<>

Cricothyroid muscle 3:341<>

Crigler-Najjar syndrome 19:516<>

Crimea 2:322<>

Crisantophis 16:144; 19:229<>

Crista 10:215<>

alaris 20:31, 126, 128, 135, 137, 164, 216, 272

alaris basisphyenoidea 20:164, 166

circumfenestralis 20:376, 382, 384, 390, 398, 426, 432, 438, 458, 463, 478, 484–485, 525, 563; 21:486

circumfenestralis dorsalis 21:486, 490–491

circumfenestralis ventralis 21:486, 490, 492, 496

cranii 20:16, 26, 40, 67, 74, 82, 116, 118, 128, 131, 136, 140, 142 149, 152, 158, 160, 165, 168, 173, 176, 185, 188, 194, 196, 200, 208, 211, 217, 220, 225, 229, 234, 236, 240, 243, 247, 253, 283

cranii frontalis 4:232, 257

cranii parietalis 4:232, 257

interfenestralis 20:34

parietalis inferior 20:108

parotica 4:318; 11:12, 15, 25, 28, 32, 34, 45–47, 52, 54–57, 59, 63, 66, 76, 93, 98, 101, 110, 115, 149, 192, 196, 198, 204, 209, 211, 213, 222, 226, 233, 238–239; 20:11–12, 21, 33, 203, 364; 21:473, 491

prootica 20:28, 31, 72, 75–76, 91, 104, 113, 115, 126, 128, 135, 137, 147, 156, 158, 164, 166, 174, 183, 186, 193, 195, 206, 209, 216–217, 222–223, 225, 234, 239–240, 246, 248, 272, 276, 278, 282; 21:480–481, 484, 523

sellaris (see also Dorsum sellae) 9:2–3, 5, 8; 11:12–13, 15, 23, 41, 43–44, 52, 56, 62, 66, 74, 76, 115–116, 138–140, 144, 150, 166, 173, 194, 205–206, 213, 216–217, 223–224, 229–231; 14:125–126; 20:10, 27, 29

semicirculars 2:103

tuberalis 20:28, 34, 76, 88, 101, 147–148, 156, 163, 172, 182, 186, 192, 196, 206, 216–217, 223, 226, 232, 234, 239–240, 272

ventralis of cartilago thyreocricoidea 4:192

ventrolateralis 20:28, 30, 76, 88, 172, 272

Cristae<>

of mitochrondria 2:33, 307, 309, 311–312, 314; 3:318, 338, 340–341; 6:48, 111, 260

trabeculares 20:30

Cristinus 20:118, 126, 295<>

Critical<>

distance 17:381

maximum 12:19

minimum 12:18

minimum temperature 13:54

oxygen tensions 5:191, 193–194

thermal limits 5:166

thermal maximum 12:20, 32–33, 38, 70–72, 235; 18:259–260, 263

thermal maximum temperature 5:30–31, 33, 36, 165–166

thermal minimum(a) 5:165; 12:20, 32–33, 70–72; 18:261

Crocodile 10:207<>

Crocodilia 5:2, 8, 10–11, 19, 22–23, 37, 39, 41–42, 44, 50, 52–53, 62–64, 69, 72, 91, 93, 95, 97, 99, 101–103, 126, 136, 151–152, 154–156, 180, 191–194, 229, 235–236, 249, 254, 259, 264, 275, 277, 289, 292, 297, 303, 307, 310, 318, 327, 337, 342, 365, 367–368, 373, 377–379, 381, 383–384, 386, 393, 436, 449, 451–453, 455, 463, 466, 468, 472–473, 475, 478, 481, 483, 486, 488, 490–491, 496; 7:6, 52, 228–240, 400–403, 456, 506–507, 557, 570, 596–597, 603–604, 631–632, 634, 636, 642–645, 656; 8:3, 46, 49, 55, 59, 69, 144, 151, 377–378, 589, 596–597, 612, 622–623, 628, 632, 635–638, 659, 661, 667, 674–676; 9:2, 4, 7–9, 11–12, 14, 18–19, 23, 26–27, 34, 43, 54, 56–58, 66, 79, 81, 98, 102, 121, 135, 137, 148, 164–165, 220, 235, 237, 240, 248, 252, 304, 371, 408–409, 417, 424; 14:7, 10, 13, 16–17, 20, 27, 32, 44, 48, 56, 62, 69, 120, 200, 331–462, 528–529, 536, 559–560, 585, 587, 604–606, 609–611, 617–618, 636, 641, 643, 654, 660–661, 664, 712, 714; 15:392, 607; 21:504, 598<>

adrenal 3:267, 271–274, 284–288, 292, 294–295, 303–304, 309, 312

artificial propagation 7:240

axial muscles 11:356, 363, 372–375, 423–424, 426, 428–429

axial skeleton 1:203–207, 209, 225–234, 246, 254, 299–301

blood cell morphology 3:73, 79, 81–85

blood cell numbers 3:96

blood chemistry 3:1–2, 6, 11, 13–14, 17–18, 20–21, 25–26, 28, 31, 34–36, 45, 49–50, 53

bone 1:47, 50–61, 66–67, 71, 74

chondrocranium 11:2, 4, 8, 11, 19–20, 23, 31, 37–39, 61, 105, 118, 120, 123, 174, 191–193, 201, 205, 216, 221–223, 227–246

decline of 7:238–240

dentition 1:118–119, 124, 126, 129, 131, 133, 135, 147, 164, 185–186

ear 2:232–234, 259–263, 270, 272

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:84–90, 101, 107–108

extinct 14:450

eye 2:73–79, 81–85, 90, 92

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:101–199

histology of gut 6:226–232, 234–235, 243–244, 255, 269, 272–274, 276–277, 279–280, 296, 301

internal relief of gut 6:212–218, 221

jaw muscles 4:289, 293, 357, 415, 417

lymphatics 6:316–317, 319, 324, 337, 343, 346, 354, 358, 375–381, 396, 413, 424, 452–453

muscle tissue 11:336

nose 2:100–104, 144–152, 154, 159–160, 164, 166–169, 172–174, 177, 179

origin and evolution 1:1–4, 7–8, 39

pancreas 3:322, 329

parathyroid 3:243–245

pituitary 3:135–136, 140, 143, 145–146, 148– 149, 151, 154, 158, 160, 165, 190–193

shell 1:311–312

skull 4:201–284

status worldwide 7:238–239

taxonomic literature 2:319, 321, 323

thymus 3:115–118

thyroid 3:203, 228

urinogenital system 6:8, 11–12, 17–18, 20–21, 27–29, 31, 36–37, 43, 52, 71, 78, 97, 105, 120

Crocodilian(s) 10:5, 7–8, 16, 24, 29–30, 37–38, 44, 100, 137, 203, 210, 212, 217–219, 221–222, 225, 227, 239–241, 282, 293, 328; 12:33, 93, 135–136, 142, 172–173, 185–190, 223–224, 287, 326, 333, 344, 359, 362, 367–368, 397, 401–402, 404, 424, 493; 13:2, 4–5, 11, 18–19, 21, 23, 28, 32, 56–57, 67, 74–75, 102, 205, 209–211, 218, 262, 279–282, 290–294, 303; 21:38, 174, 185, 197, 251, 260–261, 280, 293, 365, 386, 482<>

antipredator mechanisms 16:9, 16, 18, 27–28, 56, 58, 66, 129–130, 135–136, 244

eggs and embryos 16:525, 528–529, 531, 544–545, 562–563, 566–569, 574

life history 16:335

nests 16:533, 541–544, 554, 556, 558–550

parental care 16:278–283, 296, 301, 307–398, 310, 313, 315

predation on 16:10–12, 27, 60, 113

sex determination 16:353, 551–553, 583–585

Crocodilidae 5:192, 366, 380, 436, 458, 468<>

Crocodilurus 7:490; 16:249; 20:181<>

Crocodilus (see also Crocodylus) 17:185<>

Crocodylia 19:2, 5, 11, 20, 29, 34–37, 39, 41, 46, 63, 66, 71–74, 297, 376–377, 379, 386, 390–399, 402–403, 426, 435, 437–442, 452, 455, 463, 468, 474, 487–488, 504, 507–508, 513, 544, 547, 557, 577–578, 580<>

cardiac anatomy and function 19:392–398, 429–430

cardiac shunting 19:437–440, 458–459

spleen 19:557–559

Crocodylidae 9:252<>

axial muscles 11:356

blood chemistry 3:28, 31, 49

chondrocranium 11:228–245

ear 2:270, 272

eye 2:92

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:130, 184

internal relief of gut 6:212

pituitary 3:136, 141, 143–144, 158, 174, 190–191

skull 4:202, 212, 222, 226, 230, 232, 234, 241, 275, 279–280

Crocodylinae<>

axial skeleton 1:226–227, 229

dentition 1:185

internal relief of gut 6:212–213

Crocodylus 5:136, 155, 183, 254, 259, 347, 366–367, 384, 389, 436, 452–454, 458–460, 466, 468, 473, 475, 477–478; 7:52, 101, 114, 157, 228–234, 238–240, 402–403, 507, 634, 636, 668; 8:55, 377, 607–609, 646, 661, 676; 9:12, 16, 33–34, 44, 46, 50, 83, 252; 10:10, 15–16, 23, 29–30, 34, 37–38; 12:136, 142, 185–189, 327, 337, 344–345, 359, 363–366, 368–370, 375, 379, 382–383, 408, 427, 459, 470, 473; 13:9, 15, 23, 34, 56, 121, 278, 280, 289, 292–293, 307, 309–310; 14:10, 331–333, 335–337, 340–342, 344, 347–350, 352, 354–355, 357, 359–360, 362, 375, 377, 381–386, 388, 390, 392, 394–397, 404, 406, 411, 413, 416, 419–421, 427, 434, 436, 440, 442–446, 450–451, 456–457, 559, 603; 15:151, 179, 393; 16:6, 9, 11, 18, 27, 56, 113, 127, 134, 136, 280–281, 300–301, 303, 528, 533, 541, 551; 19:56, 82, 474<>

acutus 18:203; 19:34, 36, 82

adrenal 3:284–285, 287, 291, 298, 301–305, 308–309

americanus 19:34

axial muscles 11:356, 375

axial skeleton 1:228, 230–233

blood cell morphology 3:78–79, 81, 84

blood cell numbers 3:103

blood chemistry 3:6, 11, 43, 49–50

bone 1:60, 64

chondrocranium 11:14, 228–240, 242–243

dentition 1:135, 185

ear 2:270, 272

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:84, 90

eye 2:74

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:130, 133, 136, 139, 143–145, 147–149, 184–185, 188, 191, 193

histology of gut 6:22, 236, 238, 246, 252, 255, 267, 277–280, 287, 296

internal relief of gut 6:212–214, 216

jaw muscles 4:417

johnsoni 19:392, 397, 419

lymphatics 6:326, 342–343, 347, 354, 359, 380–381, 419

niloticus 19:34–36, 43–44, 49, 51–55, 57–58, 71, 82, 392, 419, 438, 519, 526, 546–547, 580

nose 2:144, 147–150, 165, 167–168, 170, 174, 177, 179

novaeguineae 19:392, 419

parathyroid 3:243, 245–246

pituitary 3:141, 144–145, 155, 190–192

porosus 18:199, 312; 19:34, 36, 82, 351, 357, 390–392, 394, 397, 419, 438, 442, 454, 458, 462, 475, 560, 580

rhombifer 18:203

skull 4:201–202, 204–209, 212, 222–223, 227, 229, 231–232, 236, 238–239, 241–243, 245–246, 250–258, 268, 270

thymus 3:115

urinogenital system 6:5–6, 13, 17, 23, 27–28, 36–37, 45, 47, 58, 70, 98

Crocuta 16:6<>

Cross<>

-bridges 11:298, 302, 306, 309, 312–314

-infection 5:24

-reactivity 8:342, 344, 360–362, 370–371, 561, 575–577

-striation 3:124

Crossobamon 16:260<>

Crossopterygia(n) 9:290; 17:216<>

Crossopterygii 19:46, 564–565<>

chondrocranium 11:4, 198, 239

eye 2:79

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:102, 114

origin and evolution 1:22

Crotactin 8:232, 474, 507, 520<>

Crotalaria 19:517<>

Crotalidae (see also Viperidae) 19:513–514<>

dentition (see also Crotalinae) 1:173, 178, 183

Crotalinae 5:6; 8:8, 32–38, 46, 117, 151, 349, 358, 441, 626, 664, 695–696; 9:163, 414; 19:133, 139, 220; 20:491, 494–496, 498, 500, 504, 506, 509–514, 518, 520, 586, 611; 21:509, 565<>

axial skeleton 1:285

blood cell morphology 3:78

blood chemistry 3:28, 31, 34, 50–51

dentition 1:183

eye 2:61–62, 92

internal relief of gut 6:193

jaw muscles 4:423, 457

parathyroid 3:248

pit organs 2:278–288, 291–297

pituitary 3:136, 145–146, 148, 150–151, 153–154, 194–195

taxonomic literature 2:322

urinogenital system (see also Viperinae) 6:83

Crotaline 10:169, 225–226<>

braincase 20:507–508

maxillae 20:517

Crotalini 19:220<>

Crotalus 5:38, 45–46, 133, 148–149, 200, 386, 461, 488, 491; 7:70, 116, 204–205, 207, 217–222, 225–226, 384, 389, 392, 394, 506, 594; 8:9, 36–37, 98–99, 101–102, 119, 124–125, 129–131, 139, 167, 169–170, 172, 174–180, 183–194, 197, 228–232, 234–235, 238, 241, 243–244, 246–248, 250–251, 254–257, 259, 261–263, 265–284, 286, 288–291, 293–294, 297, 307, 311–313, 315, 317, 320, 322, 324–329, 331, 333, 337, 340, 347–352, 358–360, 366, 372, 377, 379, 441, 446–449, 451, 453, 461, 464, 467, 469–471, 474–478, 481, 483–485, 491–494, 498–499, 501, 506–509, 511, 514, 517, 519–520, 524, 526–529, 611, 615–616, 646, 655, 664, 696; 9:413; 12:132–133, 144, 202, 251, 331, 351, 417, 464, 475; 13:60, 62, 78–79, 82, 84, 86, 89–91, 97–98, 101–102, 104–105, 108–109, 112–113, 115–117, 119–121, 123, 125–127, 129–133, 178, 181, 204, 209, 212, 292, 308, 310–311; 14:553, 666; 15:46, 582, 658; 16:7, 13, 16, 18, 23, 39, 45–48, 61, 64, 66, 69, 122, 127, 130–131, 152, 197, 199, 350, 483–485, 521; 17:6, 191, 204, 276, 371, 386, 392, 394–395, 398, 400, 402, 408, 414, 416, 419–420, 424, 426, 428–434, 436; 18:124, 159, 433, 436–437, 476, 489, 492; 19:125, 134, 137, 148, 156–157, 192, 220, 475; 20:359, 488, 496, 500, 510, 517, 616<>

adamanteus 8:35, 98–100, 167, 170, 172, 175–176, 178–182, 185, 187–191, 193–194, 228–231, 234–236, 238, 241–243, 246– 247,251, 255–257, 259, 261, 263, 265–266, 268–269, 271–284, 286, 289, 291, 293, 297, 307, 312–313, 315, 317, 326, 328–329, 331, 333, 337, 340, 348, 350, 352, 360, 379, 446, 451, 454, 464, 467, 471, 476–478, 481, 484, 494, 499, 507–509, 514, 528, 664; 18:487; 19:114, 163, 191, 428; 20:613

adrenal 3:281

aquilus 20:613

atrox 8:36, 98–100, 124–125, 169, 172, 174, 178, 181, 184, 187, 190–191, 193–194, 246–248, 251, 262–263, 265, 269, 273, 286, 297, 307, 317, 320, 322, 324–326, 328, 331, 337, 340, 347–348, 350, 352, 359, 366, 372, 377, 446, 454, 464, 476–478, 483–485, 519, 524, 611, 664, 696; 18:159–160, 163, 258, 487, 491; 19:127, 152, 163, 191, 350–351, 356; 20:498, 510, 512, 613

axial muscles 11:357, 398

basiliscus 8:36, 172, 229, 251, 297, 317, 326–327, 329, 337, 340, 348, 350, 446; 19:152, 163, 191; 20:613

blood cell morphology 3:78

blood cell numbers 3:97, 99

blood chemistry 3:6, 11, 26, 51

catalinensis 8:36; 19:191

cerastes 8:36, 100, 347, 351, 372, 446; 18:159, 312; 19:127, 163, 191; 20:518, 613

dentition 1:176

durissus 8:36, 100, 124–125, 130–131, 139, 169–170, 172, 174–175, 179, 186–187, 189–191, 194, 197, 228, 230–232, 246–247, 251, 263, 267–271, 274–284, 290–291, 294, 297, 307, 311, 315, 317, 326, 328, 337, 340, 347–348, 350–352, 358–359, 366, 378, 446, 448–450, 453, 461, 464, 467, 469–470, 474–475, 478, 485, 492–493, 498, 506–508, 511, 514, 520, 526–527, 664; 19:123, 163, 191, 356; 20:613, 615

ear 2:270, 272

enyo 8:36; 18:486, 489; 19:127, 163, 191; 20:613

exsul 8:3619:163

eye 2:61

gloydi 20:614

horridus 8:36, 100, 169–170, 172–174, 187, 190–191, 193, 228–229, 235, 251, 257, 263, 297, 315, 317, 326, 328, 331, 337, 348–350, 352, 358–359, 372, 377, 441, 446, 464, 469, 478, 509, 664; 18:47, 135; 19:124, 130, 142, 152, 158, 163, 191; 20:510, 512, 613, 615

intermedius 8:36; 19:163, 192; 20:614

internal relief of gut 6:193–194, 197, 199, 205–206, 208, 210–211

jaw muscles 4:457–458, 482

lannomi 8:36

lepidus 8:36, 348, 350–351; 18:324; 19:163, 192; 20:614

lepidus klauberi 18:491

mitchellii 8:36, 348–349, 351, 655; 18:258; 19:127, 163, 192; 20:614

molossus 8:36, 229, 348, 350, 377; 19:142, 163, 166, 192; 20:500, 614

muscle tissue 11:285, 293–294, 300, 314, 336

nose 2:121–122, 126, 135

pit organs 2:277, 281, 283–284, 287, 295–296, 305

polystictus 8:36; 19:192; 20:614

pricei 8:36; 18:490; 19:163; 20:500, 614

pusillus 8:36; 19:192; 20:614

rhombifer 20:613

ruber 8:36, 98–100, 102, 251, 297, 337, 348, 351, 372, 446; 18:160; 19:127, 163, 192; 20:498, 500, 614

scutulatus 8:36, 100, 124, 190, 192, 229, 234, 348–350, 447; 19:127, 163, 192; 20:614

scutulatus scutulatus 18:159

stejnegeri 8:36; 19:192; 20:614

terrificus 20:613

thymus 3:114, 118, 121, 124

tigris 8:36; 19:142, 163, 192; 20:614

tortugensis 8:36, 655; 19:163; 20:614

transversus 8:36

triseriatus 8:36; 19:163, 192; 20:614

unicolor 8:37; 19:192; 20:500

urinogenital system 6:37, 43, 76, 83, 89, 91, 94–95, 97, 100, 102, 105, 121

vegrandis 8:37

viridis 8:37, 98, 100–101, 119, 125, 129–130, 173, 190–191, 194, 228, 238, 251, 263, 297, 307, 313, 317, 324, 326–328, 340–341, 348–349, 351, 358–359, 372, 377, 447, 467, 511, 615–616, 664, 696; 18:136, 161, 309, 312, 317, 321, 465, 478, 486, 489–490, 492; 19:16, 44, 47, 81, 97, 105, 108, 112, 116–118, 121, 123–124, 127, 147, 163–164, 192; 20:614

viridis lutosus 18:135

viridis oreganus 18:159

viridis viridis 18:53, 122, 130, 134, 463, 478–479, 487, 489, 491

willardi 8:37; 19:163, 192; 20:518, 614

Crotamine 8:187, 189, 228–229, 450, 464, 469, 474, 507, 520<>

Crotaphopeltis 7:227, 384, 500; 8:39, 663; 14:30; 16:119, 145, 233; 19:100, 229<>

blood cell numbers 3:103

braestrupi 19:202

chondrocranium 11:136, 157–160, 185–186

degeni 19:202

dentition 1:180–181

ear 2:272

eye 2:55, 62, 91

hippocrepis 19:152, 202

hotamboeia 8:39, 663; 18:460; 19:152, 202; 20:637

jaw muscles 4:481

rufescens 20:637

tornieri 19:152, 202

Crotaphytidae 21:12, 64, 80, 92, 143, 148<>

Crotaphytinae(ine) 20:79–81, 85–86, 88–90, 269, 304<>

Crotaphytus 5:130, 141–143, 160–162; 7:21, 50, 56–57, 91, 94, 96, 101, 103–104, 114, 165, 168, 170, 174, 176, 178, 182–183, 186, 189, 191, 245–246, 262, 269–270, 272–274, 301–302, 307, 310, 413–414, 432, 453, 476–477, 586–587, 593–594, 624, 637, 644–645, 661–662; 8:682; 9:330; 12:101, 103, 178, 225–229, 289, 460; 13:103, 105, 107, 109, 117, 121, 124, 237, 311; 14:572; 15:329, 343, 374; 16:17, 50, 116, 139, 463–465, 474, 514; 18:382; 20:45, 79–80, 82, 84, 87, 90, 292, 304; 21:65, 76, 78, 88, 145, 152, 184–185, 218, 220, 223, 225, 227–228, 230–231, 235–236, 240, 246, 250, 255, 260, 265, 268, 271, 275–276, 279, 342, 350, 352, 361, 368<>

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:269

bicintores 20:304

blood cell morphology 3:76

blood chemistry 3:9

chondrocranium 11:34, 86, 90

collaris 18:169, 173, 265–267, 328–329, 339, 361–363, 365–367, 377; 19:355; 20:291, 304; 21:7, 54, 92, 190, 220

dentition 1:143, 156

ear 2:195, 265, 270

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:109, 111

eye 2:26, 32, 41

grismeri 20:82, 291

histology of gut 6:255

insularis 18:362; 20:87, 291, 304

internal relief of gut 6:177–180, 182–183, 218

jaw muscles 4:477

muscle tissue 11:278, 317, 336

nose 2:119, 128

reticulatus 21:220

urinogenital system 6:24, 26, 56, 81

vestigium 20:87, 292

Crotapotin 8:178, 233, 453–454, 467, 528<>

Crotoxin 8:178, 180, 232–233, 261, 448–449, 453, 464, 467, 474, 508, 527–528<>

Crown clade snakes 20:352, 367<>

Cruciate ligaments 21:10, 150, 154–155, 157<>

Crural<>

fascia 4:68, 73, 76–77, 79, 96

flexors 21:36

mechanism 21:159, 167

Crurotarsal joint 4:59, 266; 21:170<>

Crus 4:8–11, 96; 21:19, 22–23, 39, 41–42, 49, 53–54, 136, 153, 156–157, 159, 161–163, 166, 171, 177–178, 182, 191, 200, 205, 321, 325, 328, 331, 334–335, 349, 351, 353, 356, 362, 364–366, 368–371, 373–374, 376, 380–382, 384<>

Crushing teeth 1:5, 9, 12 121 153, 164, 166, 192<>

Crustacea, regeneration 15:303<>

Crustaceans 5:344; 8:618<>

Cryophis 19:229<>

hallbergi 19:202

Crypsis (see Antipredator mechanisms; Coralsnake<>

mimicry; Mimicry)

Crypt 19:7<>

Cryptoblepharus 7:313; 16:516; 21:397<>

khasiensis 21:265

Cryptobranchus, urinogenital system 6:3<>

Cryptodelma, axial skeleton 1:267<>

Cryptodira 9:72; 19:19, 68<>

axual muscles 11:362–368, 370–371, 423–424, 426, 428

axial skeleton 1:210–211, 213–219, 222, 224–225

blood cell morphology 3:75

blood chemistry 3:48, 50

chondrocranium 11:205–235

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:105, 107,117

internal relief of gut 6:160–161

limbs 4:2, 7–8, 26, 28, 30–31, 35, 39, 47, 53, 55, 58, 70, 72, 75, 79, 84–85, 88–90, 94

origin and evolution 1:2, 8

pancreas 3:322

pituitary 3:136

shell 1:334

Cryptolycus 19:225<>

nanus 19:202

Cryptophidium 19:101<>

Cryptophis 8:19; 15:654; 16:149, 520<>

nigrescens 8:19

pallidiceps 8:19, 290; 20:626

Crypts of Lieberkühn 6:274, 277, 280, 283, 287, 302<>

Crystalloid 6:70<>

Crystals of cosinophilic granules 3:127<>

Ctenablepharis 15:631, 669, 674; 20:80, 84, 86, 90<>

adspersa 20:84, 292

Ctenochasma<>

dentition 1:189

eye 2:80

Ctenochelys, shell 1:325, 328<>

Ctenophorus 21:190, 363<>

caudicinctus 21:191

clayi 21:191, 396, 398

cristatus 21:54, 191

decresi(i) 20:294; 21:191

femoralis 21:191, 396

fordi 21:191

gibba 21:191

isolepis 21:191

maculatus 21:191

maculosus 21:191.

nuchalis 19:22, 41, 48, 78, 350–351, 355; 21:191

ornatus 21:191

pictus 21:191

rufescens 21:191

scutulatus 21:191

Ctenosaura 5:11, 37, 170, 347, 420, 423, 429; 7:50, 270, 274, 303, 305, 309, 311, 477; 8:607, 649–650, 656–657, 682; 9:77; 10:82, 84, 122, 317, 325; 12:101, 177, 179, 330, 376, 384; 13:290, 309, 311; 14:641, 662; 15:330, 348; 16:29, 126, 134, 139, 251, 256, 260, 461, 464–465, 514; 17:596; 20:6, 45, 58–59, 79–84, 87, 89–90, 292; 21:87, 218, 220, 223, 279, 294, 301, 361, 480, 515, 569, 597<>

acanthura 19:22, 78; 20:304; 21:7

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:263, 270

blood chemistry 3:4, 9, 13–14, 17

chondrocranium 11:86, 88, 90

dentition 1:128, 155–156

ear 2:194, 265, 270

eye 2:6, 8, 14, 63

hemilopha 19:22, 78, 460; 20:305

histology of gut 6:278

internal relief of gut 6:177–179, 181, 186, 188, 220–221

jaw muscles 4:315–316, 319–325, 368, 414, 419, 477

nose 2:119, 128, 178

pectinata 18:273; 20:77, 292

similis 19:338, 355; 20:292

Ctenotus 7:69, 73, 492; 12:111, 114; 16:52, 117, 141, 464–465, 516; 21:207, 397<>

taeniolatus 21:7

Cuba 2:321<>

Cuboid 21:176, 368<>

Cultriform<>

process 20:7; 21:520, 534

teeth 1:170

Cuneiform 21:368<>

Cuora 7:642–643, 649–650; 8:654, 671<>

amboinensis 18:327

flavomarginata 18:315; 19:547–548, 578

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104, 123, 153

internal relief of gut 6:160, 169

limbs 4:6, 11

shell 1:329

Cupula 2:206–207<>

anterior 21:580

Curare 8:450, 455, 457, 460, 470; 11:286, 329<>

“Curare-like” action 8:356, 455–456<>

Curarized mammals 5:158<>

Cursorial adaptation 21:192<>

Cushing’s disease 18:317<>

Cuspidate teeth 1:121, 150<>

Cutaneous<>

bed 10:37

blood flow 5:8, 380

carbon dioxide 5:249

carbon dioxide elimination 5:247, 249

collectors 6:357–359, 361, 367, 371, 375, 393–394, 396

components 5:372

evaporation 5:374, 376, 388

foramen 4:417

gas exchange 5:80, 249

gland 8:43, 144

innervation 2:278–279

muscles 11:389, 393–394, 423

nerve 11:394, 400, 402, 408

net (see also Subcutaneous lymphatic nets;

Subepidermal lymphatic nets) 6:319, 321, 328–330, 359, 361–362, 364–365, 368–372, 377–379, 387, 389, 391, 399, 403–404, 406

oxygen uptake 5:250

permeability 12:360, 385–386, 399–400, 405–414, 418–419, 425, 430; 13:35

respiration 1:37; 5:365; 12:383, 398–399, 429, 432–433; 13:26–28, 35–40

salt loss 5:388

sodium uptake 5:389

thermal receptors 5:311–312

vascular responses 5:315

vasoconstriction 5:315

vasodilitation 5:312

vasomotor changes 5:82

vein 6:30

vessels 5:315

water absorption 5:388

water barrier 12:400, 414–424, 434

water exchange 5:380

water loss 5:9, 39, 103–104, 249, 372, 378–379, 401, 403, 407, 451, 456; 12:4, 178, 193, 288, 290, 325, 398, 412–414, 445, 449–453; 18:153–154

water uptake 12:287, 325, 398

Cyamella 1:109; 21:150, 153, 156, 161<>

Cyanide 3:46<>

Cyanophily 3:145–146, 148–149, 151–152, 166, 168, 170–172, 174, 185, 187–188, 191; 6:298–299<>

Cyanosis 8:439<>

Cyclagras 5:133, 148<>

gigas 8:39

Cyclanorbis 16:393, 439; 19:404, 417<>

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:154, 156, 180–181

limbs 4:3, 36, 41, 47–48, 50, 66, 78, 80, 85

Cycle(s) 5:70; 12:98, 119, 145, 222–224, 227, 233, 235, 257, 293<>

Cyclemys 14:179<>

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:153, 156

muscle tissue 11:292, 336

Cyclic<>

AMP 6:118; 17:89

changes 5:34, 354

variation 5:35

Cyclocorus 19:233<>

dentition 1:177

ear 2:272

lineatus 19:202; 20:637

nuchalis 19:202

Cycloderma 16:393, 439<>

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:154, 180–181

Cyclodina 20:45, 140, 297; 21:397<>

Cyclodomorphus 21:356, 400<>

Cyclodus 5:132<>

1,2-Cyclohexanedione 8:226

Cyclophiops 19:230<>

doriae 19:202

herminae 20:637

major 19:203; 20:637

semicarinatus 19:203; 20:637

Cyclopia 14:305, 453, 456, 458–459<>

Cyclostomata<>

muscle tissue 11:292

thyroid 3:201

urinogenital system 6:2, 4, 22, 30, 55

Cyclostome(s) 9:18; 12:399; 14:527<>

Cyclotyphlops 19:101<>

deharvengi 20:598

Cyclura 7:101, 114, 477; 8:661, 683; 12:101, 376, 384; 13:290, 292–293, 308–309, 311; 14:330; 16:12, 29, 139, 256, 260, 283, 300, 461, 464–465, 472, 514; 20:58, 81–82, 84, 86, 292; 21:145, 275–276, 361<>

carinada 20:305

cornuta 20:82, 292

dentition 1:155–156

eye 2:6–8, 10, 13, 20, 26

internal relief of gut 6:177–180, 182, 186, 188, 220–221

jaw muscles 4:477

macleayi 20:292

nose 2:119, 128

parathyroid 3:255

Cylindrical teeth 1:150, 154, 157, 161, 163–167, 169–170, 185, 187–188<>

Cylindro-conical teeth 1:120–121, 168, 190<>

Cylindrophiidae 19:116, 151–152, 185, 218; 20:354, 395–396, 399, 416, 418, 421–423, 426–427, 429–430, 443, 563, 585, 602<>

Cylindrophis 7:386, 498; 8:662, 690; 10:204, 222, 229, 241; 12:464; 15:121; 16:10, 38, 40, 143, 202–203, 232–233; 18:437; 19:161, 186, 218; 20:396, 400, 415, 419, 430, 456, 591; 21:474, 476, 484, 488, 500, 502, 507, 512, 528–529, 531, 534, 544–545, 549–550, 553, 563, 565–566, 580, 590–591, 593, 598, 600, 602–603, 605<>

axial muscles 11:357, 398, 402, 417–418

axial skeleton 1:296–297

boulengeri 19:185

chondrocranium 11:178

dentition 1:179

ear 2:268, 271

histology of gut 6:255

internal relief of gut 6:193, 209

isolepis 19:185

jaw muscles 4:288, 423, 426–427, 431–434, 446, 467–470, 480

lineatus 19:185

maculatus 19:152, 185; 20:414, 419, 602; 21:545

pancreas 3:323

ruffus 19:151, 185; 20:414–415, 417–419, 602; 21:545, 603

urinogenital system 6:30

Cymatosaurus, dentition 1:272<>

Cynidiognathus 9:299<>

Cynisca 19:557; 21:624, 635, 644, 648<>

axial skeleton 1:272

kraussi 21:626

leucura 21:626, 731

muscle tissue 11:283, 336

Cynodontia 9:54, 58, 132–133, 299<>

Cynognathus 9:299<>

Cynosuchoides 9:299<>

Cyprinus, muscle tissue 11:291<>

Cyproterone acetate 18:90<>

Cyrtodactylus 8:680; 14:626; 15:416, 429; 16:139, 513; 19:28; 20:117, 121; 21:397<>

anulatus 21:7

khasiensis 21:7

peguensis 21:7

philippinicus 21:7

pubisulcus 20:295; 21:84, 122, 124, 165

pulchellus 19:26, 78

urinogenital system 6:63

Cyrtopodion 21:166<>

scabrum 21:89, 398

Cysteine 6:43; 8:174, 197, 331<>

Cystic duct 3:321; 19:506<>

Cystine 3:329; 6:272; 8:174<>

Cysts in thyroid 3:209<>

Cytochemical tests 5:418<>

Cytochrome(s) 11:283, 309; 19:499<>

b 20:534

C 8:321, 514

oxidase 5:200, 207, 423; 6:231, 249, 252–253, 269, 295

Cytokeratin 19:497<>

Cytokines 19:508, 511<>

Cytology 5:415<>

Cytolysis 8:501–504<>

Cytolysosome (see Autophagosome)<>

Cytomembranes, and ribosome tetramers 14:69<>

Cytoplasm 5:418, 422, 424, 433<>

Cytoplasmic bridges 14:51–52, 59–62, 64<>

evagination 5:415

Cytosine arabinoside 15:134–139<>

Cytosol 19:497–498, 501, 503, 511, 516<>

Cytotoxicity (see also Cardiotoxin) 8:509–513<>

C2d and C2v (see M. constrictor colli)<>

C2md (see M. cervico-mandibularis; M. depressor<>

mandibulae)

C2hv, and C2vd (see M. constrictor colli)<>

C3V (see M. geniohyoideus)

 

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