Biology of the Reptilia: Index M

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M. (see Musculus)

M band 3:124

line 11:269, 275–276, 278, 293–295, 321, 323

Mabuya 5:200, 204; 7:51, 69, 82, 140–141, 167–169, 172–174, 177, 179, 182, 189, 199, 263, 287, 494; 8:687; 9:4, 251, 264, 270, 332, 336, 363; 12:112–114, 462, 471; 13:311; 14:29, 48, 502, 617, 626, 628–629, 695, 712; 15:5–7, 15, 44, 51, 61, 91, 121, 152, 212, 240–241, 325, 348, 365–366, 379–380, 382, 384, 533, 550, 559, 564, 570, 574, 584–586, 594, 608, 638–639, 641–642, 662, 670, 675; 16:118, 141, 266, 462–465, 473, 517; 19:409; 20:138, 142, 144–146, 148, 298; 21:84, 287, 397

axial muscles 11:357, 383

axial skeleton 1:248, 257, 270

blood cell numbers 3:103

capensis 20:298

carinata 19:418; 20:298

chondrocranium 11:19, 65, 67, 69

dissimilis 20:298

ear 2:222, 267, 271

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:92, 100, 102, 111

eye 2:13, 27

jaw muscles 4:360, 362, 420, 478

macrorhyncha 18:189

multifasciata 20:142–143, 145, 298, 307

nose 2:120, 140

punctatus 20:298

quinquetaeniata(us) 18:254; 19:550, 552, 554, 579

urinogenital system 6:70, 72, 97, 99, 110

Macaca 10:93

Machaeroprosopus 9:79

Macrelaps 8:41; 19:220; 20:522, 527

microlepidotus 8:41; 19:195; 20:527, 530, 620

Macrocalamus 19:228; 20:574

ear 2:272

lateralis 19:209; 20:631

Macrocephalosaurs 20:174, 176

Macrocephalosaurus chulsanensis 20:300

Macrochelys (see Macroclemys)

Macroclemys (Macroclemmys) 7:345, 350, 459; 8:55, 660, 670; 9:164; 13:205, 300; 14:87, 91, 101, 104, 165, 179, 181, 190, 195, 212, 223–226, 235; 15:269, 281; 16:9, 25, 27, 212–213, 348, 358, 362, 391, 398, 436

axial skeleton 1:211

blood chemistry 3:40

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:103, 105, 108, 110, 112–114, 124, 153, 162–163, 178–181

histology of gut 6:269

limbs 4:4

shell 1:314, 334

temminckii 19:404, 417

urinogenital system 6:64

Macrocnemis 15:338

origin and evolution 1:7

Macrophage(s) 3:128, 284, 327; 6:46, 77, 97, 103; 14:66, 602, 620, 625, 632, 642, 644; 19:506, 508, 521, 524, 541–542, 549–550, 555–556, 558–559, 561, 568–569

Macrophagy 4:420–421

Macropisthodon 7:501; 9:30; 16:120, 127, 146, 233; 18:122; 19:104, 209, 233, 236

flaviceps 19:209; 20:647

nose 2:179

plumbicolor 19:209; 20:647

rhodomelas 19:209

rudis 19:209; 21:503

Macroprotodon 8:94, 693; 19:230

adrenal 3:281

blood cell morphology 3:78

cucullatus 8:94, 693; 19:209; 20:641

Macrorhineura 21:685

skinneri 21:685..

Macrorhynchus 9:304

Macroscincus 20:138; 21:397

axial skeleton 1:248–249

coctei 20:298

Macrosteatosis 19:503

Macrostomata(atan)(ate)(ous)(y) 20: 362, 395–396, 584–588, 590–592, 595

Macroteiids 19:27

Macrothyreocytes 3:209, 224–225

Macrovipera lebetina 20:618

Macula 2:216

neglecta 2:204–205, 261, 263; 10:215

Macular zone 3:340

Madagascar 2:324

Madagascarophis 8:41; 19:225; 21:605

colubrinus 19:209; 21:494

meridionalis 19:209

Madtsoia bai 20:596

madagascariensis 20:596

Madtsoiidae 20:594–596

Magnesium 3:4–7, 13, 46, 53; 5:36, 58; 12:327–333, 345, 350, 363–364, 366; 13:84–87; 14:315

in eggshells 14:374

ions 8:171, 242, 466, 504

plasma levels 14:341

Mailles 19:8

Main

gastric glands 6:227–231, 244–246, 253–260, 263–265, 267–268, 270–272, 301

gland cells of stomach (see Serous cells)

lymphatic trunk 6:315–357

olfactory organ 18:427–431

Maintenance 13:234–235, 246–247, 256–257

of experimental animals 5:20–22, 26, 49

of life 5:402

processes 5:179

Major member of double cell 2:3, 42, 44–45

single cone (see also Type A2 cone) 2:65–66, 72–73

Malaclemys (Malaclemmys) 5:135, 320, 367–368, 373, 377, 385, 389, 391, 395–397, 415, 420, 440; 7:462; 8:672; 12:327, 334–335, 337, 342, 349, 351–352, 358–359, 364, 375, 379, 426, 429; 13:85–86, 88, 102–103, 119; 14:27, 114, 160, 162, 166, 168, 210, 213–214, 227, 229, 233; 15:251, 263; 16:112, 391, 394, 403, 409, 437, 541; 19:453, 474

blood cell numbers 3:95

blood chemistry 3:8, 15, 41, 43–44

eye 2:72

geographica 19:355

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104, 119, 123

internal relief of gut 6:160, 169, 175, 222

limbs 4:4, 6. 60

muscle tissue 11:315–316, 338

shell 1:319

terrapin 18:28

terrapin tequesta 18:197

urinogenital system 6:94, 106, 116

Malacochersus 14:84, 87, 154, 157–158, 213, 215, 222; 16:26, 126, 135, 392, 400, 439; 18:10

eye 2:68–69

internal relief of gut 6:160, 165, 169

shell 1:321

tornieri 19:66, 77

Malar thorns 20:528

Malaria (see also Pathology) 19:521

Malate dehydrogenase 5:203–204; 6:231, 249, 269, 284; 15:439

Malayemys, blood chemistry 3:42

Malaysia 2:323

Male(s)

combat (see Social behavior and aggression,

combat)

heterogametry 18:76, 78

-identifying pheronome 18:149

mate choice 18:356

maturity criteria 16:354–356

parental care 18:355

reproductive cycles 16:357–358

Malformations (see Developmental abnormalities)

Malic enzyme 5:204

Mallory’s triple connective tissue stain 3:239

Malnutrition 5:26

Malonate 19:498

Malpighian

body 6:2, 9, 11, 14–15, 36, 49

cell (see also Cell) 18:311

corpuscle(s) 3:266–267, 312; 6:3, 11–17, 20, 36, 43, 46, 53; 14:440; 15:155, 164–165, 170–174; 19:541

Malpolon 7:389, 393, 501; 8:41, 91, 94, 663; 10:239; 12:423; 16:120, 146; 19:226, 507

axial muscles 11:357

blood cell morphology 3:84–85

blood cell numbers 3:97

chondrocranium 11:136, 146, 157–160, 164, 168

dentition 1:177

ear 2:272

eye 2:52–53, 63

histology of gut 6:278

internal relief of gut 6:193

insignatus 20:645

jaw muscles 4:482

moilensis 19:209; 20:645

monspessulanus 8:41, 91, 94, 663; 19:158, 209, 505, 525; 20:645

nose 2:179

thymus 3:114

thyroid 3:203, 227

Maltase 3:29; 8:613

Mammal(s) 5:5, 7, 12–14, 20, 28, 30, 50, 52, 69, 82, 97–98, 128, 140, 145, 157–159, 169–170, 174, 182–183, 190, 195–196, 198–199, 206, 208–210, 227–229, 238, 245, 247, 249, 251, 253–256, 259–260, 275, 277, 282, 288, 303– 308, 314, 321–323, 325–326, 346, 366, 383, 387–388, 391, 394, 415, 468, 479, 481–483, 486, 488; 7:13, 29, 72, 187, 600–601, 665; 9:9–11, 14, 19, 26, 39, 59–60, 63, 92, 133, 136, 156, 158, 166–167, 248, 323, 372, 383, 389, 408–409, 419, 422–423, 436; 8:5, 8, 148, 654, 657; 10:1, 3, 7–8, 11, 13–14, 21–22, 24–25, 27, 29–30, 32, 37, 41–42, 44, 63, 74, 77, 84, 91–92, 95, 111, 118, 120–121, 123, 137, 166, 173–174, 178, 181, 183, 185, 187, 191–193, 201, 206, 213, 220, 224, 226, 229, 232, 238, 249–252, 260, 263, 274–276, 278, 281, 292, 294, 296, 299–300, 314–315, 320, 324, 327–328; 12:4–6, 8–10, 61, 94, 168–170, 172, 183, 185, 196, 200, 203–204, 216, 227–231, 235, 237–238, 241, 243–246, 251, 254, 256–257, 259, 280, 340, 353, 364, 385, 399, 401, 404, 409, 415–416, 418, 420, 431, 433–434, 493–495; 13:12–13, 16, 25, 28, 30, 35, 92, 135, 155, 162, 167, 170, 172–174, 182, 188, 192, 241, 275–276; 16:6–7, 10–11, 13, 15–16, 27, 31, 33, 37, 39, 41, 51–53, 57, 60–62, 64, 112, 239, 403–404, 416; 20:374, 495; 21:38, 83–84, 174, 192, 273–274, 322, 327, 331, 334, 336–337, 364–366, 373, 386

amniochorion 14:18

and crocodiles 14:431

appendix testis 14:441

branchial cleft 14:4, 16

castration 15:245

corpora lutea 15:580

cutaneous water loss 14:551

dermis 14:528, 536

development 14:7, 17–18, 20, 501

diaphragm 14:438

enamel protein 14:431

epidermis 14:529

fetus 14:352

genital tubercle 15:240

granulation tissue 14:570

heart 14:437

hemoglobin sequences 14:331

hemopoiesis 14:635

immune system 14:601, 604, 612, 624–627, 631–632, 637, 643, 645, 655, 657, 660, 662, 666

integument 14:530, 549, 559, 587–588

lingual development 14:427

liver regeneration 15:303

malformed embryos 14:352

monocytes 14:609

palatal development 14:331, 424

parental care 14:355

pituitary development 14:711, 714–715

placenta 15:530, 540, 559, 561, 593

plantar surfaces 14:527

pre-implantational arrest 14:199, 202

primordial germ cells 14:43, 46, 48–49

regeneration capacity 15:387

respiration of fetus 14:362

sexual differentiation 15:246

thymus 14:624–626

tongue development 14:427

tooth development 14:431

viviparity 15:529

Mammalia(n) (including commonly named taxa

therein; see also Homo sapiens) 19:2–4, 7, 9, 14, 19–20, 28, 39, 41–42, 44, 46, 48, 50–60, 68–69, 74–75, 107, 116, 120, 302, 308–309, 312, 315–320, 323–324, 328, 330, 332–334, 337, 340, 345–348, 350, 352–353, 376, 397, 399, 401, 426, 429–430, 436, 446, 454, 462–463, 466–467, 473, 486–489, 491, 493, 495–498, 501, 503–504, 506–507, 511, 514–516, 519, 524, 534, 536–544, 547, 568–570, 572, 574–577; 21:504

adrenal 3:263–264, 295–296, 298, 303–304, 309–310, 312, 317–318

axial muscles 11:363–367, 371, 373, 383

axial skeleton 1:203–204

blood 5:344

blood cell morphology 3:86

blood cell numbers 3:94, 100

blood chemistry 3:1, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22–23, 25, 29–30, 32–35, 38, 42, 44–46, 52–53

bone 1:49–50, 53–55, 58–59, 70–71, 74–75

chondrocranium 11:5–6, 8, 10, 21, 23, 27, 29, 31–32, 35, 38, 61–62, 120, 134, 175, 190–192, 208, 223, 234, 241–242

circulation 5:281, 288

coronary circuit 5:309

dentition 1:118–120, 125–126, 129, 134–135, 194

distal tubles 5:473

ear 2:193, 197–198, 201, 205, 210, 261–263

electrocardiograms 5:293

embryos, apical ridge 15:66

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:81, 84–85, 89, 92, 94, 97, 99, 101, 104, 106, 108–109, 111–112

eye 2:17, 19, 53, 81–85, 90

formations 5:55

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:103, 113, 125, 152, 177, 179, 186

histology of gut 6:232, 244, 252, 259, 264, 269–279, 274–275, 277, 280, 283–284, 301–302

kidney 5:394, 494–495, 497

limbs 4:5, 67

lymphatics 6:315–317, 357, 367, 378, 381, 385, 390–391, 412, 414, 424, 429

muscle tissue 11:266–268, 271, 275–277, 279–280, 282–283, 289–291, 294–296, 298–300, 303, 314–317, 323, 325, 328, 330, 333–335

nephrons 5:478

nose 2:100–101, 103–104, 113, 138, 141, 150–151, 153, 156–157, 161–162, 164, 174–175, 180, 183

origin and evolution 1:2

pancreas 3:327–329, 331–332, 338, 341

parathyroid 3:235–238, 254

parathyroid extract 5:483

pes 21:182

physiology 5:74, 100

pit organs 2:279, 282, 286–287

pituitary 3:135, 157, 165, 196

pressoreceptor responses 5:310

proximal tubules 5:469, 498

salivary glands 5:428

secretion 8:7, 91

shell 1:311

skull 4:245, 281

solutions 5:54

thymus 3:111, 117, 121, 124, 126–127

thyroid 3:204, 209, 223

tubule cells 5:467

tubules 5:497

urinogenital system 6:2–3, 8, 13, 21–22, 30–33, 35–36, 44–46, 48, 56, 58, 70, 73, 75, 78, 80, 96, 101, 103–104, 109, 116–118, 120

Mammilary body 12:219, 222, 228

Man (see Human)

Mandible(s) 1:8, 108, 146, 151, 154, 158, 164, 166, 170, 193; 2:198; 3:113; 4:107–108, 110, 112–113, 115, 118, 124, 126, 131–132, 134, 138, 140–143, 145–148, 166, 170, 172, 176–177, 182, 186, 188, 191, 201, 203, 205, 209, 211, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223, 225, 239–241, 243, 245–256, 248, 258, 263, 266, 274, 277, 279, 285–287, 296, 306–307, 315, 317–319, 329, 335, 341–342, 349–351, 355, 363–365, 373–374, 378–379, 382, 391, 393, 396, 405, 407, 409, 411–412, 414–420, 427, 430, 432, 434–443, 446–447, 451, 455, 458, 460, 464, 468, 470; 8:105, 121; 19:118; 20:8, 37, 67, 74, 165, 184, 193, 196, 232, 274, 278, 355–356, 370, 376–378, 383, 385, 394, 399, 401, 407, 411–413, 418, 421, 423, 425, 429, 433–435, 437, 441, 443–445, 452–453, 455, 459, 461, 463, 465, 467, 471, 473–474, 482, 487, 493, 496–497, 501–502, 505–507, 511, 513, 519–521, 523, 530–533, 538–539, 541, 543, 550, 552, 566, 569, 576, 579–582, 586–588, 590–592, 595–596; 21:593, 595, 603–604

development 14:294, 296, 381, 419

Mandibular

abduction 20:592

adductor 21:568

adductor attachment surfaces 20:563

adductor fossa (see Adductor fossa)

adductor muscle (see M. adductor mandibulae)

adductor tendon 4:131–132, 138–139, 145–146, 148, 248

arch 11:3, 12, 30–31, 56–57, 116, 145–147, 199, 222, 232, 238; 14:138, 288, 417, 420, 428, 445, 462; 15:14; 20:12

articulation 2:195, 221, 224–225, 233

canal 11:156

cartilage (see Meckelian cartilage)

collectors 6:385

condyle 4:236–237, 239, 245, 259; 20:487

dental lamina 8:148

depressor space 20:549

foramen 20:74–75

fossa 11:64; 20:357, 401, 413, 418, 430, 481, 487, 493, 519, 531, 550, 580; 21:613–614

fossam (see Adductor fossa)

gland (see Gland, mandibular)

gland of Gabe 8:49–50, 76–78, 80–81

hinge 20:224, 228, 273

kinesis 20:366

musculature 2:227

nerve 2:282, 289, 294; 11:15, 17, 24, 31–32, 64, 68, 106, 124, 127, 129, 131, 150, 153, 156, 160, 181, 185–187, 189–190, 212, 214, 217, 235, 237, 243

process 14:288, 290, 292

raking 20:371, 378, 590

rami 18:192

rami of the trigeminal 21:524

sinus 6:321, 361, 363, 386–387

symphysis 4:118–119, 146, 172, 190, 203, 223, 240–241, 249, 270, 279, 307, 310, 376, 417–418, 420–421, 427, 433, 446, 465; 6:375; 11:31, 47, 57, 63, 135, 147, 162, 184, 195, 204, 207, 220, 226, 238

teeth 8:83

transport mechanisms in colubrids 20:550

trunk 6:319; 21:595

Mandrillus 16:194

Manganese 8:172–174, 243, 245

in eggshells 14:404

Mannitol 5:456

diuresis 5:490

Mannose 19:495

Mann’s stain 3:300

Manolepis 19:226

putnami 19:153, 209

Manometer 5:72, 75–78

fluids 5:75, 78

U-tube 5:72, 77

Manometric systems 5:78–79

techniques 5:129

Mantle layer 9:182, 240

Manuronate 5:61

Manus 21:40, 52, 58–59, 111, 115, 124, 131–132, 135–136, 187, 244, 282–284, 286, 292– 293, 303–305, 311–312, 318–319, 334, 394–395

Marcano’s fluid 3:94

Marginal

bone (see Peripheral bone)

canal (see Longitudinal canal)

cell 6:275–276, 280, 282, 284–286, 288–292, 295, 297, 302

layer 9:179–182

plate (see Peripheral bone)

rim 17:540

shield 1:314–315, 317, 328–330, 333

teeth 1:3, 119, 150–153, 161, 165, 168–170, 173, 179, 190, 193

Margo

inferior 1:202, 277, 284

lateralis 1:202, 229, 284, 285

ventralis (see Margo inferior)

Mariguana, ear 2:271

Marine (see also Sea water) 8:8

algae 5:11, 318, 391

birds 5:413, 436

diets 5:392

environments 5:318, 385, 422

habits 4:265–268

Hydrophiinae 20:532, 534, 552, 675, 679, 684, 686–687

iguana (see also Amblyrhynchus) 20:81–82, 87

invertebrates 5:391

mammals 5:260

reptiles 5:98, 101, 366, 380, 391, 408, 413, 437

snakes 5:431, 438

turtles 5:416, 451–452, 455, 458

Mark-recapture estimates (see Capture methods;

Life history methods; Marking methods)

(substrate) (see also Pheromone) 18:117, 175–178, 202, 205

Marker 5:66, 68–69, 100, 104, 381

Marking methods 16:49, 340–343

Marmoretta 20:252, 259, 264, 268, 273, 279, 285, 287

Maroc 2:324

Marmorosphax 21:397

Marrow cavity 1:84

Marsupialia

eye 2:84

urinogenital system 6:70

Marsupials 14:7; 16:239, 253

placenta 15:540, 584

Martes pennanti 21:336

Maschen 19:8

Masculinization 15:247–248, 251, 276, 280; 18:78–81, 84

Masking 18:250

Mass spectrometer 19:447–448

Masseteric muscle 6:348, 382

Masson-Goldner’s stain 3:283, 297

Masson’s trichrome stain 6:226

Masson’s triple chrome 11:318

Mast cells (see also Basophils) 6:256, 268, 270, 284, 289; 8:500–501, 520–521; 14:602, 623–624

Mastication 4:124–127, 143–149; 8:148

Masticatory cushion 4:305, 318, 324, 335, 343, 351, 361, 391, 405, 411, 416, 419

Masticophis 5:38; 7:205–206, 216–218, 220, 225, 393, 501; 12:129; 13:65–66, 76, 78, 82–83, 96–98, 104, 111, 113, 115–118, 122–127, 129–131, 161, 163, 181–182, 187–188; 15:45; 16:14, 18, 21–23, 53, 120, 131, 146, 483, 519, 534; 19:157, 231

anthonyi 19:209

aurigulus 19:209

bilineatus 19:209

blood chemistry 3:5, 51

flagellum 18:162, 476; 19:209; 20:641

flagellum piceus 18:160

internal relief of gut 6:193, 196, 202, 208

lateralis 19:209

mentovarius 19:209

taeniatus 19:209; 20:641

taeniatus taeniatus 18:135

Masticodryas 5:133, 148; 7:501; 16:146–147; 19:231

bifossatus 20:641

blood chemistry 3:3, 33

danieli 19:209

Match-head epiphyses (see Lappets)

Maternal

antibodies 14:655

behavior 14:10, 21, 342, 353, 355–356

blood

oxygen affinity 15:562–563

urea content 15:566

capillaries 15:551, 556, 558, 575, 626

care (see Behavior, maternal)

influences 18:78–79

inheritance 15:466

Mathematical

analysis 9:150

models 12:227–291

Maticora 7:386, 504; 8:21, 106; 16:150, 202–203, 233; 19:154, 221; 21:602

bivirgata 8:21; 19:196; 20:537

ear 2:272

intestinalis 8:21; 19:196

jaw muscles 4:453–454, 483

Maticorini 19:221

Mating (see also Breeding) 15:39–46; 18:52, 137, 141, 143, 145, 152, 155, 157–158, 167, 169, 172–173, 175, 177–180, 182–184, 186, 188, 190–191, 195, 198, 202, 425, 467

and social hierarchy 14:350

assortative 18:384

balls 16:210

behavior (see also Stereotyped behavior) 7:422–424; 14:272, 340, 342, 355, 496–497; 15:463

blocking 18:53

duration 15:40

evidence for 15:506

female

mate choice 18:341–342, 377, 392

sexual behavior 18:38, 53–55

forced copulation 18:26

head-bobbing 18:194, 383, 426

head-challenge 18:195

head-nodding 18:145–146

hip-sway 18:174

mate 18:147, 156, 158, 172, 249

choice 18:56

mate guarding 18:53, 138, 147

recognition 18:115, 424

mate recognition

mating plugs 18:482

role of nasal chemical senses 18:467

multiple 18:53, 56

systems 18:382

polygynous 18:77

promiscuous 18:77

Matrix

layer 9:177, 179, 181–182, 184–188, 192, 198–199, 211–212, 215, 220, 222–223, 228–229, 231, 235–236, 240

of mitochondria 2:397, 311–312

Maturation of eggs 14:218–219, 342

Maturity (see Life history traits, reproductive

maturity)

Mauremys 7:463, 583, 585, 611–612, 617, 642– 643, 646–648; 8:618–621, 672; 9:306, 317, 319; 10:314; 12:227, 230, 328, 342; 14:9, 81, 83, 90, 92, 95, 106, 110, 112–116, 119, 144, 148, 160, 165–170, 190, 207, 215–216, 219, 221–222, 231, 235, 606, 609–611, 628–631; 15:201, 250, 263; 16:112, 391, 437

axial muscles 11:356

caspica 18:327; 19:545, 547, 549, 578

japonica 18:327, 455; 19:547–548

limbs 4:4

Mauremys (Clemmys) 17:20, 45, 49, 63, 71, 149, 151, 596

Mauritius 20:367

Mauthner cell 10:119

Maxilla 1:12, 18, 119–121, 124, 139, 151–153, 156–170, 172–173, 175–187, 189–193; 2:9, 48, 66–67, 150, 281; 4:116–117, 134, 137–139, 170, 202, 204, 209–210, 212–213, 215–216, 218, 220, 223, 225, 229–232, 234, 241–243, 246–248, 250–251, 254–256, 258, 272–273, 276, 278, 280, 329, 357, 364, 374, 397, 420–421, 436–439, 442, 451, 453, 455; 9:22; 11:17–20, 39, 48–50, 60–62, 68, 72, 79, 81, 84–85, 88, 103, 106, 110–111, 119, 122, 129–130, 133, 142–143, 151–153, 164–165, 170, 176, 179, 181, 184, 209, 212, 218, 231, 233, 235, 237, 244–245; 20:14–18, 23–25, 41, 44, 46, 49, 54, 57, 59, 61–62, 65, 67, 69, 74, 76, 78, 84, 88, 91, 94, 96–98, 101, 104, 106–109, 115, 118, 120–124,128, 130, 132, 134, 136–137, 142–143, 145–146, 149, 154, 158, 160–161, 163, 166, 168, 170–171, 173, 175, 178, 180–182, 185, 188–190, 194–196, 200–202, 204, 206, 208, 211–212, 214, 217, 220–222, 225, 228–231, 233–234, 236–237, 240, 242, 244–248, 252, 257–258, 260, 275, 279, 287, 356–357, 363–364, 367, 369–371, 373, 375–376, 379, 382–383, 387, 389, 391–393, 397–405, 407–412, 414–415, 417, 421–422, 425, 427–429, 431–434, 437–445, 447, 451, 453, 455, 457, 463–465, 467–469, 472–476, 482–483, 485, 491–492, 494–499, 501–517, 522–523, 526–529, 531–533, 536, 538–548, 551, 553–554, 559, 562–564, 566–567, 569, 571–572, 575–577, 587–590, 592, 596; 21:547, 551–552, 558–559, 562–563, 565, 568, 571–572, 581, 585, 587–588, 613

development 14:126, 294, 296

-ectopterygoid joint 20:544, 548

ossification 14:312, 314

Maxillary 21:524

artery 11:35

bone 14:421; 17:368

bulla 4:138

dentition (see Maxillary teeth)

development 20:517

excursions 20:517

foramen 20:442

foramen for suborbital branch of maxillary

(V2) nerve 20:481

lappets 20:17

motion 20:501, 544

movement 20:491

nerve 2:10–12, 50, 74–75, 281, 289, 294; 11:15, 17, 24, 31–32, 68, 79, 103, 106, 122, 124, 127, 129–131, 150, 153, 160, 163, 165, 176, 179, 181, 185–187, 189–190, 212, 214, 217, 235, 237, 243

nerve foramen 20:382, 517

-prefrontal joint 20:572, 574, 589, 611, 615

-premaxillary relationships 20:583

process 2:166, 168; 11:175; 14:290, 292, 401–404, 413–414, 417, 419–422, 459, 713; 20:24

process of palatine 20:357, 402–403, 422, 425, 427, 429, 434, 439, 442, 446, 450, 452–453, 455, 457, 463–467, 469, 472–473, 480–483, 485–486, 512, 514, 527, 531, 540, 542–544, 548, 562, 569, 573, 575, 577

raking 20:394

(V2) ramus of the trigeminal 21:513

rotation 20:496, 508

segments in bolyeriids 20:480

sinus 2:113, 145–146, 150, 174; 14:426

teeth 20:384–385, 400, 412, 417, 428, 440, 444, 460, 467–468, 482, 485, 534, 550, 572–574, 581

tooth 8:3, 83

unit 20:219, 260

vein 2:15, 50; 21:579

Maxillo

-ectopterygoid joint 20:478, 516, 570, 574

-frontal support 1:177

-mandibular ganglion 4:119, 142–143

-palatine contact 20:492

-palatine foramen 21:554

-turbinal 2:103

Maximal activity 5:180, 184, 195–196, 208–209, 297–298, 300

aerobic capacities 5:84

aerobic scope 5:180–181

aerobic speed 13:169, 172

heart rate 5:298, 300, 304

Maximum metabolic rate 5:177, 179

oxygen 5:228, 230, 250

rates of oxygen consumption 5:178

voluntary tolerance 12:19

May-Grüunwald-Giemsa technique 3:74, 82–83, 85, 94

Maze

arrow 7:600–601

Lashley 7:605–606

learning

comparisons among taxa 7:609

effect of ecdysis 7:607

effect of handling 7:603–604

effect of temperature 7:605–606

spatial recall vs. external cue 7:606

studies 7:595–610

Crocodilia 7:596–597, 603–604

Rhynchocephalia 7:598–599, 609

Sauria 7:596–599, 605–606

Serpentes 7:598–599, 606–609

Testudines 7:595–603

Mealworm(s) 5:169; 8:595

Mean

activity temperature 12:19, 22, 32–33, 37, 145

preferred body temperature 18:264

selected temperature 12:22, 38

Measurements of reptilian energy metabolism 5:130

Mecamyline 10:29

Mechanical

response 11:268

stimulation 5:177–178

stresses in skull 11:21, 199

Mechanics 11:298–314

of respiration 5:225

ventilation 5:226, 228

Mechanisms of salt gland function 5:438

Mechanoreceptor(s) 5:322; 9:409, 413, 417, 419, 422, 431, 436; 10:206; 17:323; 19:320

Mechanotransducers 5:83, 103

Meckelian (Meckel’s)

canal (see also Meckelian fossa) 20:481, 519

cartilage 1:142, 145–146; 4:107, 112, 114; 115, 118, 136–138, 148, 223, 239, 241, 250–251, 357; 2:233; 11:10, 12, 15, 17, 24, 30–31, 42, 45–46, 56–57, 59, 63–64, 98, 106, 113, 115– 116, 119, 124, 135–137, 139, 143, 145–148, 151, 156, 162–163, 170, 179, 181, 184, 187, 194–195, 204–207, 211–212, 214–215, 218, 222, 226, 231, 233, 235, 237–240, 243, 246; 14:419, 422; 20:12, 35–37, 377, 412, 430, 444; 21:595, 599–601, 604–605, 608–609, 611, 614

fossa 4:107–108, 112, 114–115, 119–122, 132, 137–138, 142, 147, 223, 239, 241, 248, 258, 357, 374, 388, 392, 417; 20:36, 43, 74, 89, 91, 102–104, 114, 116, 126, 128, 136–137, 148, 150, 158–159, 164, 166, 172, 174, 184, 186, 193, 195, 2–7-208, 216–217, 224, 226, 232, 234–235, 239, 241, 247, 249, 274, 276, 285

groove 20:401, 418, 423, 430, 444, 460, 465, 482, 487, 532, 550; 21:600

Medial

branch of dorsal ramus 11:358

branch of olfactory nerve 2:114, 142, 181

caudal trunk 6:334, 344

centrale 21:10, 119–121, 123

cochlear crest 20:72

column of epaxial muscles (see M. transversospinalis)

ethmoidal branch of ophthalmic nerve 11:15–19, 46, 72, 79, 87–88, 93–94, 96–98, 103, 108, 110, 126–127, 129, 140, 142–143, 165, 176, 179, 208, 232, 235

flange of pterygoid 20:474

foot process of prefrontal 20:439, 445, 447, 453, 464–466, 472–473, 477

foramen for the glossopharyngeal nerve 20:156

forebrain bundle 10:153, 165, 177–178, 192, 253, 269–271, 276, 194, 309

frontonasal process 21:580

Grenzfalte 2:105–111, 113, 169

internal thoracic lymphatics 6:359

jugular collector 6:410

jugular sinus (see Subtracheal sinus)

lamina of prefrontal 20:510–511

laminae of nasals 20:414, 561

lemniscus 10:121, 139, 141, 143, 147, 149, 151, 153, 155, 157, 161, 163–164, 166, 189, 204, 206, 301

longitudinal fasciculus (see also Fasciculus

longitudinalis medialis) 9:189–191, 193

nasal gland 2:110, 117, 154, 163, 169–172, 180–182; 11:120, 210, 212

nasal process 2:166, 168, 171

opening of recessus scalae tympani 20:34, 112, 126, 128, 135, 137, 157, 164, 166

preoptic area 12:219

process of head of ectopterygoid 20:576

process of humerus 4:14, 16, 18, 22, 26–27, 30–32, 92–93

process of the maxilla 21:554

pterygoid, process of palatine 20:446

recess 2:111

rictal plate (see Inner rictal plate)

scapulosternal ligament 21:62, 71, 97–99, 218, 237–240, 244, 247–249, 262

sulcus 2:106, 109–110, 115, 169, 181

tibial nerve 4:86

traction of the jaw 4:127, 146, 149

transporters 20:493

tuberosity 21:103, 105

vein 11:368

vessel 5:63

vomeronasal fenestra 20:557

wing of the prefrontal 21:587

Mediale

Grenzleiste (see Medial Grenzfalte)

Nasendrüse (see Internasal gland)

Seitenfalte (see Vomerine cushion)

Medialer Nasenfortsatz (see Medial nasal

process; Neurohypophysis)

Median

basisphenoid apophysis 20:478

dorsal process 21:579

eminence 3:137–141, 143, 147, 157–161, 163–166, 168, 170, 176, 179–180, 182–185, 188–198, 193–194; 6:117; 10:253, 258, 263; 17:597, 601, 612, 629, 637, 650, 670; 18:47–48

foramen 1:286

head vein 20:31

jugular trunk 6:320, 381–382, 385–386

nerve 4:23; 6:389

pelvic plexus (see Sacral plexus)

sacral plexus 6:332, 342–343

sternal elements 20:585

Mediastinal

plexus (see Precardiac plexus)

trunk 6:381

Mediastinum 19:26, 40

Mediosacral plexus (see Sacral plexus)

Medulla (see also Myelencephalon) 5:310; 9:44, 48, 52, 58, 70, 72–74, 84, 95, 97, 99–100, 102–103, 107, 109, 111, 114, 118, 121, 123, 125–128, 131, 137, 176, 178, 183–188, 235, 295, 305; 10:14, 82, 201, 204, 206, 211, 220, 226–227, 257–258, 274, 276, 279, 326; 12:219, 223, 229, 235, 243, 247

oblongata 8:121; 11:27–28, 69, 214, 237, 240

of adrenal (see Adrenal tissue)

of bone 1:51, 73

of embryonic gonad 15:265, 269, 272

of gonad 6:49–51, 77, 441

Medullary

cords 6:49–50, 106; 15:158, 162

plate (see Neural plate)

Megalosaurus 9:98

Megapodiidae

eggs 14:90

respiration at hatching 14:362

Megasaurus diazromerali 21:172.:

Megatheriidae, dentition 1:121

Mehelya 16:39, 120, 146; 19:224; 20:556, 561, 563; 21:512, 5554, 563, 576, 586, 600, 606

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:298–299; 2:49

capensis 19:153, 162, 164, 209; 20:580, 634; 21:607

crossii 19:141, 153, 166, 209

guirali 19:209

jaw muscles 4:481

nyassae 19:209

poensis 19:141, 153, 209; 20:555, 563, 580, 634

stenophthalmus 19:209

vernayi 20:634

Meiolaniidae, shell 1:336

Meiosis

in parthenogenetic species 15:434, 464, 478–480, 491, 498, 513–514

in tetrapods 15:475, 507

in triploids 15:472

molecular aspects 15:497–498

prophase 15:154, 158–159, 254, 258–261, 265–267, 271, 478

Meiotic restitution 15:479

Meissner’s plexus 6:270

Meizodon 15:652; 16:120, 233; 19:231; 20:641

coronatus 19:209; 20:641

loveridgei 20:641

plumbiceps 19:209

regularis 19:209

semiornatus 19:209

Melanin 2:76; 3:251; 18:302, 305, 307, 311, 316, 320, 345, 398; 19:508, 524, 543, 568

colchicine effects 18:310

-dispersing hormone 10:42

MSH effects 18:310

Melanism 1:318; 18:331

Melanochelys 14:78, 85, 89–90, 106, 112, 114–115, 119–120; 16:135

Melanocyte 8:117; 14:528, 543, 642

differentiation 15:359

cold effects 18:321

receptor 18:318, 347

-stimulating hormone (MSH) (see also Melanin) 17:616–617; 18:309, 314, 316–322, 345–347, 391–392, 394–395

synergism with beta-endorphin 18:318–319

Melanoma (see also Tumor) 19:523

Melanophidium 19:218.; 20:403–404, 408–409, 589

punctatum 20:410, 601

urinogenital system 6:30

wynaudense 19:186; 20:402–403, 406, 411, 413, 601

Melanophore(s) (see also Melanocyte-stimulating

hormone) 3:207, 277–278, 281, 284; 9:408; 18:305, 307–311, 322–323

Melanoseps 15:636; 20:144, 148–149

occidentalis 20:307

Melanosome(s) (see also Melanocyte-stimulating

hormone; Pigment granule) 9:408; 18:305, 308–309, 317–318, 323

Melanosuchus 7:239, 507; 8:675; 9:252; 15:392– 393; 16:281, 528

nose 2:144, 148–149, 151, 173, 179

skull 4:201–202, 212, 222, 225, 227, 233–234, 243, 246, 278

Melanotropes 14:686, 688, 704, 709

Melanotropin 18:309–310, 316, 318–319, 340, 345–348, 392, 394–395

Melatonin 9:387; 12:225, 227–228, 253; 13:217; 14:433; 17:158; 18:316, 318

implants 18:267

injections 18:247, 252, 267

light and temperature effects 18:235–242

pulse 18:248, 267, 272

reproduction 18:272

rhythms 18:232, 235–242

role in entrainment 18:247–248

sites of synthesis 18:234–235, 239

synthesis of 18:234

thermoregulation 18:267

Mellivora 16:6, 10, 14

Melopsittacus 10:278

undulatus 19:58

Membrana

granulosa (see Granulosa of ovarian follicle)

propria 2:204–206, 208–210, 214–216, 218, 220, 236, 238, 250, 253, 256–257, 260; 6:57

Membrane

bone 11:5, 186, 245

bones 14:126, 514

conditioning 8:7

constants 11:285–288

permeability 8:468–470, 500, 502, 504, 507, 517, 524–525

potential 11:314

Membranous

braincase 20:16, 23, 25–26

common crus 2:204, 206–207

labyrinth 2:201, 235; 20:578

Menetia 16:118, 464–465, 472, 517

Menidia, effect of temperature on sex 15:281– 282, 286

Meninges (see also Dura; Leptomenix) 2:219–220, 251, 255, 59, 261; 9:2–3, 24, 34–35; 14:127

Meningococci 14:653

Meminx primitiva 9:17–20, 22, 35

Meniscus 1:91, 108, 206

pterygoidei 20:25, 49, 222, 267

Meniscometatarsal ligament 21:177

Meniscus 21:10, 104, 152–153, 155–157, 165, 168, 176–177, 179, 181

on the basipterygoid process 21:479

Menitia 21:400

Mental

foramen 20:401, 412, 487

gland (see Gland, mental)

groove 21:597

scale 2:302

Meotarsal joint 21:22

Meperidine hydrochloride 5:44, 47

Mephitis 16:403 2-Mercaptoethanol 14:656, 658

Mercenaria 8:193

Merck Index 5:43

Mercuric

chloride 6:277

sulfate 18:123

Mercury 5:65

bromphenol blue 8:106

bromphenol blue test 3:239

thermometers 5:31

Merkel cell(s) 9:414, 422–424, 426–427, 436; 13:426

Meroles 12:110; 16:117, 516; 20:300

Aporosaura 20:170

Merrifield solid-phase method 8:228

Mertesian mimicry (see Coral-snake mimicry;

Mimicry)

Mesalina 12:110; 15:307; 16:140–141

olivieri 20:307

Mesectoderm 11:39

Mesencephalic locomotor region 10:92

root of trigeminal 10:227

Mesencephalon (see also Optic tectum; Tegmentum) 9:44, 52, 57, 83, 100, 102, 104, 114–115, 133, 135, 173–174, 176–177, 184, 196, 236–237; 10:133, 143, 145, 151, 153, 158–159, 163–165, 174, 201, 232–233, 238, 255, 264, 274, 279–280, 282, 288, 317, 320, 326; 12:216, 227, 242; 14:128, 130; 15:12

Mesenchyme(a) 1:146, 312; 2:147, 202; 3:118, 266; 6:4, 45, 52, 107, 237; 9:17–19, 34; 19:114, 560; 21:25, 28

and hemopoiesis 14:635

branchial arch 14:417

deficiency 14:459

dental papilla 14:431

dermal 14:153, 570, 580, 588

epidermal 14:534

in limb development 14:159

in limb girdle development 14:154–156

in palatal development 14:421–422, 424, 426

in pituitary development 14:686, 695–697, 700–702, 796, 712–713

in rib development 14:154

mandibular 14:128, 426

maxillary 14:420

pre-chordal 14:128

Mesenosaurus 9:296

origin and evolution 1:11

Mesenteric artery 3:274; 6:346, 354, 419, 421

collectors 6:346, 348–349, 417–419, 426

lymphatic vessels 6:344

plexus 6:346, 422

trunk 6:346, 349

vein 6:419, 421

Mesentery 3:266, 320–321; 6:50, 58, 95, 107–109, 315, 346, 349–350, 417, 420–421, 424, 434, 446; 10:9; 19:141, 148, 487, 566, 572

dorsal 19:40, 535, 545, 557, 560–561, 564–568, 577

mesosalpinx 19:40

mesovarium mesorchium 19:40

ventral 19:40, 564, 576

ventral hepatic 19:27

Mesethmoid 20:98

Mesial

ccollateral ligament 21:372

femoral condyles 21:153

femoral epicondyle 21:372

flanges of the frontals 21:572

frontal flange 20:370, 394–395, 397–398, 402, 405, 414–415, 424, 426, 432, 447–448, 456, 462, 476–477, 491, 540, 561

plantar tubercle of the fifth metatarsal 21:177, 180, 185, 377, 379

(surface of tooth) 1:118–119

Mesobaena 21:635, 644, 661–662

axial skeleton 1:272

huebneri 21:662, 666, 731

muscle tissue 11:283, 336

Mesoblast 6:4; 11:355

Mesocardium 19:379, 408

Mesocarpal joint 21:282, 292

Mesochelydia, shell 1:332–336

Mesocin 5:386, 464, 477

Mesocleidosternal ligament 21:71, 87, 97, 99, 255

Mesocoracoid 21:76

Mesocortical system 10:251

Mesocricetus, pit organs 2:294

Mesoderm 2:5–6, 20, 25, 52–53; 3:266; 6:2–5, 12, 18–19, 109–110; 11:5, 39

allantoic 14:160; 15:546–548

amniochorionic 14:160, 503

amniotic 14:168, 381

and chordamesodermal canal 14:115

branchial arch 14:417

cephalic 14:116

chorionic 15:543, 559

cloacal membrane 15:189–190

extra-embryonic 14:116, 161, 167, 191, 282, 285; 15:9, 18, 20, 24, 536, 543, 560

formation 14:501

intravitelline 15:540–542, 547–549, 559

limb bud 15:61, 66, 73, 88–89, 94, 107–109, 113, 124, 127, 132

migration of 14:116, 502

omphalopleure 15:541

phallic analgen 15:227

somatic 14:145, 160, 380, 390, 525

somatopleural 15:67, 212, 216, 223, 542

somitic 14:116, 123; 15:9, 61, 132

splanchnic 14:145, 149, 160, 380, 390, 440; 15:536, 541

unsegmented 14:288

yolk sac 14:160

Mesodermal

conus 2:6

enamel 1:125

Mesogastrium 6:356

Mesokeratin 9:409

Mesokinesis 11:7, 107, 161, 198–199; 20:49–52, 54–59, 61–62, 94, 130, 146, 152, 160, 168, 176, 200, 210, 219, 228, 236, 242, 253–254, 260–261, 369, 276, 278, 280–281, 286–288

Mesokinetic 21:574

joint 20:371, 484, 486

Mesolimbic system 10:251, 277–278, 280–281

Mesomegadonty 1:176

Mesometrium 6:24, 90

Mesonephric

blastema 15:154

chamber 6:11

duct (see also Wolffian duct) 15:153, 175

tubule(s) 6:2–4, 8, 12–17, 19, 50, 52, 70; 15:171, 175, 253

vesicle 6:14; 15:153, 168

Mesonephros 3:265–268, 271, 312; 6:1–4, 6, 8, 11–21, 49–55, 108, 117, 120; 14:148–149, 175, 311, 401–402, 440–442, 446; 15:152, 155, 165, 171–175, 177, 181–182, 252

degeneration 14:441

Mesophis 20:595

origin and evolution 1:6

Mesoplastron 1:320, 330–331, 333–334

Mesopneumonia 19:4, 20, 26–28, 30, 32, 39–41, 71

Mesopodium 21:59

Mesorchium 3:269–270, 278; 6:24–25, 56–58, 67, 443

Mesorhinosuchus 9:57, 78

Mesorhinus 9:297

Mesos 18:153–154

layer 14:533, 535, 538–540, 542, 544–546, 549–553, 558, 565, 577

layer of skin 12:404–405, 421, 430, 435

Mesosalpinx (see also Mesentery) 6:92

Mesosauria 7:6; 9:65–66, 296

origin and evolution 1:1–2

skull 4:245, 267

Mesosaurus 15:339, 342

nose 2:152

Mesoscapula 21:14, 16

Mesosternal fontanelles 21:67

rib 1:261–262; 21:268

Mesosternum 1:230, 237, 261; 21:62–63, 65, 67, 69, 234, 268

Mesostomate 20:396

Mesosuchia 9:81–82, 297, 304

axial skeleton 1:205, 226

chondrocranium 11:234

dentition 1:185

eye 2:73, 75

origin and evolution 1:2

skull 4:264–268, 272–280

Mesosuchus, dentition 1:153

Mesotabarium 6:83, 85, 91, 93, 439, 441

Mesotarsal

ankle 21:168

joint 4:58–59, 66, 82, 88; 21:48, 111, 162, 166, 168–169, 171, 173, 175–178, 182, 186, 191, 364–365, 370, 373, 384

Mesothelium 2:15, 22; 6:57; 19:540, 547

Mesotocin (see also Isoleucine oxytocin) 17:593– 601, 665, 692

Mesovarium 3:269–270, 278; 6:81, 83, 106, 437, 441

Mesozoic era 14:5

lizards 15:334

reptile life 5:266

Messenger DNA, inhibition 15:134

Met-enkephalin 17:159

Metabolic

acclimation 5:166

acidosis 12:362–363

acids 5:335

adaptations 5:163, 318

autoregulation of blood flow 12:245–246

calculations 5:154

capacity 5:208

chambers 5:174

compensation 5:164, 193

correlates 5:166, 176

demand for oxygen 5:225

depression 5:168–169; 13:61, 63, 67–73, 96, 120, 133, 159

differences 5:138, 143

effects 8:518, 665

endocrinology 5:210

enzymes 5:161

evolution 5:128

fluctuations 5:161

functions 5:127, 170

heat, embryonic 14:91, 221, 227, 231, 352–353, 395

heat generation 5:188, 190

homogeneity 5:145, 209

increment 5:174–175

inhibitor 5:60

levels 5:137, 143, 153–154, 159, 167, 170, 209

load 5:353

measurements 5:129, 136, 149, 156, 161, 175, 183

pathways 5:168, 199, 318

physiology 5:145, 154

plateaus 5:160, 178

rate (see also Aerobic metabolism) 3:14, 20, 30, 38, 214, 217, 219–220; 5:5–6, 14, 29, 31, 70, 73–74, 81, 83, 103, 128–129, 137–138, 140–143, 145–151, 153–157, 159, 161, 163–164, 166–169, 172, 174–175, 177, 179–180, 182, 188, 190–191, 193, 196, 198, 209–210, 238, 241, 253, 256, 349–350, 352, 370–371, 375; 12:5, 8, 20–21, 30, 34, 41, 43, 236, 254, 294

resting reptiles 7:45, 59

response 5:391

rhythms 5:167

scope (see also Aerobic metabolic scope) 5:179, 250

stability 5:167

wastes 5:389

water 5:9, 98; 12:286–287, 325, 353–355, 466

Metabolism (see also Aerobic metabolism; Anaerobic

metabolism; Field Metabolism;

Total metabolism; Metabolic depression;

Parental care, shivering thermogenesis;

Respiratory gases and embryos; Thermal

balance) 5:33, 39, 73–75, 78–79, 127–136, 138, 144–145, 154, 156, 159, 161, 164, 166–169, 171, 175–176, 191, 193, 196–198, 209, 225, 230, 242, 296–297, 299–304, 314, 318–319, 321, 325, 356, 375, 394, 465, 477, 480, 483, 489–490, 498; 6:119; 19:38, 151, 165, 300, 302, 305, 310, 312, 353–354, 469, 486, 491, 497–498, 507, 511, 516, 524

abnormalities 19:517, 524

acidosis 19:156

activity 5:191

aerobic 19:75, 157, 333, 335

aerobic versus anaerobic 16:30, 50, 62, 64–65

amino acid 5:196

bile acid 19:513–514

bile pigment 19:515–516

carbohydrate 19:511–512

electrolyte 5:97

embryos 16:536–538, 541–542, 567–569, 572

energy 5:7

fat 19:489, 512–513

hormone 19:516

in hypoxic environments 5:191

ion 5:3

metabolic water 16:554–556

oxygen demand 19:68

pathways 19:499

protein 19:514–515

purine metabolism 19:501

rate 19:68, 75, 298, 304, 306, 311–312, 318, 322, 332, 335–337, 340, 426, 465–466, 511, 524

reserves 19:512

standard 5:83

stress 19:48

temporal patterns of embryos 16:537–538, 546, 575–576

thermal dependence 16:546–547, 550, 586

urea effects 16:567

water dependence 16:567–569

-weight relation 5:140, 142–143, 145, 149–150, 153–154, 156, 158, 160, 178

Metabolites 3:1, 29, 53

Metabolized markers 5:68

Metacarpal(s) 1:93, 104; 4:18–20, 38–39, 41–42, 46–47, 51, 94; 14:160; 15:74, 77, 80, 86; 21:10, 13, 59, 111, 117–120, 125–127, 129–132, 136, 306, 308

I 21:120

III 21:127–128

Metacarpodigital ligaments 21:111

Metacarpophalangeal

joints 21:131, 294, 306, 308, 318–319

ligaments 21:318

Metacarpus 6:390

Metachelydia, shell 1:332, 334–336

Metachromasia 3:238, 329; 6:248, 256, 268, 270, 272, 279, 283, 291; 8:122

Metacoracoid 21:76

Metakinesis 11:7, 56, 104, 107–108, 161, 198–199; 20:28, 48–52, 58, 67, 69–70, 81, 89, 113, 140, 147, 152, 168, 176, 188, 192, 200, 228–229, 236, 242, 256–257, 262, 267, 269, 271, 276–278, 280–281, 285–288, 366; 21:510, 543

Metakinetic intracranial joint 20:363

Metal ions 3:32

Metamesosuchia skull 4:264

Metamorphose(sis) 3:214; 12:8–10; 19:316

Metanephric

duct (see Ureter)

tubule 6:4, 20

Metanephritic vesicula 3:267

Metanephros 3:312; 6:1, 3–4, 6, 13, 16–17, 19–48, 120; 14:148–149, 175, 441; 15:203

Metaphysical reduction 1:53, 55

Metaphysics 1:48, 53, 62, 67, 85, 93, 96, 98, 107

Metaplasia

chick chorionic ectoderm 14:551

of cartilage 1:90

Metaplastic of bone 1:88, 91–95, 99, 101–104, 107, 109–110

Metapoceros, axial skeleton 1:269

Metaposaurus, origin and evolution 1:23

Metatarsal 4:57–60, 82, 84–85, 88–89

I 21:171, 177

III 21:175

V 21:176

collectors 6:394–395

Metatarsals 15:79–80, 110, 114; 21:13, 19, 42, 47, 56, 120, 136, 163, 165, 169, 173–177, 179, 181–185, 191, 381

Metatarsophalangeal

articulations 21:157, 179–180

joint capsule 21:370

line 21:48, 174, 181

Metazoans 5:128, 156, 413

Metencephalon (see also Cerebellum) 9:55, 57, 104, 174, 177; 10:201; 14:128

Methacholine 12:383

chloride 5:103

Methemoglobin 3:1, 39; 5:155–256; 13:29

reductance 13:29

Methiolate 5:98

Methionine 3:23, 40

Methods 5:19, 52

of anesthesia 5:52

Methoxyflurane 5:49–51

Methyl

esters 18:199

green 3:86, 279, 306; 14:606

green pyronin 6:111

ketones 18:151, 154–155, 171, 482–483

violet 6:69, 246 3-Methyl histidine 3:45, 52

Methylene

blue 5:98; 6:247

chloride 18:134, 161–163

N-Methyltryptamine 8:194

Methysergide 8:507

Metischial process (see Lateral process of

ischium)

Metofane 5:49

Metopocerous, internal relief of gut 6:182

Metoptic membrane 2:7, 11

Metotic

cartilage (see also Subcapsular process) 2:233; 4:251

fissure 2:197, 203, 237, 242, 251, 256; 11:3, 12, 15, 26–27, 29, 43–45, 99, 115, 121, 138–139, 141, 145, 194–195, 204, 207, 209, 213, 238, 242, 246; 20:6, 11, 31, 33, 70, 72–73, 75–76, 246, 249, 270–271, 276, 278, 287, 485

process 11:222

Metriorhynchidae, urinogenital system 6:114

Metriorhynchus

eye 2:75

skull 4:269

Mett tubes 8:597

Mexican beaded lizard (see Heloderma horridum)

Mexico 2:321

Meyasaurus 21:65, 82, 90, 97

Mice 5:1, 406; 13:239

Micelle 3:37

Michaelis constant 8:614

Micrelaps 8:83, 85; 19:131, 220; 20:526, 528, 532

bicoloratus 20:531, 620

boettgeri 19:195

ear 2:227, 269, 272

muelleri 19:195; 20:620

Microbials diseases 5:27

Microblepharis 21:400

Microbrachis, origin and evolution 1:20

Microcephalophis 8:29, 59, 357, 442, 695; 19:121–122, 223

adrenal 3:281

cantoris 8:29; 19:199; 20:538, 627

ear 2:272

gracilis 8:29, 59, 357, 442, 695; 19:199; 20:628

Microcephaly 14:452

Microcirculation 5:305

Microclots (microemboli) 8:494, 498

Microcomplement fixation 15:647; 20:430

Micro-electrodes 2:288

Microenvironment 5:315; 12:282–293, 293–294, 358, 385, 457–469

Microfibrils 6:241

Microfilaments 14:51, 57, 422, 700, 702, 707

in apical ridge cells 15:65

Microgecko, ear 2:271

Micrognathia 15:136

Micro-Kjeldahl method 8:579

Micronucleoli 14:55, 57

Micro-organism(s) 8:7

Microornamentation of scales 12:406–407, 423

Micropechis 8:21; 19:223

ikaheka 8:21; 19:197; 20:628

Microphthalmia 11:43, 50; 14:452, 456, 458–459; 15:135; 17:209

Micropinocytosis 6:84

Micropisthodon 21:605

Micropodia 6:112

Micropuncture 5:448, 450, 469, 471, 475, 477, 480

Micropynocytosis 14:65

Microradiography 1:75

Microsaura pumila 20:294

Microsauria (see Bradypodion)

ear 223, 239, 266, 271

nose 2:119, 142

Microsauria, origin and evolution 1:20–22, 25, 36

Microsaurus 7:613

Microspectrofluorometry 10:265

Microspectrophotometry 17:137

Microsporidia 19:521

Microsurgical instruments 5:63

Microswitches 5:83

Microteiid 17:248; 19:27; 21:135

Microtomy of eye 2:2

Microtubule(s) 2:213, 253–254; 6:79, 112, 115; 9:346; 14:57, 707; 19:497, 501, 504

in apical ridge cells 15:65

Microtus 13:182, 189

Microvilli(us) 2:57, 162, 204, 207, 209–210, 212–213; 3:122, 126, 327; 5:418, 425, 427, 437; 6:33, 46–48, 241, 257, 259, 284–286, 289, 292–293; 14:62, 65, 423–424, 687, 701–702, 708; 18:435, 438; 19:16, 29, 44, 47, 493–496, 504

of bilaminar omphalopleure 15:546

rete cell 15:158

Microvilli (microvillar) 8:627

absorption 8:630, 635–647

absorptive cells 8:627

digestion 8:628–635

enzymes 8:627

intestinal 8:627

large 8:632

motility 8:647

pH 8:629

regulation 8:654

small 8:632

Micruroides 7:504; 8:21, 109–110, 191; 16:42–43, 54, 64, 126, 130, 150, 175–191, 230; 19:221

ear 2:272

euryxanthus 8:21, 109–110; 19:196; 20:621

Micrurus 7:380, 504; 8:21–23, 99, 106–107, 168, 174, 190–191, 246, 250, 290, 296, 305–306, 334, 353, 360, 368–372, 443, 458, 468, 481, 483; 16:10, 14, 38, 53–54, 121, 129, 133, 150, 155, 175–191, 230–231, 253, 287, 483, 520; 19:196, 221; 20:544; 21:602

albicinctus 8:21

alleni 8:21

altirostris 20:621

ancoralis 8:21

annelatus 8:21

averyi 8:21

axial muscles 11:357

baliocoryphus 20:621

bernardi 8:21

blood chemistry 3:6, 11

bocourti 8:21

bogerti 8:21

brasilensis 20:621

browni 8:21

carinicaudata 8:21, 443

corallinus 8:21, 168, 250, 296, 334, 353, 369, 371, 443; 19:196; 20:540, 621

decoratus 8:21; 20:621

dentition 1:177

dianba 20:621

diastema 8:21; 19:196; 20:621

dissoleucus 8:22; 20:622

distans 8:22

dumerilii 8:22, 371, 443; 20:622

ear 2:269, 272

elegans 8:22

ephippifer 8:22

eye 2:55, 61

filiformis 8:22; 20:622

fitzingeri 8:22

frontalis 8:22, 168, 334, 353, 369, 371, 443; 20:622

fulvius 8:22, 99, 106–107, 174, 191, 246, 262, 290, 296, 305–306, 360, 368, 370–371, 443, 458, 468, 481, 483; 18:30; 19:196; 20:622

hemprichii 8:22

hippocrepis 8:22

ibiboboca 8:22; 20:622

isozonus 8:22; 20:622

jaw muscles 4:450, 452, 483

langsdorffi 8:22

laticollaris 8:22; 20:622

latifasciatus 8:22

lemniscatus 8:22; 19:164, 196; 20:622

limbatus 8:22

margaritiferus 8:22

mertensi 8:22

mipartitus 8:22, 191, 371, 443; 19:196; 20:622

multifasciatus 19:196

narducci 20:622; 21:571

nigrocinctus 8:22, 371, 443; 19:196; 20:537–538, 545, 552, 622

nuchalis 8:22

peruvianus 8:23

proximans 8:23

psyches 8:23; 20:622

putumayensis 8:23

pyrrocryptus 20:622

ruatanus 8:23

spixii 8:23, 371

spurrelli 8:23

steindachneri 8:23

stewarti 8:23

stuarti 8:23

surinamensis 8:23; 20:622

tricolor 20:622

tschudii 8:23; 20:622

Mid-Cretaceous 20:584, 594

Midbrain 2:293; 11:28, 104, 187, 214, 237; 14:398, 400, 411, 432, 508, 513–514

Middle

cerebral vein 11:31–32, 112, 124; 21:515, 518

concha 11:234–235, 240

ear 1:7, 30; 2:193–201, 220–234, 236, 253, 262; 4:202, 225–226, 233, 237, 244, 256, 277–278, 425; 11:3–4, 67, 80, 83–86, 94, 99, 103, 105–106, 108, 113, 132, 149, 161, 180, 193, 218, 226, 246; 20:364, 366

jugular trunk (see Paratracheal trunk)

turbinal (see Concha)

Midgut (see also Small intestine; Gut; Intestine) 14:400, 402; 19:564–565

Mid-turbinal sinus (see Caviconchal recess)

Migration (see also Behavior; Hibernation sites,

movement to and from; Pheromone,

trail) 12:232; 16:401, 408, 416, 419; 18:135, 141; 19:32

cellular 9:181, 187–188, 192–193, 198, 200–202

of replacement teeth 1:191

Miliary tuberculosus (see also Pathology) 19:521

Milieu interieur 5:225

Milking of snakes 8:95–97, 99, 130, 133–135, 138, 140–141, 577

Milleretta 9:296

Milleretops 9:296

Millerina 9:296

Millerosauria 9:65

origin and evolution 1:7

Millerosaurus, origin and evolution 1:4

Millon reaction 6:228, 252, 294

Milzprobleme 19:534, 541–542, 577

Mimeosaurus 20:78, 99, 101–102, 104

crassus 20:293.

Mimicry

abstract mimicry (homotypy) 16:157, 160, 164, 169–174, 180, 190, 193, 215

aposematic/cryptic coloration 16:157, 160, 175–178, 183–187, 196–198, 206, 210

arthropods 16:17, 155–158, 160, 163, 217

automimicry 16:208–209

Batesian 16:48, 63, 155, 157, 160–162, 190, 206

beetles 16:206–208

behavior 16:158–162, 187–196

body size 16:166–167, 206, 209–210

by Boiga 16:196–197

by insects 16:170–174, 216

camouflage (see crypsis)

centipedes 16:206

“charming” birds 16:214–215

classification 16:158–160, 163, 209

concordant geographic patterns 16:174, 183–187, 191–192, 194, 197–198, 215

concrete mimicry (homotypy) 16:160, 209

controversies 16:156–159, 161–162, 168, 174–205, 215

coral snakes (see Coral-snake mimicry)

crypsis 16:48, 159, 162, 191, 205

definition (see classifications)

difficulties of studying 16:160, 162–163, 172–173, 180–181, 194, 197, 199, 205

dual mimics 16:169–170, 185–186

egg-eating snakes (see Egg-eating snakes)

empathic learning 16:168, 190, 194, 196

evolution 16:157, 190–191, 194, 197, 199, 205

experiments 16:156–157, 163, 175, 180, 187–191, 196, 202–204, 206, 210, 212, 215–216

feeding 16:212–215

female (see sexual)

frequency models versus mimics 16:156, 180–183

generalization versus precision (see Mimicry,

abstract mimicry)

genetics 16:157, 168, 172

geography 16:172, 181–182, 184

historical development 16:155–158, 174–175

homotypy 16:159–164

human biases 16:162–163, 202, 217

innate avoidance of models 16:168, 176, 179, 187–191, 215

intraspecific (deception) 16:208–210, 215

learning 16:168, 190, 194, 196

lethality of model 16:164–168, 180, 183, 190–191, 194

lizards 16:173–174, 200–201, 205–208, 242, 252

lures 16:212–215

Mertensian mimicry 16:183

model, mimics, and dupes 16:159–162

Müllerian 16:155, 158, 160–161, 183, 194, 197

noxiousness (see lethality of model; palatability

spectrum)

objections (see controversies)

other defenses 16:158, 161

palatability spectrum 16:158, 167

paradox of deadly model 16:168, 183

pheromones 16:210

phylogenetic aspects 16:161–162, 181

predictions of theory 16:168–205

properties of model 16:164

ratio models to mimics 16:156, 168–169

scorpions 16:205–206

sea snakes 16:183

selective agents 16:156, 170–171, 194, 206

senses 16:162–163, 176–180, 199–200, 202, 217

sexual 16:160, 209–210, 215

taxonomic distribution 16:162–164

theory 16:63, 156–157, 164–170, 180

tripartite nature 16:159

uncertainty of venom delivery 16:166–167

unprofitable prey 16:210–212

venomous snakes (mimicry of) 16:155, 164–205

venomous snakes (unusual features) 16:164– 170, 216

vertebrates 16:164

vocal mimicry 16:199–200

weapon automimicry 16:208–209

Mimophis 19:167, 226

ear 2:272

mahfalensis 19:209

pituitary 3:185

Mineral

deposits 1:63

oil(s) 5:65, 97; 8:566

Mineralization 1:92, 146

Mineralocorticoids 5:470

Miniature

eggs 8:459–460, 465–467

end-plate potentials (see Miniature junctional

potentials)

junctional potentials 11:285, 288

Miniaturization 20:579, 590

Minimum

convex polygon 9:60

lethal dose (MLD) 8:438

Minor member of double cell 2:3, 42, 44–46

single cone (see Type A2 cone)

Mintacol 6:280

Miocene 4:274; 20:594

vertebrae 20:367

Miodon

acanthias 20:620

collaris 20:620

dentition 1:177

jaw muscles 4:481

notatus 20:620

robustus 20:621

MIT (see Monoiodotyrosine)

Mites 5:27

Mitochondria 2:33, 35, 38–39, 43, 46–47, 57–61, 77, 180, 213, 285, 288, 305–314; 3:121–122, 125, 237–238, 241, 244, 289, 306, 318, 327–328, 334, 338, 340–341; 5:225, 242, 415, 418–419, 422–423, 427, 433, 437, 439, 467; 6:33, 45, 47–48, 75, 79–80, 110–112, 238, 241–242, 252, 257–260, 263–264, 275, 279–280, 284–285, 289, 291–295; 8:289–291, 514–518; 11:267, 275, 281–282, 293–294, 315, 320; 19:16, 29, 340, 494–498, 501, 504, 511, 515

apical ridge cell 15:64–65

corpora luteal cell 14:64–65, 580

follicle cell 14:57, 59, 61

limb mesoderm cell 15:66, 73, 108

oocyte 14:51–52, 54, 56, 64

oogonial 14:51

primordial germ cell 14:44; 15:170

rete cell 15:146

-rich cells 8:125

somitic cell 15:67–69, 104

thymocyte 14:619

Mitochondrial activity

in chronic epithelium 15:564

“cement” 14:60

crescent 15:159

DNA 15:437–438, 440, 490

Mitochondrion 9:415

Mitogens 14:643, 660

Mitoses

and cell shape 14:709

in follicle cells 14:58

in lymphoblasts 14:619

in oogonia 14:51

in pituitary cells 14:709

Mitosis 6:76, 113; 8:472

in regeneration blastema 15:352–353, 358

Mitotic figures 2:166; 3:75, 207

Mitral cell 10:309

Mittelplatte (see Vomerine cushion)

Mittelraum (see Vestibulum)

Mixed tubules 8:87

“Mixing” hypothesis 5:275, 281

Mm. (see Musculus)

Mochlus 7:141

Mode of reproduction (see Life history traits;

Parental care)

Models 12:39–40, 216, 219, 222, 245

autoregulation of blood flow 12:245

Bertalanffy 13:284–285, 287–290

blood viscosity 12:248, 250

circannial rhythms 13:215

copper 12:294

cutaneous water loss 12:277

energy budget 13:244–249

energy exchange 12:275–321

evaporative water loss 12:252

fitness 13:134

growth 13:236, 284–290, 304

heat flow 12:247–252, 280–281, 296–300

life history 13:241–244, 256–261

logistic 13:285–290

optimality (see Costs and benefits)

reproductive strategies 12:305

respiratory water loss 12:277

temperature regulation 12:47–48, 214, 217, 219, 221, 255, 301

water flux 12:487–493

Moisture conservation 18:139

Molar 1:160

Molariform teeth 1:124

Mole 9:431

Molecular

biology 14:5

layer 18:443

sieves 3:27

weight(s) 5:48, 59; 8:304, 319

Molluscivorous habit 1:121, 150, 164, 170–171, 192

Mollusk(s) 8:6

regeneration 15:303

Moloch 5:381, 387; 7:20, 305–306, 320, 488; 9:331; 12:107, 360; 16:30, 59, 61, 137, 462–465, 474, 512; 20:94, 97–98, 100–103, 161; 21:78, 80, 398, 400, 402

axial skeleton 1:258

dentition 1:159–160

eye 2:27

horridus 20:294, 305

Molting 5:378

cycle 3:1104, 209, 220–222, 224–225; 5:36

Molybdenum 8:174

Monestrus species 15:37–38, 40, 51–52

Mongoose 8:378

Monimostyly 11:218, 242

Monjurosuchus 21:166

Monkey 8:456, 476, 481, 486, 511

Monoamine(s) 10:10, 248, 252; 12:229, 242

oxidase 5:416; 6:231, 238, 240, 249, 280, 282, 284, 293, 295–296, 300; 10:280; 12:235; 17:399

Monoaminergic neuron 10:252

system 10:275

Monoclonius, eye 2:80

Monocytes 3:74, 83, 86–87, 102–104, 107; 14:603, 606, 609, 612, 642

Monoiodotyrosine 3:201–202, 214–215

Monomesokinetic 20:49

Monometakinetic 20:49–51

Mononeury in M. iliocostalis 11:403, 431

Monopeltis 12:459; 15:625–626, 669; 16:114; 19:557; 21:142, 622–624, 632–633, 635, 648, 676, 678–679, 682, 687–689, 695, 699, 707

anchietae 21:699, 701, 706–707, 731

axial skeleton 1:271–273, 276–278

capensis 21:626, 699, 706, 731

chondrocranium 11:126–128, 131–135

decosteri 21:699, 703, 706–707, 731

ear 2:268, 271

infuscata 21:699, 702, 706–707, 731

jaw muscles 4:480

jugularis 21:626, 699

leonhardi 21:699, 706–707, 731

nose 2:120, 122, 127

rhodesianus 21:699–700, 706–707, 732

sphenorhynchus 21:626, 699

sphenorhyncus 21:732

zambezensis 21:699, 704, 706–707, 732

Monophyly of reptiles 1:39

Monorhiny 14:456, 458–459

Monosaccharides 8:640–642

Monotremata 19:575–577

ear 2:263

Monotreme(s) 14:7; 21:83–84

caruncle 14:451

penis 15:240

Monovalent 8:574

Montane reptiles 5:193, 195

situations 5:196

species 15:618, 624, 626, 638

Montaspis 19:225

gilvomaculata 19:209

Montatheris 19:219

hindii 19:192; 20:499, 618

Montivipera

raddei 20:619

xanthina 20:619

Mopsköpfigkeit (see Brachycephaly)

Morel-Sisley reaction 6:252

Morelia (see also Liasis; Python) 5:248; 7:393, 498; 8:691; 12:127, 198; 14:652, 662; 16:285, 289, 300–303; 17:373, 375; 19:156, 161, 234

amethistina 19:154, 161, 186, 414–415 (as Liasis

amethystinus), 419; 20:442, 605

argus 20:605

blood cell morphology 3:77, 82

blood chemistry 3:35–36

boeleni 19:187; 20:442, 605

carinata 19:187; 20:440

eye 2:52

jaw muscles 4:481

pit organs 2:289, 292–293, 295, 301, 303, 307

spilota 19:64, 125, 140, 145, 154, 161, 187, 328, 356; 20:605

viridis 19:161, 187; 20:440, 605

Morelini 20:435

Morethia 16:118, 250, 464–465, 517; 21:397

lineocellata 20:307

urinogenital system 6:105

Mormosaurus 9:299

Morphine 8:654

Morphocline 20::459, 483, 491, 547, 556

Morphogenetic

fields 1:325; 8:149

mechanisms 14:587–589, 682

movements 14:17, 713

Morphological

alterations 5:159

of organ systems 5:128

differences 5:378

examination 5:414

factors 5:226, 371

intermediacy 15:440–441

properties of blood 5:225

specializations 5:172

Morphology (see also Anatomy) 5:39, 63, 101, 431, 433; 18:116, 124, 149, 191, 199; 19:1–82, 375–416, 534–535, 577

antipredator mechanisms 16:24, 28–29, 38–39, 56–57, 67, 133–134, 208–209

anterior rib elongation 16:39

fangs, for spitting 16:39

gliding/parachuting 16:51, 57

horns/spines 16:30, 52, 59, 130

lung 5:226

noxious flesh 16:43, 56, 127

rattlesnake rattle (see Rattlesnakes)

reptilian 5:100

scales/osteoderms 16:34, 36, 59, 192–193

skin tearing 16:32, 51–52

sound production (see Antipredator mechanisms)

tail autotomy (see Caudal autotomy; Tails)

toe fringes 16:29, 51, 57–58

Morphometric

data 5:232; 14:14, 305, 394–395

diffusing capacity 19:56–58

Morphometry 19:10, 12, 18, 24, 36, 49–65

Morphospace 21:58

Mortality (see also Caudal autotomy; Embryos; Life

history traits, survivorship; Nests) 12:302; 13:67, 77, 109, 125–129, 243, 299, 303

Crocodilia 7:231–234, 237

density dependence 16:419

rates 16:342, 404–405

Sauria 7:173–185

Serpentes (see also Survivorship) 7:218–224

Morunasaurus 20:79, 89

annularis 20:292

groi 20:305

Mosaic

basking 12:144

chromatophore (see Coloration, chromatophore)

evolution 4:166

pattern 1:312, 314–315, 319–323, 325–330, 334–337

Mosaics, chromosomal 15:453

Mosasaur(s)(ids) 5:437; 9:65, 296; 13:2; 15:333; 20:352, 366–367, 582, 584, 86–588, 591; 21:17, 123, 172, 569–570, 574, 603

Mosasauridae 20:196; 21:484, 593

chondrocranium 11:114, 149

dentition 1:171

eye 2:32, 79

skull 4:245, 267–268

Mosasauroids 20:75

Mosasaurus 21:82

dentition 1:171

eye 2:32

hoffmanni 21:145

Moschops 9:299

Moschorhinus 9:299

Mosquitoes 5:27

Moths 5:2

Motility, gastric 10:21

Motivators (see Reinforcement)

Motoneuron

gamma 10:78

spinal 10:69, 72, 75, 78, 84, 92, 96, 117, 119, 122–123, 125–126, 206

trigeminal 10:225

Motor

end-plate (see also Motor terminal)

development 15:630

insertion 21:202

nerve 11:333

reflexes 5:51

tendon 21:256, 258, 264

terminal 11:266–268, 270, 275, 277, 286, 317, 326, 335

Mounting (see Mating)

Mourasuchus, skull 4:270–271, 275, 279

Mouse 8:94, 101–104, 381, 463, 471–472, 475, 484, 486, 508–509, 511–512, 523, 528, 594–595; 21:332

development 14:13

epidermis 14:531, 551

lymphocytes 14:643

mast cells 14:624

oocytes 14:55

palatal shelves 14:424

Mouth (see also Oral cavity) 5:101; 11:61, 234; 20:371, 385, 392, 394, 401, 412, 535, 548, 573, 577, 585–586

brooding 15:529

formation 14:137

-gaping 18:463, 478

Movement

detection 10:293

of axilla (see Fangs, erection)

MRF (see Reticular formation)

Mucicarmin 6:246, 264

Mucilaginous cell 6:91

Mucin(s) 3:238; 6:36, 234, 244–245, 287, 291; 8:58

Mucinase (see Hyaluronidase)

Muco-ciliary escalator 19:353

Muco-cilatory band 19:14

Muco-sereux 8:45

Muco-serous cells 6:299

gland 2:11

Mucocytes 8:48, 56, 68, 80

Mucoid

cells 3:156; 5:424; 6:235, 244, 268

substance 6:36, 234, 246

Mucopolysaccharide(s) 3:238; 5:418, 422, 491; 6:272, 301; 14:375, 530, 567; 18:200

urodeal epithelium 15:198

Mucoprotein 3:156, 209; 6:43, 237

Mucosa 19:506

negative 5:384

of digestive tract 6:159, 222, 458

of esophagus 6:235–239, 242–243, 263, 301

of intestine 6:243, 274–277, 279291, 293, 297, 300–302, 416–417, 419, 423

of oviduct 6:85, 87, 91–92

of stomach 6:225, 235, 243–247, 249–250, 252–253, 255, 263, 265–272

Mucosal lymphatic net

of esophagus 6:410–411

of large intestine 6:421–424

of rectum 6:425

small intestine 6:415–416, 420–421

stomach 6:413, 415

urinary bladder 6:435–436

Mucosubstance 3:292

Mucous 2:157, 159, 175; 6:268, 276, 290, 293, 297; 19:353, 506

cells 3:122, 128; 6:34, 38, 42, 85, 90, 244–247, 251–252, 265, 268, 272, 276, 287, 298–299, 301;8:45, 47, 122; 14:624

gland 2:11, 154, 158, 176, 180–181, 201

membranes 5:48

secretion 6:40–41, 92, 241, 289

Mucus (see Mucous)

Muellerianella, parthenogenesis 15:493

Müller cells 2:33–34, 36, 38–39, 53, 57–59, 61, 78

Müllerian

canal (see Müllerian duct)

duct(s) (see also Oviduct) 14:150, 440–441; 15:152, 174–175, 184, 190, 192–193, 199–202, 241, 243–245, 249, 261, 264, 269, 280–281; 19:40

as gestation chamber 15:529

degeneration (regression) 15:152, 182–185, 191, 243, 247, 253, 265, 268, 272, 277

effect of estrogens 15:253–254, 256, 260–262

effect of oxytocin 15:588

effect of testes 15:180, 183, 245–246

effect of testosterone 15:184, 249–253

explanted in vitro 15:245, 251, 253

in male embryos 15:180, 185

malformations 15:185

vascularity 15:536

epithelium 6:52

mimicry (see Coral-snake mimicry; Mimicry)

plague 6:54–55

Müllerscher Trichter (see Ostium abdominale)

Multicellular plants 5:156

Multimodal cell 10:291

Multiple

inert gas elimination technique (MIGET) 19:332–333

innervation (see Plurisegmental innervation;

Polyneuronal innervation)

physiological optima 12:40, 45, 145

she-males 18:149, 152, 483

within-sex phenotypes 18:80, 86–87

Multivariant analyses (see Statistical analyses)

Multivesicular bodies 2:58; 5:433; 6:112, 259, 261, 284, 286, 289, 292

Multiway contingency analyses (see Statistical

analyses)

Mumps 14:664

Mundplatte (see Rictal plate)

Munsell system of color notation (see Coloration)

Mundplatt 21:614

Muraenosaurus 9:297

Muramidase 8:321

Murichthys 16:204

Murophis 16:204

Mus

muscle tissue 11:287, 289, 292

musculus 18:489

thymus 3:118, 120, 122, 127

Muscarinic

agents 11:290–291, 296

antagonist 10:25, 27

binding 18:446

Muschel (see Concha)

Muschelförmige Wulst (see Concha)

Muschelwulst (see also Concha) 2:105–106, 109, 111, 168–169, 183

Muschelzone (see Conchal zone)

Muscle(s) (musculature) (see also Musculus;

Smooth muscle; Striated muscle) 3:126, 220; 5:58, 65, 82–85, 196, 228–229, 233; 9:434, 436; 12:333, 342, 347–348, 351; 13:19, 25, 32, 70, 72, 87, 95; 16:130, 289–291; 19:52, 94, 107, 120–121, 333, 340, 376, 384, 386, 392, 394, 401, 404, 409, 413, 460, 512, 547, 549

abdominal 15:592; 21:209

abducens complex 14:429

activity 5:86, 234, 319

adductor 20:17, 62, 67, 74, 82–83, 97, 116, 119, 136, 149, 176, 180, 185, 189, 194, 212, 220, 229, 234, 236, 240, 243, 248, 254, 256–257, 275, 282, 284, 366, 377, 422, 426, 430, 452, 488, 522

anterior pterygoid 14:422

architecture 21:201, 204

axial (see also Axial musculature) 21:60, 217

biochemistry 21:205

body wall 11:278

branchial 10:27, 30

bulbospinal 19:383

cardiac 8:480, 508; 11:265–266, 292; 19:379, 387, 392

caudal 15:317–323, 330, 334, 361, 368

circular 19:383

compact 19:381, 406

contraction 19:398, 430

costocutaneous 17:458

dedifferentiation 15:359

development 14:160, 622

diaphragmatic 11:278

differentiation 15:356, 383, 386

digastric 5:65

dorsal constrictor 20:376, 384, 416, 442, 474, 476, 492, 496, 502, 504, 507, 556, 558, 565, 589, 591

dorsal-lateral sheets 5:231–232

dorsal longitudinal 11:278

efficiency 19:469

epaxial 5:318; 21:60–61; 20:62, 422, 466, 471, 474, 586

esophageal 5:358–359

external adductor 20:60, 108, 110, 259

external mandibular adductors 20:460

extrafusal fiber 10:78

extraocular 11:20–21, 50, 68, 84, 166, 190, 199, 279, 293, 295

extrinsic eye 21:539

fascia 14:529, 560, 563

fiber types 21:204

fibers 8:90; 13:95; 19:121, 126, 382–383, 390, 401–402

skeletal 8:454–469, 508, 512

smooth 8:439, 473–474, 508, 522, 524

stimulation 8:110

fibers in coordination 8:441

fine structure 11:265, 273–277

geniohyoid 14:427

glycolysis 21:208

histochemistry 21:208

homologies 4:5, 21, 458, 460, 466–471

hypaxial 15:318–319; 19:46, 338, 340; 20:586

hypobranchial 10:206

ilio-costal 15:123

inferior oblique 21:578

innervation 11:325–327

intercostal 5:229, 231, 235; 11:276, 278; 19:46

intracranial 20:28

iris 11:294, 338

jaw adductor 20:16, 53–54, 60, 63, 430, 488

jumping 11:308, 317

lactate 19:463

lateral rectus 17:334

leg 11:273, 276, 278, 282, 288, 298, 302, 306, 310, 314, 317

lingual 14:427

liver 5:358–359

longitudinal 5:65

mandibular adductors 20:377, 477, 492, 508, 549, 579

maxillary retractor 20:393

middle ear 11:279

monoarticular 21:203

morphology 11:273–284

noise 5:88

oblique 21:539

oculomotor 14:122, 131–133, 173, 429–430

of accommodation 2:51, 84

of autotomy segment 15:316

of eye (see also Muscles, extraocular) 2:4, 8, 14–15, 48–50, 63, 75

of extracolumella (see Tympanic muscle)

of larynx 14:436

of mandibular arch 14:122

of pectoral girdle 14:155

of rudimentary limbs 15:122–123

one-joint 21:202, 204

oviducal 11:314–316; 15:587, 592

papillary 5:308; 19:403

parallel-fibered 21:201

paravertebral 11:278–279, 286

pectineal 19:404, 406, 411, 415–416

physiology 11:265, 284–291

pinnate 21:201

posterior adductor 20:157, 184, 196

posterior rectus 10:238

postural 11:274

pulmonary 5:229

rectus group 19:46

rectus of the eye 21:533

regeneration 15:356, 359, 368

relaxants 5:53

respiratory 5:229; 19:306, 311

retractor of maxilla 21:562

ridge 19:378, 384, 386–387 (see for synonomies), 390, 392, 404, 406–413, 415–416, 427–428, 441, 445, 447, 449–451

scale elevators 11:278, 285, 287, 289

scars 21:204

septal 19:44, 386, 392, 395

shaker (rattlesnake) 11:285, 293, 300, 314

single-joint (see Muscle, one-joint)

skeletal 11:265–314

smooth 10:1, 27; 11:265, 294, 314–316, 335, 338; 19:11–12, 14, 17, 43–44, 46, 63–64, 76, 108–109, 146, 149–150, 155, 396, 454, 489, 495, 504, 506, 511

in amnion 14:381

spasms 5:52

specific (see Musculus)

spindle(s) (see also Spindles) 9:434, 437; 11:266, 316–333, 335, 338; 17:454

spindle development 15:360

spinospiral 19:382

stomach 11:338

striated 5:358–359; 19:11, 406

striated costal 5:229

striated in thymus 14:622–623

subdivision 21:200

subvertebral 20:416, 504, 508

superficial adductor 20:194

superior oblique 10:238

suprazonal group 21:76

tail 11:266–267, 277, 282–283, 292

tension 5:28

terminology 21:192

thigh 11:282

tissue 19:111, 405

tongue 11:293

transverse 19:46

transverse ridge 19:133

triceps-coracoid head 21:263, 409

triceps-lateral humeral head 21:264, 409

triceps-medial humeral head 21:264, 410

triceps-scapular head 21:263, 409

trunk 11:282–283; 14:153

two-joint 21:203–204, 247, 261

uterine 15:591–592

vascular 11:314–315

vascular bed 5:315

vascular resistance 5:311

venom gland 15:654

ventral-lateral sheets 5:231–232

ventricular 5:359; 19:383, 406

Y 21:596

Muscular

contractions 5:190

dystrophy 11:266

lymphatic net of esophagus (see Superficial

lymphatic net of esophagus)

lymphatic net of large intestine 6:422–423

lymphatic net of small intestine (see also Subserosal

lymphatic net of small intestine) 6:417, 419, 423

lymphatic net of stomach 6:413

lymphatic net of urinary bladder 6:434

ridge 5:278–279, 281–282

Musculo-tendinous bundles 11:356, 374, 376, 382, 387–389, 391, 398–402, 415, 428, 430–431

Musculoskeletal 19:94

Musculotropic action 8:457

Musculus(i) (M., Mm.) (see also Muscles)

abdomino-costalis 11:379, 427

abductor digiti minimi 4:19–20, 22, 25, 40, 44, 48–51, 92–94

abductor digiti minimi brevis (see M. abductor

digiti minimi)

abductor digiti quinti 21:386, 391, 421

abductor digiti quinti dorsalis 4:42

abductor digiti quinti volaris (see M. abductor

digiti minimi)

abductor digiti I (see M. supinator manus)

abductor digiti V (see M. abductor digiti

minimi)

abductor femoris (see M. iliofemoralis)

abductor hallucis 4:59, 62, 71, 73, 77, 81, 83–85

abductor pollicis (see M. abductor pollicis

brevis; M. extensor radialis intermedius;

M. supinator manus)

abductor pollicis brevis 4:19, 22, 25, 40, 44, 48–49, 51, 92–94

abductor pollicis dorsalis 4:42

abductor pollicis volaris (see M. abductor

pollicis brevis)

acromialis (see M. deltoideus)

adductor brevis 21:359

adductor dentalis 4:443

adductor digiti minimi 4:19, 44–45, 48, 50, 92–94

adductor digiti quarti et quinti (see M. adductor

digiti minimi)

adductor digiti quinti (see also M. peroneus

posterior) 21:386, 391, 421

adductor et extensor hallucis et indicus 21:365, 386, 388, 421

adductor externus (see M. adductor mandibulae

externus)

adductor externus medialis 20:460, 579

adductor externus profundus (see also M.

adductor mandibulae externus medialis) 8:119; 20:377, 393

adductor externus superficialis 8:90, 105, 111

adductor femoris (see also M. puboischiofemoralis

externus) 4:52, 56, 62, 68–69, 71–72, 74–75, 80, 95–96; 15:85; 21:327–328, 338, 351, 359–361, 363, 418

adductor hallucis dorsalis (see M. extensor

hallucis proprius)

adductor humeri (see M. supracoracoideus)

adductor internus pterygoideus (see M.

pterygoideus)

adductor internus temporalis (see M.

pseudotemporalis)

adductor labii inferioris 4:346–347

adductor mandibulae 2:195, 197; 4:101–118, 128–142, 150–152, 164, 237, 246, 275, 285–286, 292–307, 315–319, 326, 354, 356, 367, 369, 373, 375–376, 390–391, 394, 401, 407, 414–417, 422–425, 430, 433, 466–471; 11:124, 214

adductor mandibulae 1b (see also M. compressor

glandulae; M. levator anguli oris) 4:285, 293, 295–296, 311–312, 317, 322, 329–330, 341, 349–350, 355, 359, 361, 363, 378, 382, 387–388, 396, 401–402, 407–408, 415, 422–423, 431–434, 436, 450–451, 455, 458–462, 464, 466–467, 460–470

adductor mandibulae anterior et posterior

(see M. intermandibularis)

adductor mandibulae externus 4:102, 105, 107–110, 114, 119, 124–129, 131–137, 143, 150–151, 285–288, 306, 308, 311, 313–315, 317–319, 323, 351–355, 359, 367, 369, 371–372, 375–377, 380, 382, 386, 391, 396, 399, 405, 414–416, 421–422, 424–425, 431–432, 435, 438–439, 443–445, 448, 450, 466–471, 473; 11:216

adductor mandibulae externus 1 (see M. adductor

mandibulae externus superficialis)

adductor mandibulae externus 1a (see M. compressor

glandulae; M. levator anguli oris)

adductor mandibulae externus 1b posterior 4:402

adductor mandibulae externus 1c (see M.

retractor anguli oris)

adductor mandibulae externus 2 (see M. adductor

mandibulae externus medialis)

adductor mandibulae externus 2a 4:299–302, 323–324, 328, 332, 338, 380, 389, 397, 399–402, 435, 466

adductor mandibulae externus 2b 4:299–302, 304, 323–324, 328, 332, 338, 379, 389, 397, 399–401, 435, 466

adductor mandibulae externus 2c 4:299–302, 304, 397, 399–404, 406, 435

adductor mandibulae externus 2d 4:299–301, 312

adductor mandibulae externus 2e 4:299, 312

adductor mandibulae externus 3 (see M. adductor

mandibulae externus profundus)

adductor mandibulae externus 3a 4:300, 303–304, 306–307, 313, 318, 333–335, 363, 366, 376, 378–379, 388, 390, 402–404, 406, 415, 460, 464

adductor mandibulae externus 3a anterior 4:378–379

adductor mandibulae externus 3a posterior 4:378–379

adductor mandibulae externus 3b 4:300, 303–304, 314, 317, 324, 332, 334–335, 338, 341, 344, 350, 353, 356–357, 360, 363–364, 366, 376, 378–381, 383, 388–390, 401–404, 406, 415, 434, 460, 464, 470–471

adductor mandibulae externus 3c 4:378–380, 389, 402, 404, 406, 460, 464

adductor mandibulae externus 3d 4:460, 464

adductor mandibulae externus anterior

(see M. adductor mandibulae externus

superficialis)

adductor mandibulae externus medialis (see

also M. adductor mandibulae posterior) 4:102, 107–109, 111–112, 119, 131, 133, 135–138, 143, 286–288, 293–299, 301–302, 304, 312–314, 317–318, 322–323, 330, 333–336, 341–343, 349–350, 353, 356, 361, 363–364, 371–372, 375–376, 378–380, 382–383, 386, 388–389, 394, 396–400, 402–403, 405, 407, 409–410, 414–416, 422, 431–436, 438–439, 442–445, 451–452, 454–455, 458–461, 463–471, 474; 8:84

adductor mandibulae externus medialis a (see

M. adductor mandibulae externus 2a)

adductor mandibulae externus medialis v (see

M. adductor mandibulae externus 2b)

adductor mandibulae externus medialis c (see

M. adductor mandibulae externus 2c)

adductor mandibulae externus medialis

dorsalis 4:467–469, 471

adductor mandibulae externus medialis

posterior 4:349–350

adductor mandibulae externus medialis

profundus 4:467

adductor mandibulae externus medialis

ventralis 4:467–468

adductor mandibulae externus posterior

(see M. adductor mandibulae externus

profundus)

adductor mandibulae externus profundus

(see also M. pseudotemporalis) 4:102, 105, 107–113, 119, 131, 133, 135–136,143, 222, 246, 286–288, 296, 298, 300, 303–304, 307, 312, 314, 317–319, 323–324, 331, 333–336, 341, 344, 349–350, 353, 356, 361, 363, 365–366, 371–372, 376, 378–379, 383, 386, 388–389, 394, 396, 399–400, 402–404, 406–407, 409–411, 414–416, 422–425, 431–436, 439–445, 451–455, 457–471, 474; 8:84, 105, 119

adductor mandibulae externus profundus

dorsalis 4:341, 344

adductor mandibulae externus profundus

ventralis 4:341, 344

adductor mandibulae externus superficialis

(see also M. compressor glandulae) 4:102, 107–110, 113, 133–136, 143, 239, 285, 293–302, 304, 310–314, 317–318, 321, 322–323, 328–332, 335–336, 341–343, 349, 353, 356, 360, 363–365, 370–372, 375, 382–383, 386–388, 396–400, 402, 405, 407–410, 414–415, 422–423, 431, 435–436, 438–439, 441–442, 444–445, 448, 450–455, 458–464, 466–467, 469–470, 473; 8:84–85, 105–106, 110; 11:294

adductor mandibulae externus superficialis (see

M. compressor glandulae accessorius)

adductor mandibulae externus superficialis

anterior 4:331–333, 337–338

adductor mandibulae externus superficialis

dorsalis (see also M. compressor glandulae) 4:329–330, 332, 450, 453

adductor mandibulae externus superficialis

posterior 4:328, 331–334, 338

adductor mandibulae externus superficialis

ventralis 4:329–330, 336, 450–451, 453

adductor mandibulae internus (see also M.

pterygoideus) 4:102, 107–108, 113–118, 124, 126–129, 131, 134–135, 137–143, 286, 300, 312, 314, 318–319, 335, 345, 349, 364, 378, 411, 416–417, 423–424, 433, 438, 443, 474

adductor mandibulae internus accessorius

(see M. pterygoideus accessorius)

adductor mandibulae internus pars anterior

(see M. pterygoideus)

adductor mandibulae internus pars posterior

(see M. pterygoideus accessorius)

adductor mandibulae internus temporalis

(see M. pseudotemporalis)

adductor mandibulae medius (see M.

adductor mandibulae posterior; M.

pseudotemporalis)

adductor mandibulae medius pars profunda

(see M. adductor mandibulae posterior)

adductor mandibulae posterior 4:102, 107–108, 111–115, 123–124, 126, 128–129, 131–138, 142–143, 146, 148–151, 286, 301, 304–307, 312–313, 317–319, 324–325, 336, 342, 345, 350–351, 354, 356–357, 359, 365, 367–369, 372, 378–379, 383, 388, 390–392, 395, 402, 407, 417, 424–425, 433, 435, 437–438, 443, 460, 462–464, 467–468, 475

adductor mandibulae profundus (see M.

pseudotemporalis)

adductor mandibularis anterior (see M.

pseudotemporalis)

adductor mandibularis internus (see M. adductor

mandibulae posterior)

adductor mandibularis medius (see M.

adductor mandibulae posterior; M.

pseudotemporalis)

adductor medialis (see M. adductor mandibulae

externus medialis)

adductor pollicis 21:296, 313

adductor pollicis brevis 4:42

adductor pollicis longus 4:42; 21:305

adductor posterior (see also M. adductor

mandibulae posterior) 20:377, 452, 579

adductor profundus (see M. adductor mandibulae

externus profundus)

adductor superficialis (see M. adductor

mandibulae externus superficialis)

adductor tibialis (see M. flexor tibialis internus)

adductorius (see M. puboischiotibialis)

ambiens 4:52, 61–62, 64, 66–68, 71, 77–78, 80; 21:144, 327, 340–341, 344–346, 349, 361, 416

anconeus complex (see also M. triceps brachii) 21:261

anconeus quartus (see also M. extensor carpi

ulnaris) 21:290, 292, 412

antebrachio-metacarpalis I (see M. supinator

manus)

apertor oris (see M. depressor mandibulae)

articulo-pterygoideus (see M. pterygoideus

accessorius)

articulo-spinalis 11:424–425

articulo-transversalis 11:374

articulo-transversalis brevis 11:362, 366, 424

articulo-transversalis longus 11:362, 366, 424

articulocruralis longus 11:363, 424

articuloneuralis 11:363, 424

atlanto-basioccipitis 11:426

atlanto-opisthoticus 11:367, 426

atriceps 15:85

attrahens pelvim 4:61

basihyalis proprius 4:310

basioccipitovertebralis 4:226, 267

biceps (see also M. biceps profundus; M.

biceps superficialis) 15:84; 21:215, 260

biceps brachii 11:281, 290, 293; 17:457; 21:18, 2, 82, 207, 209, 242–243, 261, 274–275, 277, 279–281, 286, 411

biceps cruris (see M. iliofibularis)

biceps femoris (see M. triceps femoris, caput

ischiadicum)

biceps profundus 4:12, 17, 19, 22, 25, 28–30, 32–36, 40, 48, 50–51, 91, 93–94

biceps superficialis 4:12, 19, 22, 25, 28–30, 32–36, 40, 48, 50–51, 91–94

brachialis (see also M. brachialis inferior) 21:28, 215, 242

brachialis anticus 21:105, 274–275, 277, 280–281, 286, 411

brachialis inferior 4:16, 19, 22, 25, 27–28, 32–34, 36, 40, 48, 50–51, 92

branchialis internus (see M. brachialis inferior)

brachioradalis (see also M. tractor radii) 21:285

branchiohyoideus 4:166–167, 170–171, 174, 183

branchiomandibularis 4:152

branchiomandibularis spinalis (see also M.

geniohyoideus) 4:168, 188–190, 464

branchiomandibularis visceralis 4:166–175, 180, 183, 187, 189–190

bursalis 10:45; 11:68

capiti-mandibularis (see M. adductor mandibulae

externus; M. pseudotemporalis)

capiti-mandibularis profundus (see M.

adductor mandibulae posterior; M.

pseudotemporalis)

capiti-mandibularis superficialis (see M. adductor

mandibulae externus)

capiti-plastralis (see M. plastro-squamosus)

carapaco-basioccipitalis 11:368, 426

carapaco-humeralis (see M. latissimus dorsi)

carpali-digiti I (see M. abductor pollicis brevis)

carpali-digiti I-V dorsalis (see M. extensor

digitorum brevis)

carpali-digiti IV-V (see M. adductor digiti

minimi)

carpali-digiti V (see M. abductor digiti minimi)

carpali-metacarpo-phalangeus (see M. lumbricalis)

carpi-radialis brevis (see M. tractor radii)

carpo-digitalis (see M. interosseus volaris)

carpo-radialis longus (see M. extensor radialis

profundus)

caudifemoralis 21:328, 337, 352–353, 358

caudifemoralis brevis 4:72; 21:331, 354–357, 362–363, 417

caudifemoralis longus 4:72–73; 21:331, 336, 354, 356–357, 360, 362–363, 377, 417

caudifibularis (see M. flexor tibialis externus)

caudi-iliofemoralis 4:52, 56, 62, 68–69, 71–75, 95–96

caudo-tibialis (see M. flexor tibialis externus)

caudofemoralis 11:333; 15:85, 121, 123, 304; 17:485

ceratoglossus (see M. genioglossus; M. hyoglossus)

ceratohyoideus (see also M. branchiohyoideus;

M. hyoglossus) 4:309–310

ceratomandibularis (see M. geniohyoideus)

ceratomaxillaris (see M. branchiomandibularis

visceralis; M. geniohyoideus)

cervico-angularis (see M. cervico-mandibularis)

cervicocapitis medialis 11:362–363, 424

cervicohyocapitis 4:163; 11 :363, 424

cervico-mandibularis 1:282; 4:164, 287, 309, 319, 324, 339, 344, 348, 350–352, 355, 360–362, 365, 367–371, 376–377, 381, 383, 393–394, 412, 418–419, 426, 433–436, 446–449, 453–456, 465, 475–476

cervico-maxillaris (see M. cervico-mandibularis;

M. neuro-costo-mandibularis)

cervico-quadratus (see M. cervico-mandibularis;

M. retractor quadrati)

cervicospinalis lateralis brevis dorsalis 11:362, 424

cervicospinalis medialis 11:367, 426

cervico-squamosus (see M. cervico-mandibularis)

cervico-tympanicus (see M. cervico-mandibularis)

claviculo-branchialis (see M. deltoideus)

clavo-branchialis (see M. supracoracoideus)

clavodeltoideus 21:12, 28, 87, 91–94, 242, 251–256, 258, 260, 272, 408

cleidomastoideus 15:85

coccygeo-femoralis (see M. caudi-iliofemoralis)

coccygeo-fibularis (see M. flexor tibialis

externus)

colloplastralis 4:162–163, 165

colloscapularis 4:21, 27

compressor glandulae 4:423, 425, 451–453, 455, 458–459, 461–466, 471, 473–474; 8:113, 118–119, 121, 563

compressor glandulae accessorius 4:423, 458, 460–463

constrictor 5:316

constrictor I dorsalis 4:101–102, 104, 130, 285– 286, 288, 292–293, 310–311, 313, 316–317, 319–320, 326–327, 340, 355, 359–360, 368, 370–371, 375, 378, 384–385, 395–396, 405, 407–408, 412–414, 421–422, 424, 430–431, 434, 436–438, 441–443, 450, 457

constrictor I ventralis (see also M. intermandibularis) 4:101

constrictor II (see also M. constrictor colli) 4:162

constrictor II ventralis (see M. intermandibularis

facialis)

constrictor III 4:162, 164

constrictor colli 4:110, 113, 118, 139, 142, 162–167, 169–174, 183, 187–188, 289, 300, 307–310, 313, 319, 322, 324–325, 339, 345–348, 350–352, 355, 358, 361–362, 365, 367, 369–370, 376–377, 381, 383–384, 393–394, 412, 418–420, 425–426, 430, 435–436, 440, 446–447, 476; 10:212

pars aboralis 4:134, 163, 166, 187, 309, 339–340, 350–351, 446, 448–449

pars anterior 4:187–188

pars cranialis 4:162, 339

pars nuchalis (see M. constrictor colli, pars

aboralis)

pars oralis 4:134, 162–164, 166, 168, 309– 310, 339–340, 350–351, 446, 448–449

pars posterior 4:163–164, 166, 168, 187–188

constrictor colli medialis 4:350–351

constrictor colli profundus 4:187–190

constrictor dorsalis 11:185

constrictor dorsalis complex 20:28, 130

constrictor dorsalis internus 20:51, 60, 66, 285

constrictor dorsoventralis 4:11, 163

constrictor internus dorsalis (see M. constrictor

I dorsalis)

constrictor laryngis 4:179–182, 192–193

constrictor lateralis (see M. adductor mandibulae)

constrictor naris 11:235

constrictor pharyngis (see M. constrictor colli

profundus)

constrictor ventralis trigemini (see M. constrictor

I ventralis)

contrahens (see M. interosseus volaris)

contrahens digitorum (see M. adductor digiti

minimi; M. interosseus plantaris)

contrahentes 21:184, 309, 317, 386, 393–394, 423

coraco-antebrachialis (see M. biceps profundus;

M. biceps superficialis)

pars coraco-antebrachialis profundus (see

M. biceps profundus)

pars coraco-radialis superficialis (see M.

biceps superficialis)

coracobrachialis (see also M. coracobrachialis

brevis; M. coracobrachialis magnus) 21:103, 264

coracobrachialis brevis 4:12, 16, 28–29, 32–35; 15:84; 21:28, 242, 244, 267, 274–275, 277, 410

coracobrachialis brevis externus (see M.

coracobrachialis brevis)

coracobrachialis brevis externus (see M.

coracobrachialis magnus)

coracobrachialis complex 21:274, 410

coracobrachialis longus 4:31; 15:84; 21:28, 242, 244, 274, 276–277, 296, 431

coracobrachialis magnus 4:12, 16, 22, 25, 28–29, 31–33, 92–93

coracobrachialis medius 21:275

coracobrachialis profundus proprius (see M.

coracobrachialis brevis)

coracobrachialis proprius anterior (see M.

supracoracoideus)

coracobranchiales 4:168

coracohyoideus 4:21–22, 37, 165, 167–169, 171–175, 177, 183, 187, 189–191; 11:283

caput cervicale 4:173–174

pars interbranchialis 4:173

coracohumeralis anterior 21:255

coraco-hyostiloideus (see M. coracohyoideus)

coracomandibularis 4:168

coraco-radialis (see M. biceps profundus)

coracotriceps 21:98, 262

cortico-cervicalis 11:363, 424

costalis internus 11:408

costalis internus inferior 11:408, 427

costalis internus superior 5:232; 11:408, 413, 427

costocoracoideus 21:98, 218, 230, 238, 240–241, 407

costocutaneus 11:269–270, 272, 276, 278, 283–285, 300, 322–323, 327, 330–332, 379, 423, 431

costocutaneus inferior 11:361, 379, 404, 406, 417–419, 427

costocutaneus superior 11:361, 402, 404–406, 417–419, 427

costomandibularis (see also M. neuro-costomandibularis) 4:430, 456, 476

costo-maxillaris (see M. neuro-costo-mandibularis)

costovertebralis 11:420, 422

costovertebrocostalis 11:394, 409–413, 427

crureus (see M. femorotibialis)

cucularis sive-trapezius 15:85

cucullaris 11:364–365, 368; 21:217, 219, 221, 223–224

cutaneus externus 4:447, 456

cutaneus internus 4:446–447

cutaneus pectoris 11:290

deltoideus 4:16, 23–26, 93; 11:274; 21:18, 86, 105, 112, 218, 243, 251–253, 257, 260–261, 268, 273, 280

deltoideus claviculae 15:84

deltoideus clavicularis 4:12, 22, 25–27, 31–33, 92

deltoideus minor (see M. supracoracoideus)

deltoideus scapularis 4:12, 26, 93

depressor auriculae inferior (see M. levator

bulbi dorsalis)

depressor mandibulae (see also M. cervicomandibularis;

M. neuro-costo-mandibularis) 2:195, 197–198, 232–233; 4:109–113, 115–116, 125, 133–134, 148–149, 159, 162–171, 175, 182, 186, 248, 279, 286, 294–295, 298, 300, 305, 308–309, 313, 316, 319, 322, 324, 331, 339–340, 347–348, 350–352, 355, 361– 362, 368–371, 373, 379–380, 386, 394, 397, 400, 409, 411–412, 419–420, 425, 431–433, 435, 440, 442, 444–445, 447, 450–454, 456–457, 461–466, 475; 10:212; 11:57, 103–105; 17:560; 20:8, 37, 86, 100, 114, 256; 21:218

accessory head 4:331, 333–334

occipitonuchal head 4:360

posttympanal head 4:352

depressor mandibulae internus (see M. dilator

tubae)

depressor maxillae (see M. depressor mandibulae)

depressor maxillae externus (see M. depressor

mandibulae)

depressor palpebrae inferior et superior (see

M. levator bulbi dorsalis)

depressor palpebrae inferioris 11:68

depressor tympani (see M. protractor quadrati)

diaphragmaticus 5:228, 233, 235; 14:438

digastricus (see also M. cervico-mandibularis; M.

depressor mandibulae) 4:310; 11:391, 425

dilator laryngis 4:179–181, 192–193; 19:118–120

dilator naris 11:235

dilator tubae 4:163, 183

dorsalis 11:371

dorsalis scapulae 15:84

dorso-femoralis (see M. puboischiofemoralis

internus, pars posterodorsalis)

dorso-mandibularis (see M. cervico-mandibularis)

dorsometacarpalis (see M. interosseus dorsalis)

dorso-occipitis (see M. retrahens capitis collique)

ectopterygoideus (see M. pterygoideus)

entoglosso-glossus (see M. hypoglossoglossus)

entoglossohypoglossalus (see M. hypoglossoglossus)

entopterygoideus (see M. pseudotemporalis;

M. pterygoideus accessorius)

episternobranchialis 4:189–191

episternobranchiotendineus 4:187, 189–191

episternocleidomastoideus 21:18, 28, 218– 225, 233, 236, 241, 405

episternohyyoideus 21:217–218, 220, 229–230, 233–234, 407

episternothyroideus 21:230

epistropheo-atlantis dorsalis 11:366–367, 426

epistropheo-atlantis ventralis 11:426

epistropheo-squamosus dorsalis 11:366

epitrochleoanconeus 21:283, 292, 299–302, 413

extensor antebrachii et carpi radialis pars a

(see M. extensor radialis superficialis)

extensor antebrachii et carpi radialis pars b

(see M. extensor radialis profundus)

extensor antebrachii et carpi radialis pars c

(see M. extensor radialis intermedius)

extensor antebrachii et carpi radialis pars d

(see M. tractor radii)

extensor brevis (see M. abductor hallucis; M.

extensor digitorum brevis; M. extensor hallucis

proprius; M. interosseus dorsalis)

extensor brevis digitorum pedis quatuor (see

M. extensor digitorum brevis)

extensor brevis II–IV (see M. extensor digitorum

brevis; M. interosseus dorsalis)

extensor carpi radialis 21:284–289, 292–293, 412

extensor carpi radialis brevior 21:288

extensor carpi radialis brevis s. internus (see

M. extensor radialis intermedius)

extensor carpi radialis longior 21:288

extensor carpi radialis longus s. externus (see

M. extensor radialis superficialis)

extensor carpi ulnaris 4:16, 19, 25, 27, 37, 40–41, 50–51; 21:283–284, 289–290, 292, 299–300, 412

extensor carpi ulnaris accessorius 4:37, 41, 50

extensor cruris caput acetabulare (see M.

ambiens)

extensor cruris caput femorale (see M. femorotibialis)

extensor cruris caput ischiadicum (see M.

triceps femoris, caput ischiadicum)

extensor cruris triceps (see M. femorotibialis)

extensor digiti minimi 21:389

extensor digitorum brevis (see also M. abductor

hallucis) 4:19, 25, 38, 41–42, 50–51, 59, 73, 81, 83–85, 92, 94; 11:1, 279, 284–287, 320, 323–324, 327–328, 332; 21:305–308, 369, 386, 388–389, 413, 420

extensor digitorum brevis I 17:456

extensor digitorum brevis profundus (see M.

interosseus dorsalis)

extensor digitorum brevis superficialis (see

M. extensor digitorum brevis)

extensor digitorum communis (see also M.

extensor hallucis longus) 4:16, 19, 25, 27, 36, 38–42, 50–51, 56, 59, 61–62, 73, 78, 80, 82–84, 94, 97; 11:281; 21:205, 208, 366, 370

extensor digitorum communis brevis (see also

M. extensor digitorum brevis) 21:365

extensor digitorum communis brevis profundus 4:42

extensor digitorum communis brevis sublimis 4:42

extensor digitorum communis longus (see

M. extensor digitorum communis; M.

extensor hallucis longus)

extensor digitorum longus (see also M. extensor

digitorum communis) 11:289, 330; 21:131, 284–286, 288–290, 292, 305, 307, 368–370, 411, 418

extensor digitorum profundus (see M. extensor

digitorum brevis; M. interosseus dorsalis)

extensor femoris (see M. puboischiofemoralis

internus)

extensor fibularis 21:367

extensor hallucis (see also M. extensor hallucis

longus) 21:388

extensor hallucis brevis (see also M. extensor

hallucis proprius; M. interosseus dorsalis) 21:387

extensor hallucis longus (see also M. extensor

hallucis proprius) 4:73, 77, 80, 82, 84–85

extensor hallucis proprius (see also M. abductor

hallucis; M. extensor hallucis longus) 4:59, 61, 73, 81, 83–85, 89

extensor iliotibialis (see M. iliotibialis)

extensor indicis proprius 21:305

extensor ossis metacarpi pollicis 21:288

extensor pollicis (see M. extensor radialis intermedius;

M. extensor radialis superficialis)

extensor pollicis brevis 4:42

extensor pollicis proprius (see M. extensor digitorum

communis; M. supinator manus)

extensor pollicis proprius et indicis proprius

(see M. supinator manus)

extensor quinque brevis digitorum manus

(see M. extensor digitorum brevis)

extensor radialis 4:27, 37, 92

extensor radialis intermedius 4:16, 19, 25, 36–37, 39–40, 50–51, 92

extensor radialis profundus 4:16, 19, 37, 39–41, 50, 92, 94

extensor radialis superficialis 4:16, 19, 25, 37, 39–40, 50–51, 92

extensor tarsi fibularis (see M. peroneus

anterior; M. peroneus posterior)

extensor tarsi tibialis (see M. tibialis anterior)

extensor tibiae

pars femoralis (see M. femorotibialis)

pars ilio-extensorius (see M. iliotibialis)

pars ilio-tibialis (see M. ambiens)

extensor ulnae (see M. triceps brachii)

externus 10:24; 11:427

femoral gastrocnemius 21:150, 182, 205, 327, 337, 372, 376, 378, 385–386, 390–391, 419

femoral gastrocnemius profundus 21:365

femoral gastrocnemius superficialis 21:365

femoro-digiti I-V (see M. extensor digitorum

communis)

femoro-fibulari-digiti I-V (see M. flexor digitorum

longus)

femorotibial gastrocnemius 21:159–160, 183–184, 205, 327, 352–353, 362–363, 365–366, 371–375, 378, 386, 419

femorotibialis 4:56, 61–62, 64, 66–68, 71–74, 77–78, 83; 21:149, 327, 338, 340–342, 346, 349, 360, 416

femoro-tibiali-tarsum-metatarsum V (see M.

gastrocnemius)

fibulari-metatarsum IV et V (see M. peroneus

anterior; M. peroneus posterior)

fibulari-tarsum-metatarsum I (see M. pronator

profundus)

fibulotarsalis (see M. pronator profundus)

fibulotibialis (see M. popliteus)

flexor accessorius communis (see M. flexor

digitorum longus)

flexor accessorius lateralis (see M. flexor

digitorum longus)

flexor antebrachii ulnaris (see M. flexor carpi

ulnaris)

flexor brevis (see M. interosseus plantaris; M.

lumbricalis)

flexor brevis digitorum quator (see M. lumbricalis)

flexor brevis medius (see M. adductor digiti

minimi)

flexor brevis profundus (see M. abductor pollicis

brevis; M. interosseus plantaris)

flexor brevis superficialis (see also M. flexor digitorum

communis sublimis; M. lumbricalis) 4:19, 22, 40, 44, 46, 48–49, 51, 92, 94

flexor carpi radialis (see also M. tractor radii) 4:16, 19, 27, 35, 40, 43, 46–48, 51; 21:290, 292, 294, 296, 298, 303, 413

flexor carpi ulnaris 4:16, 19–20, 22, 25, 27, 40–42, 45, 48, 50–51, 93–94; 21:289, 292, 294, 299–301, 303, 310–311, 313, 413

flexor caudae profundus 4:73

flexor cruris

pars flexor tibialis externus (see M. flexor

tibialis externus)

pars flexor tibialis internus (see M. flexor

tibialis internus)

pars puboischiotibialis (see M. puboischiotibialis)

pars pubotibialis (see M. pubotibialis)

flexor digiti quinti (see M. lumbricalis)

flexor digitorum 15:85

flexor digitorum brevis I 21:296, 414

flexor digitorum brevis (see also M. flexor

brevis superficialis; M. flexor digitorum

communis sublimis; M. interosseus

plantaris; M. lumbricalis) 21:294, 304, 309–313, 316, 319–320, 365, 372, 377–380, 386, 390–391, 414, 421

flexor digitorum brevis medius 21:309

flexor digitorum brevis profundus 21:309

flexor digitorum brevis quator (see M. lumbricalis)

flexor digitorum communis 21:365–366, 391

flexor digitorum communis brevis profundus

(see M. lumbricalis)

flexor digitorum communis brevis sublimis

(see M. flexor brevis superficialis M.

flexor digitorum communis sublimis)

flexor digitorum communis longus profundus

(see M. flexor carpi ulnaris; M. flexor

digitorum longus)

flexor digitorum communis longus sublimis

(see M. flexor digitorum longus; M. gastrocnemius;

M. palmaris longus)

flexor digitorum communis profundus (see

M. flexor digitorum longus)

flexor digitorum communis sublimis 4:59, 71, 83, 86–90, 97

flexor digitorum communis superficialis s.

sublimis (see M. palmaris longus)

flexor digitorum longus (see also M. flexor

digitorum communis sublimis) 4:19, 40, 43, 45–48, 51, 56, 59, 61–62, 71–72, 83, 86, 88–89, 92, 94–97; 21:150, 161, 168, 171, 180, 292–296, 302, 304, 309–310, 312, 314–316, 319, 366, 373, 379–383, 385–386, 391, 393, 412, 419

flexor digitorum primordialis communis (see

M. palmaris longus)

flexor hallucis 21:386, 392–393, 422

flexor hallucis brevis (see M. interosseus

plantaris)

flexor hallucis longus (see M. pronator profundus)

flexor longus digitorum (see M. pronator

profundus)

flexor longus digitorum pedis (see M. flexor

digitorum longus)

flexor perforans (see M. flexor digitorum

longus; M. palmaris longus)

flexor perforans cruris (see M. flexor digitorum

longus)

flexor perforatus (see M. flexor brevis superficialis;

M. flexor digitorum communis

sublimis)

flexor pollicis brevis (see M. abductor pollicis

brevis; M. flexor brevis superficialis)

flexor pollicis longus (see M. pronator teres)

flexor primordialis communis 21:373, 385

flexor profundus (see M. flexor digitorum

longus)

flexor sublimis (see M. flexor carpi ulnaris)

flexor superficialis 21:309

flexor tibiae primordialis (see M. flexor tibialis

externus; M. flexor tibialis internus;

M. puboischiotibialis; M. pubotibialis)

flexor tibialis (see also M. flexor tibialis externus;

M. tibialis anterior) 15:85; 21:358

flexor tibialis externus 4:52, 59, 62, 68–73, 76–79, 83, 87, 95–97; 21:159, 322, 326, 348, 350, 352–353, 355, 360–363, 373–374, 382, 417

flexor tibialis genicularis (see M. flexor tibialis

externus)

flexor tibialis inferior (see M. flexor tibialis

internus)

flexor tibialis internus 4:52, 59, 61–62, 68–69, 71–80, 83, 87–88, 95–96; 21:322, 348–353, 362–363, 417

gastrocnemius 1:109; 4:56, 59, 62, 66, 71–73, 75–79, 83–84, 86–88, 96; 11:272, 275–276, 281, 290, 293, 302, 309; 21:209

genio-arachnoideus (see M. geniohyoideus)

genioglossus 4:152, 158, 168, 172–173, 175–176, 183,187–191, 310, 325, 339, 346, 355, 358, 361, 367, 369, 376–377,380–381, 411–412, 418, 426, 430, 475; 14:419, 422, 427

pars lateralis 4:189–191

pars medialis 4:189, 191

genioglossus externus 4:170, 176–177

genioglossus internus 4:170, 176–177

genio-hyoglossus (see M. genioglossus; M.

geniohyoideus)

geniohyoideus (see also M. branchiomandibularis

spinalis; M. genioglossus) 4:118, 152, 164, 167–172, 174, 176–177, 183, 188, 310, 319, 325, 337, 339, 347–348, 350–351, 355, 358, 360–362, 365, 367–369, 377, 380–381, 383–384, 392–394, 411–412, 418–419, 426–430, 434, 446, 448–449, 456–457, 464, 475

geniohyoideus externus 4:373

geniohyoideus internus (see M. geniohyoideus

medialis)

geniohyoideus lateralis 4:345–346, 373, 419

geniohyoideus medialis 4:346, 373

geniomyoideus 4:376–377, 381, 383, 417, 426, 475

geniotrachealis 4:427, 457; 19:118

geniovaginius (see M. intermandibularis)

glutaeus (see M. iliofemoralis)

glutaeus alter (see M. caudi-iliofemoralis)

glutaeus maximus s. ileo-cruralis (see M.

iliotibialis)

glutaeus minimus s. ileo-fibularis (see M.

iliofibularis)

gracilis (see M. puboischiotibialis; M. pubotibialis)

humero-antebrachialis inferior (see also M.

brachialis inferior) 15:84

humero-carpali-metacarpalis I (see M. extensor

digitorum communis; M. extensor

radialis intermedius; M. extensor radialis

superficialis)

humero-carpali-radialis (see M. flexor carpi

radialis)

humero-carpali-ulnaris (see M. flexor carpi

ulnaris)

humero-digiti I–V dorsalis (see M. extensor

digitorum communis)

humero-digiti I–V volaris (see M. flexor brevis

superficialis; M. palmaris longus)

humerodorsalis (see M. extensor digitorum

communis)

humero-radialis 21:213, 242, 253, 260–261, 411

humero-radialis brevis dorsalis (see M. extensor

radialis profundus)

humero-radialis dorsalis (see M. extensor

radialis superficialis)

humero-radialis longus dorsalis (see M. tractor

radii)

humero-radialis volaris (see M. flexor carpi

radialis; M. pronator teres)

humero-ulna-radialis (see M. brachialis inferior)

hyoentoglossus (see M. Hypoglossoglossus)

hyoglossus (see also M. branchiohyoideus; M.

hypoglossoglossus) 4:167, 170–174, 177, 183, 188–191, 310, 348, 373, 430; 14:419, 422

pars lateralis 4:189, 191

pars medialis 4:190

hyoideus (see M. branchiohyoideus; M.

genioglossus)

hyomandibularis (see M. branchiomandibularis

visceralis; M. constrictor colli; M.

geniohyoideus)

hyo-maxillaris (see M. branchiomandibularis

visceralis)

hyotrachealis 19:119

hypoglossoglossus 4:159, 173, 183

hypoglossolateralis (see M. hypoglossoglossus)

hypoglossus 4:168–169

iliacus (see also M. puboischiofemoralis internus,

pars posterodorsalis) 21:359

iliacus internus (see M. puboischiofemoralis

internus, pars anteroventralis)

iliocostalis 1:202–203; 11:356, 359–360, 366, 374–384, 386–391, 393–395, 399–408, 414–416, 418–422, 424–425, 428–431; 21:60, 142

ilio-costo-costalis 11:379

iliofemoralis (see also M. caudi-iliofemoralis;

M. iliotibialis; M. puboischiofemoralis

internus, pars posterodorsalis) 4:52, 56, 61, 63–67, 71–73, 78, 95–96; 15:85; 21:143, 338, 340, 349, 360, 363, 415

iliofibularis 4:52, 59, 61–62, 64, 66–67, 71–73, 78, 82–84; 11:273–276, 285, 287–288, 291, 301, 307–310, 313, 320, 327, 332; 15:85; 17:461, 482; 21:143, 161, 205–209, 330, 331–338, 348, 358, 415

ilio-ischio-tendinosus (see M. flexor tibialis

externus)

ilio-ischio-tibialis (see M. flexor tibialis externus;

M. flexor tibialis internus)

iliopsoas (see M. puboischiofemoralis)

ilio-sacro-costo-costalis 11:427

ilio-testo-femoralis (see M. iliofemoralis)

iliotibialis 4:52–53, 61, 64, 66–67, 71–73, 78–79, 95–96; 11:272, 274, 285, 288, 305–306; 15:85; 21:206, 327, 337–338, 340–342, 345, 349, 416

infraclavicularis (see M. deltoideus)

infracoracoideus (see M. coracobrachialis

magnus)

infraspinatus (see also M. subscapularis ventralis) 21:273

interarcualis 11:372

interarcualis ventralis I (see M. branchiomandibularis

visceralis)

interarticularis(es) 1:202; 11:398, 424–425

interarticularis dorsi 11:373

interarticularis inferior 11:366–368, 395, 398, 400–401, 412, 416, 422, 426–427

interarticularis superior 11:358, 362, 364–369, 373–374, 380–381, 388, 390–391, 395–399, 404–405, 415–417, 419–420, 424–425, 429–431

interarticularis superior pars dorsalis 11:425

interarticularis superior pars ventralis 11:425

intercartilaginosus 11:361, 379, 386, 414

intercornuatus (see M. branchiohyoideus)

intercostales 1:202–203, 209, 252

intercostalis externus 11:359–361, 374–375, 381–382, 384, 390, 392, 394, 409, 414, 418, 421–422, 426–427, 429

intercostalis externus brevis 11:378, 384, 393, 427

intercostalis externus longus 11:378–379, 385, 414, 422, 427

intercostalis externus proprius 11:361, 378, 385, 419, 426

intercostalis internus 11:360, 375, 378, 383, 387, 394, 411, 421, 426, 431

intercostalis internus brevis 11:378, 383, 385, 392–393, 427

intercostalis internus dorsalis longus 11:379, 427, 429

intercostalis internus longus 11:383, 392–393, 427

intercostalis longus 11:385

intercostalis quadrangularis 11:361, 384, 390, 392–393, 395, 409, 412, 414, 418–419, 422, 427

intercostalis ventralis 11:361, 378–379, 385, 390, 394, 404, 406, 414–415, 418–419, 430

interdigitalis (see M. interosseus plantaris)

interhyoideus 10:212

intermandibularis 4:101, 110, 118, 123–124, 128–129, 142, 150–151, 162–172, 174–177, 182, 187, 189, 287, 307–309, 319, 347, 351, 371, 373, 376, 380–381, 392, 418–419, 426–427, 430, 433, 435–436, 446, 464–465, 475; 11:162; 14:419, 422, 427

pars caudalis 4:118, 167, 309–310

pars oralis 4:118, 123, 143, 307

intermandibularis anterior 4:324–325, 337, 339, 345, 348, 350, 355, 360–362, 369, 381, 383, 393–394, 411–412, 418, 426–430, 447, 457

intermandibularis anterior principalis 4:345–346, 358, 361, 365, 367–369, 377, 380–381, 383, 418–419

intermandibularis anterior profundus 4:337, 339, 346, 418

intermandibularis anterior superior 4:325, 337, 361, 365, 368–369, 377, 380–381, 383, 418, 426

intermandibularis fascialis 4:287, 436

intermandibularis posterior 4:322, 324–325, 331, 333–334, 339, 345–346, 348, 355, 358, 360–362, 365, 367, 369–370, 376–377, 380–381, 383–384, 393–394, 411–412, 418, 427–430, 447, 457, 465

intermaxillaris (see also M. intermandibularis) 4:427–429, 447, 457

intermedius 4:135, 140, 142

intermetacarpalis 21:309

interneuralis 11:358, 362, 365, 368, 373, 381, 385, 388–391, 397–398, 404–405, 417, 424–425, 431

interossei (see also M. interosseus plantaris; M.

interosseus volaris) 4:19; 21:134, 316

interossei cruris 21:420

interossei dorsalis 21:291, 305, 307–308, 386, 389, 414, 421

interossei plantares 21:386, 394, 422

interossei ventrales 21:308–310, 318–319, 415

interosseus cruris (see also M. popliteus) 21:158, 365, 384–385

interosseus digitorum (see M. interosseus

dorsalis; M. interosseus plantaris)

interosseus digitorum dorsalis (see M. interosseus

dorsalis)

interosseus digitorum manus externus quator

(see M. interosseus dorsalis)

interosseus digitorum manus internus (see

M. interosseus volaris)

interosseus digitorum pedis plantaris (see M.

interosseus plantaris)

interosseus dorsalis (see also M. abductor

hallucis) 4:25, 38, 40, 42, 51, 61, 71, 73, 81–85, 94

interosseus plantaris 4:61, 71, 83, 87, 90

interosseus posterior (see M. interosseus

dorsalis)

interosseus volaris (see also M. abductor

pollicis brevis; interosseus plantaris; M.

lumbricalis) 4:45, 48, 50–51

interphalangis (see also interosseus plantaris) 4:42

intertransversalis 11:367, 426

intertransversarius 11:366, 368, 390–391, 395, 420, 427–428

intertransversarius cervicis 11:374

intertransversarius colli 11:426

intertransversarius dorsalis cervicis 11:424

intertransversarius dorsi 11:374

intertransversarius lateralis 11:363, 366

intertransversarius ventralis 11:364–365, 367, 370

intervertebralis 11:425

intramandibularis 4:103, 107–108, 114–115, 123, 132, 134–135, 137–138, 142–143, 146, 148–151, 223, 241, 248, 417

ischio-caudali-tibialis (see M. flexor tibialis

internus; M. puboischiotibialis)

ischio-caudalis 15:121, 123

ischio-coccygeo-tibialis (see M. flexor tibialis

internus)

ischiococcygeus 4:52, 62

ischiofemoralis (see M. adductor femoris)

ischiofemoralis externus (see M. puboischiofemoralis

externus)

ischiofemoralis posterior (see M. ischiotrochantericus)

ischiofemoralis profundus (see M. ischiotrochantericus)

ischioflexorius 21:374

ischio-pubo-femoralis (see M. ischiotrochantericus)

ischio-tibialis (see M. pubotibialis)

ischiotrochantericus 4:52, 68–69, 71–72, 74, 78, 96; 21:327, 342, 354–359, 362, 417

jugularis (see M. constrictor colli)

laryngis dorsalis 19:118–119

laryngis ventralis (see also M. constrictor

laryngis) 19:118–119

latissimus colli (see M. constrictor colli)

latissimus dorsi (see also M. teres major) 4:16, 21–28, 92; 11:273, 285–286, 289–291, 297–298, 301, 303, 307; 21:28, 61, 98, 222, 227, 242, 244–247, 258, 263–266, 407

laxator tympani (see M. levator pterygoidei;

M. protractor pterygoidei)

levator anguli oris 4:286, 289, 293–296, 302, 304, 310–314, 317–318, 321–323, 328–332, 341–342, 349–350, 353, 355, 359–360, 362–365, 374, 377, 382, 386–388, 397–399, 408–410, 414, 422–423, 431–436, 439–445, 447–448, 450, 454–455, 458–460, 462–464, 466–469, 473; 20:425, 547

levator anguli oris 1a 4:396–399, 401–402, 407, 461

levator anguli oris 1b 4:398–399, 407

levator anguli oris 1c 4:397–399, 401

levator arcus palatini 4:104

levator bulbi (see also M. levator bulbi ventralis) 4:104, 124, 128–130, 142–143, 229, 289–290, 292, 313, 316, 320, 323, 327, 349, 352, 356, 362, 375–376, 384, 395, 405, 413–414, 421, 473

levator bulbi dorsalis 4:104, 128–129, 135, 150–151, 244, 291–292, 311, 317, 320, 327–328, 340–341, 349–350, 352, 354–356, 358–359, 362, 368, 374, 375, 377, 384–386, 395–396, 408, 413–414

levator bulbi dorsalis a 4:320–321, 326, 414

levator bulbi dorsalis b 4:320–321, 326–327, 356, 362–363

levator bulbi dorsalis c 4:327, 362–363, 413

levator bulbi dorsalis rostralis 4:311

levator bulbi rostralis (see M. levator bulbi

dorsalis)

levator bulbi ventralis 4:104, 128–129, 291, 316, 320–321,326–328, 341, 349–350, 354–356, 358–359, 362–363, 368, 375, 377, 385–386, 395, 407–408, 413–414, 421

levator bulbi ventralis a 4:378

levator bulbi ventralis b 4:377–378

levator costal 5:232

levator costarum 5:232

levator ossis palatini (see M. retractor pterygoidei)

levator palatoquadrati 4:104

levator pharyngis (see M. coracohyoideus)

levator pterygoidei (see also protractor pterygoidei) 4:104, 288, 290–292, 311, 313, 316, 320, 323, 326, 336, 340–341, 349–351, 355, 358–359, 362, 368, 370, 375–378, 382, 384–385, 393–396, 405, 407–408, 412–413, 421, 425, 430, 432, 434, 436, 438, 441–443, 445, 450, 457, 460, 472; 11:106, 163, 187; 20:442, 504

levator scapulae 21:28, 217, 225, 228–229, 241, 245, 257–258, 406

levator scapulae profundus 15:84

levator scapulae superficialis 15:84

longissimus 1:202–203; 11:356, 359, 363, 366, 370, 374–376, 378, 380–382, 387–388, 391, 394–396, 398–403, 407, 421, 425, 429–431; 21:60

longissimus capitis (see also M. occipitotransversalis

profundus) 11:363, 369

longissimus cervicis 11:363, 366, 369

longissimus dorsi 11:359, 372, 377, 381–384, 386, 388, 390–391, 395, 397–402, 404–408, 415–416, 419–420, 423; 21:142

longus colli 1:230, 282; 11:361, 367, 370, 375, 379, 384, 394, 426–427

longus colli profundus 11:364–365, 367–368, 370, 426

longus colli superficialis 11:364–365, 367–368, 370, 426

lumbricalis (see also M. flexor brevis superfi-

cialis) 4:19, 22, 40, 44, 48–51, 61–62, 71, 77, 83, 87, 90, 93–94, 96–97; 21:309–310, 316–317, 379, 415

trapezius-episternocle-idomastoideus

complex 21:217

lumbricalis manus externus (see M. flexor

brevis superficialis)

mandibulohyoideus (see M. branchiomandibularis

visceralis; M. geniohyoideus)

mandibulo-trachealis 21:546

masseter (see also M. adductor mandibulae

externus; M. adductor mandibulae

externus superficialis; M. adductor

mandibulae posterior; M. compressor

glandulae; M. compressor glandulae

accessorius; M. depressor mandibulae;

M. pseudotemporalis; M. zygomaticomandibularis) 10:229

masseter major (see M. adductor mandibulae

externus profundus)

maxillo-glossus (see M. genioglossus)

maxillohyoideus (see M. branchiomandibularis

spinalis; M. geniohyoideus)

maxillo-pterygoideus (see M. pterygoideus)

metacarpo-phalangis dorsalis 4:42

metacarpo-phalangis volaris (see M. interosseus

volaris)

metatarso-digitus I (see M. abductor hallucis)

metatarso-phalangis dorsalis (see M. interosseus

dorsalis)

metatarso-phalangis plantaris (see M. interosseus

plantaris)

mucosae 6:232, 237, 269–270, 279–280, 287

multifidus 11:358, 362, 365, 368, 372–373, 380–381, 387–389, 391, 395–398, 404–406, 415–416, 419–420, 424–425, 429, 431

multifidus spinae 11:425

myloglossus (see M. genioglossus)

mylohyoideus (see M. constrictor colli; M.

geniohyoideus; M. intermandibularis)

mylohyoideus anterior (see M. intermandibularis)

mylohyoideus anterior superior 4:324

mylohyoideus caudalis 4:300, 308

mylohyoideus posterior (see M. constrictor

colli)

mylovaginius (see M. intermandibularis)

neuro-costo-mandibularis 4:425, 430, 433–434, 446–449, 453–456, 465, 476

neuromandibularis (see M. neuro-costomandibularis)

neurospinalis 11:424

neurospinalis dorsi 11:373

obliquus 21:577

obliquus abdominis 11:427

obliquus abdominis externus 11:394

obliquus abdominis internus 5:232, 234–235

obliquus externus 1:202–203, 282; 11:272, 278, 290, 361, 375, 383–385, 387–388, 393, 407, 414, 430–431; 15:123; 21:61

obliquus externus profundus 11:359, 361, 379, 393, 414, 422–423, 426–427

obliquus externus superficialis 11:359, 361, 379, 394, 417, 423, 426–427, 431

obliquus inferior 11:53, 68, 143, 170

obliquus internus 11:272, 359–360, 371, 375, 378–379, 383, 387, 393, 408, 411, 413, 421, 426, 429

obliquus internus pars dorsalis 11:392–394, 409–413, 419, 421, 427, 432

obliquus internus pars ventralis 11:392–394, 409–412, 419, 421, 427

obliquus superior 11:17, 53, 68, 143, 170

obturator externus (see also M. puboischiofemoralis

externus) 21:359

obturator internus (see also M. adductor

femoris; M. ischiotrochantericus; M.

puboischiofemoralis internus, pars anteroventralis) 21:359

occipito-maxillaris (see M. depressor mandibulae)

occipito-nucho-mandibularis 4:324

occipito-quadrato-mandibularis (see M.

depressor mandibulae)

occipito-squamoso-maxillaris (see M. adductor

mandibulae externus)

occipitotransversalis 4:267

occipitotransversalis profundus 4:226

omohyoideus (see also M. coracohyoideus) 4:166; 21:217, 229–230, 233–234, 407

omomastoideus 4:162, 165

orbicularis oris 4:442

palatinus (see M. retractor pterygoidei)

palmaris (see M. palmaris longus)

palmaris brevis (see M. abductor digiti

minimi)

palmaris longus 4:16, 22, 27, 35, 40, 42–43, 46–48, 50–51, 92, 94; 21:294

palpebralis (see M. levator bulbi dorsalis)

palpebralis inferior (see M. levator bulbi

dorsalis)

paraoccipito-mandibularis 4:350, 352

parapophyseo-hypophyseus 11:367, 410–413, 427, 432

parieto-mandibularis (see M. depressor

mandibulae)

parieto-mandibularis profundus (see M.

pseudotemporalis)

parieto-quadrato-mandibularis (see M.

adductor mandibulae externus; M. adductor

mandibulae externus medialis;

M. adductor mandibulae externus

profundus; M. adductor mandibulae

posterior; M. pseudotemporalis)

pectinaeus (see M. adductor femoris)

pectineus (see also M. puboischiofemoralis

internus, pars anteroventralis) 21:359

pectoralis 4:16–17, 25, 27–28, 30–33, 35, 93–94; 5:235; 21:28, 61, 65, 67, 71–72, 86–87, 105, 112, 209, 218, 242–246, 255, 266–270, 274–275, 280, 410

pectoralis major (see also M. pectoralis) 11:293; 15:84

pectoralis major, pars clavicularis (see M.

deltoideus)

peroneus (see also M. peroneus anterior; M.

peroneus posterior) 21:183, 364, 366, 389, 419

peroneus anterior 4:59, 61, 73, 80, 82–84

peroneus brevis (see also M. peroneus posterior) 21:162, 167, 183, 365, 368, 370, 377, 393

peroneus longus (see also M. peroneus anterior) 21:150, 162, 167, 183, 337, 365, 368, 372, 374–375, 377

peroneus posterior 4:59, 80–82

piriformis (see M. caudi-iliofemoralis)

plantaris (see M. flexor digitorum longus; M.

gastrocnemius)

plastro-squamosus 4:165, 169, 174–175, 183

platysma myoides (see M. constrictor colli;

M. intermandibularis)

popliteus 4:59, 83–84, 86, 89; 21:150, 324, 365, 380, 384, 420

posterbito-maxillaris (see M. adductor mandibulae

externus)

postorbito-pterygoideus (see M. levator

pterygoidei)

post-temporalis (see M. adductor mandibulae

externus; M. adductor mandibulae

posterior; M. pseudotemporalis)

post-tympanico-articularis (see M. depressor

mandibulae)

presemimembranosus 15:85

prespheno-palatinus (see M. retractor pterygoidei)

prespheno-pterygoideus (see M. protractor

pterygoidei; M. retractor pterygoidei)

prespheno-vomerinus (see M. retractor vomeris)

pronator (see M. pronator teres)

pronator accessorius 21:292, 300–303, 413

pronator manus proprois (see M. pronator

profundus)

pronator profundus (see also M. popliteus) 4:19, 43, 47–48, 59, 83, 86, 89, 92, 94; 21:115, 125, 168, 177, 292, 294, 302–303, 365, 374, 383, 392–393, 413, 420

pronator profundus pars a (see M. pronator

profundus)

pronator profundus pars b (see M. pronator

teres)

pronator quadratus (see M. adductor digiti

minimi; M. pronator profundus)

pronator teres (see also M. flexor carpi radialis) 4:16, 19, 40, 43, 47–48, 51; 21:292–293, 296, 298–299, 302, 413

protractor laryngis 19:119

protractor pterygoideus(i) 4:104, 289–292, 311, 313, 316, 320–321, 326–327, 336–337, 340–341, 349–350, 352, 354–356, 358–359, 362, 367–372, 375, 378, 380–381, 384–385, 395–396, 406–408, 413, 421, 425, 434, 436– 437, 441–443, 450, 457, 460, 472–473; 11:106, 163, 187; 20:376, 416, 442, 474, 496, 502–504, 508, 528, 565, 589; 21:517, 523, 525

protractor quadrati 4:421, 425, 441–442, 450, 473

protrusor linguae (see M. hypoglossoglossus)

pseudotemporalis 4:102, 107, 111, 113–115, 119,123, 128–129, 131–138, 142–143, 146, 148–151, 286, 289, 300, 312, 314–315, 318, 324, 335–336, 341–342, 345, 349, 351, 357, 364, 368, 371–372, 374, 378, 380, 389, 401–402, 405, 407, 410–411, 416, 423–425, 433–437, 439, 443, 445, 455, 460, 464–466, 469–470, 474

pseudotemporalis profundus 4:289, 301–302, 305–307, 311–313, 318, 323–325, 335, 342, 345–346, 349, 351, 354, 356–357, 359, 365–367, 369, 379–381, 390–392, 402, 404–406, 411, 416, 423

pseudotemporalis profundus a 4:354

pseudotemporalis profundus b 4:354

pseudotemporalis superficialis 4:115, 126, 289, 294–305, 312, 314, 318, 322–324, 328, 333–335, 342, 345–346, 351, 356–357, 359, 366–367,369, 376, 378–381, 389–391, 402–406, 410, 415–417

pseudotemporalis anterior (see M.

pseudotemporalis superficialis)

psoas (see M. puboischiofemoralis internus,

pars posterodorsalis)

pteryoideus (see also M. adductor mandibulae

posterior; M. pseudotemporalis) 4:102, 107–108, 113, 115–118, 123, 125–129, 137, 143, 146, 274–275, 286, 289, 300, 303, 306, 310–311, 315, 318, 320, 322–325, 328–331, 333–337, 342–349, 351, 353–354, 356–357, 359–361, 364–365, 371–372, 376, 378–382, 386–387, 391–393, 395–397, 400, 404–408, 411–412, 416, 424–425, 428, 431–433, 435–440, 442–445, 450–454, 457, 459–460, 464–466, 472, 474; 8:119; 20:25, 37, 53–54, 60, 67, 103–104, 115, 171, 275, 376, 485, 493, 512, 517, 532, 534, 546–547, 574, 592–593

pars rostrolateralis 4:115, 117

pars rostromedialis 4:107, 115–117

pars ventrolateralis 4:197, 116–117

pars ventroposterior 4:107, 116

pterygoideus accessorius 4:289, 424, 433, 435, 437, 439, 441–443, 450, 464, 474–475; 20:474, 482

pterygoideus anterior (see also M. pseudotemporalis;

M. pterygoideus) 4:102, 130–131, 135, 137–138, 149, 142–143, 145–146, 148–151, 223, 248, 272

pterygoideus atypicus 4:289, 291–292, 295, 303, 306, 312–313

pterygoideus dorsalis (see also M. pterygoideus

anterior; M. pterygoideus atypicus) 4:102, 107, 114, 117

pterygoideus externus (see M. pseudotemporalis;

M. pterygoideus; M. pterygoideus

posterior)

pterygoideus glandulae 4:457

pterygoideus internus (see M. levator pterygoidei;

M. protractor pterygoidei; M.

protractor quadrati; M. pseudotemporalis;

M. pterygoideus; M. pterygoideus

accessorius); M. pterygoideus anterior)

pterygoideus posterior (see also M.

pseudotemporalis; M. pterygoideus

accessorius) 4:102, 132–135, 137–142, 145–146, 148–151, 187–190, 240

pterygoideus profundus 4:336–337, 393, 411, 424

pterygoideus superficialis 4:318, 332, 336–338, 393, 411; 20:546

external head 4:336, 338, 340

pterygoideus typicus 4:294, 296, 298, 302–303, 305–307, 312

pterygoideus ventralis (see also M. pterygoideus

posterior) 4:102, 107, 116–117

pterygo-mandibularis (see also M. pterygoideus

accessorius; M. pterygoideus

ventralis) 11:57

pterygo-maxillaris (see M. pseudotemporalis)

pterygoparietalis (see M. levator pterygoidei)

pterygo-quadratus (see M. protractor pterygoidei;

M. protractor quadrati)

pterygosphenoidalis anterior (see M. levator

bulbi; M. levator pterygoidei; M. retractor

pterygoidei; M. retractor vomeris)

pterygo-sphenoidalis posterior (see M.

protractor pterygoidei; M. protractor

quadrati)

pubi-ischio-femoralis externus (see M.

ischiotrochantericus)

pubi-ischio-femoralis internus, pars I (see

M. puboischiofemoralis internus, pars

anteroventralis)

pubi-ischio-femoralis internus, pars III (see

M. puboischiofemoralis internus, pars

posterodorsalis)

pubi-ischio-femoralis posterior (see M.

ischiotrochantericus)

pubi-tibialis (see M. flexor tibialis internus)

pubococcygeus 4:52, 62

pubo-femoralis externus (see M. puboischiofemoralis

externus)

pubo-femoralis internus (see M. puboischiofemoralis

internus, pars anteroventralis)

puboischiofemoralis 15:85, 121, 123; 21:327, 361

puboischiofemoralis externus 4:52–53, 56, 62, 68, 70–71, 77, 95–96; 21:327, 343, 358–360, 362–363, 418

puboischiofemoralis internus 4:5, 52, 56, 61–63, 65–68, 70, 73–74, 77–78, 95–96; 21:338, 340, 345–349, 355, 360, 416

pars anteroventralis 4:63

pars posterodorsalis 4:63

puboischiotibialis (see also M. flexor tibialis

internus) 4:52, 59, 62, 68, 70–71, 76, 79, 83; 15:85; 21:18, 159, 203, 322, 326, 331, 338, 348–353, 362–363, 416

puboischiotibialis externus 21:361

pubotibialis (see also M. ambiens) 4:52, 59, 62, 68, 70–72, 75, 77–80, 83; 21:196, 203, 322, 327, 348–349, 351, 359–363, 371–372, 418

quadrato-mandibuolaris (see M. adductor

mandibulae posterior)

quadratomaxillaris (see M. adductor mandibulae

externus)

quadratus femoris (see M. ischiotrochantericus)

quadratus femoris primordialis (see M.

ischiotrochantericus)

quadratus lumborum 11:379, 427; 21:144

quadriceps 21:150, 153, 158–160

quadriceps femoris 21:154, 203, 327, 340, 348–349, 415

quatuor lumbricalis externus pedis (see M.

flexor digitorum communis sublimis)

radialis brevis externus (see M. extensor

radialis profundus)

radialis externus (see M. extensor radialis intermedius;

M. extensor radialis superficialis)

radialis externus brevis (see M. extensor

radialis profundus; M. extensor radialis

superficialis)

radialis externus longus (see M. extensor radialis

intermedius; M. extensor radialis

superficialis)

radialis internus (see M. flexor carpi radialis;

M. pronator teres)

radialis longus externus (see M. tractor radii)

rectus 11:359–361, 375, 379, 386, 394, 414; 20:540

accesory bundle 4:456

rectus abdominis 1:203, 282; 4:52, 61–62, 77–78, 426; 11:272–273, 293, 361, 378, 385–386, 414; 15:123; 21:17, 218, 268

rectus abdominis superficialis 21:17

rectus anterior 11:68

rectus capitis anterior (see M. basioccipitovertebralis

rectus capitis lateralis 11:363, 366

rectus capitis posterior 11:366

rectus capitis posterior major 11:366–367

rectus cervicis 4:21

rectus femoris (see also M. iliotibialis) 11:274, 310

rectus inferior 11:68; 14:429–430

rectus lateralis 11:363; 14:122

rectus medialis 14:122, 429–430

rectus obliquus inferior 14:122, 429–430

rectus obliquus superior 14:122, 429–430

rectus posterior 11:68

rectus profundus 11:386

rectus superficialis 11:385

rectus superior 11:68; 14:429–430

retractor anguli oris (see also M. adductor

mandibulae externus; M. levator anguli

oris) 4:293, 295–296, 301, 312–313, 333, 387, 408, 414

retractor bulbi 10:238; 20:30, 206, 246; 11:23, 68, 214

retractor bulbi ventralis (see M. retractor

pterygoidei)

retractor capitis collique 11:370

retractor costae biceps 11:402, 425

retractor costae ultimae 11:383

retractor costarum 5:232

retractor dorsalis (see M. caudi-iliofemoralis)

retractor maxillae 4:370, 425, 437–440

retractor membranae nicitans 14:429

retractor oculi 14:429

retractor oris (see M. cervico-mandibularis)

retractor penis 11:272, 285, 288, 291, 296, 300–305, 314, 338

retractor pterygoidei 4:313, 316, 370, 371, 385, 395–396, 408, 421–422, 425, 431, 434, 436–438, 441–443, 445, 450, 457, 473; 11:163; 20:376, 384, 416, 442, 504, 507, 509, 565, 589

retractor quadrati (see also M. cervicomandibularis) 4:434, 447–449, 454, 456, 461–462, 465; 8:84

retractor ventralis (see M. flexor tibialis externus;

M. flexor tibialis internus)

retractor vomeris 4:421, 425, 441, 450, 453, 457, 473; 11:163; 20:476, 556, 558

retrahens capitis collique 11:274–275, 279, 283–284, 286–291, 295–297, 301–302, 304–305, 314, 335, 338, 426

retrahens costarum 11:379, 393, 411, 427

retrahens pelvim 4:61

sacro-femoris (see M. caudi-iliofemoralis)

sacrolumbalis 11:425

sartorius (see also M. pubotibialis; M. ambiens) 11:275, 283, 285, 288–291, 296, 298, 300–307, 309–310, 314; 15:85

scalenus 11:272, 275, 277–278, 285, 287, 321, 327, 329–330

scapulo-claviculo-plastro-humeralis (see M.

deltoideus)

scapulodeltoideus 21:28, 76, 242–243, 247, 252, 254, 256–259, 272–274, 348, 408

scapulodeltoideus anterior 21:243

scapulodeltoideus anticus 21:257, 273

scapulodeltoideus medius 21:242–243, 257–258, 274

scapulo-humeralis (see M. subscapularis)

scapulohumeralis anterior 21:28, 82, 242–243, 252, 258–260, 270, 275, 408

scapulo-humeralis dorsalis (see M. teres

major)

scapulohumeralis posterior 21:244–245, 248–252, 408

scapulo-humeralis profundus 15:84

scapulo-procoraco-plastro-humeralis (see M.

deltoideus)

scapulotriceps 21:97–98, 262

semimembranosus (see also M. flexor tibialis

internus; M. flexor tibialis externus) 11:327, 329–330; 17:469

semispinalis 1:275; 11:358, 362–363, 372, 374, 376–377, 380–381, 383–384, 386–391, 395–401, 404–407, 415–416, 419–421, 424–425, 428–430

semispinalis capitis 11:364, 367

semispinalis cervicis 11:364–365, 368, 424

semitendinosus (see also M. iliofibularis; M.

flexor tibialis externus) 11:290, 327, 332; 17:461, 469

serratus 1:254; 5:235; 11:383; 21:218

serratus anterior 21:28, 217, 225–229, 241, 406

serratus anterior superficialis 21:28, 217, 227–229, 241, 406

serratus superficialis 15:84

soleus (see also M. flexor digitorum longus) 11:275–276, 279, 281, 285, 287, 289, 300–302

spheno-palatinus (see M. retractor pterygoidei)

spheno-pterygoideus (see M. protractor

pterygoidei; M. retractor pterygoidei;

M. retractor vomeris)

spheno-pterygoideus anterior (see M. levator

pterygoidei)

spheno-pterygo-quadratus (see M. protractor

pterygoidei)

spheno-vomerinus (see M. retractor vomeris)

sphincter colli (see also M. constrictor colli; M.

constrictor colli, pars posterior) 2:222

sphincter corticis 4:163, 165

sphincter laryngis (see also M. constrictor

laryngis) 19:118, 120–121

sphincter oris 4:443

spinalis capitis 4:227

splenius capitis 4:111

spinae 11:425

spinalis 11:358, 362–363, 372–373, 376–377, 380–383, 386, 388–391, 396–398, 400–401, 404–407, 415–416, 419–421, 424–425, 429–430

spinalis capitis 11:362–365, 368–369, 424

spinalis cervicis 11:275, 363–365, 368–369, 424

spinalis dorsi 11:363, 424

spino-articularis 11:424–425

splenius capitis 11:275

squamoso-maxillaris (see M. depressor mandibulae)

stapedius 4:166

sternocoracoideus(i) 15:84; 21:71, 218, 230, 236, 238; 21:241

sternocoracoideus externus 21:236, 238, 407

sternocoracoideus internus 21:28, 234, 237–238, 248, 407

sternocostalis 21:238

sternohumeralis anterior 21:255

sternohyoideus (see also M. episternobranchiotendineus) 4:394, 426; 11:368; 21:65, 230

sternomastoideus (see also M. plastro-squamosus) 4:163; 11:274–275; 21:87

sternothyroideus 21:217, 229–230

stiloglossus (see M. hyoglossus)

stilo-hyoideus (see M. branchiohyoideus)

stilo-maxillaris (see M. branchiomandibularis

visceralis)

stylohyoideus 4:308–310

subarcualis ventralis 4:168

subcoracoideus 21:245

subcoracoscapularis 15:84; 21:28, 105, 218, 234, 242, 244–245, 247–251, 257, 408

subcostalis 11:360

subcutaneous colli (see M. constrictor colli;

M. intermandibularis)

suboccipito-articularis (see M. protractor

quadrati)

suboccipito-quadrato-mandibularis (see M.

protractor quadrati)

subscapularis (see also M. coracobrachialis magnus) 4:12, 16, 22–24, 26–27, 31–32, 92–93

subvertebralis 1:202–203, 258, 275, 282; 11:359–361, 367–368, 375, 379–380, 384, 387, 394, 411–414, 421, 426, 428–430, 432

supinator (see M. extensor carpi ulnaris)

supinator brevis (see M. extensor radialis

profundus)

supinator longus (see also M. tractor radii); 21:260–261, 283, 285–288, 292, 411

supinator manus 4:19, 37, 40–41, 50–51, 92, 94; 21:283, 290–292, 412

supinator manus accessorius (see M. supinator

manus)

supraclavicularis (see M. supracoracoideus)

supracoracohumeralis 21:275

supracoracoideus 4:12, 16–17, 22, 25–29, 31–33, 92–93; 21:18, 28, 82, 105, 242–243, 257–259, 266–268, 270–274, 280, 410

supracoracoideus accessorius 21:257, 272–273

supracostalis 11:360

supracostalis dorsalis 11:400, 404–405, 407–408, 425, 431

supracostalis dorsalis brevis 11:422, 425

supracostalis inferior 11:401, 407

supracostalis lateralis 11:361, 407, 419, 423

supracostalis lateralis inferior 11:361, 393, 404–406, 414–415, 418, 422–423, 427

supracostalis lateralis superior 11:393, 401–402, 404–407, 414–416, 418, 422–423, 427

supracostalis ventralis inferior 11:390

supracostalis ventralis pars dorsalis 11:394

supracostalis ventralis pars ventralis 11:394

supracostalis ventralis superior 11:390

supraprocoracoideus (see M. supracoracoideus)

suprascapularis (see also M. supracoracoideus); 21:242–243, 273

suprascapularis anterior 21:273

suprascapularis medialis 21:242–243, 258, 273–274

supraspinatus 21:273–274

symphysialis 4:114

tarso-digitalis (see M. interosseus plantaris)

tarso-digiti I-V (see M. flexor digitorum communis

sublimis; M. lumbricalis)

tarso-digiti II-V (see M. extensor digitorum

brevis)

tarso-digitus I (see M. extensor hallucis proprius)

tarsometatarsalis 21:388

tecto-capitis 4:174

tecto-occipitaliis 4:170

temporalis (see also M. adductor mandibulae

externus; M. adductor mandibulae

externus medialis; M. adductor mandibulae

externus profundus; M. adductor

mandibulae posterior; M. cervicomandibularis;

M. depressor mandibulae;

M. neuro-costo-mandibularis; M.

pseudotemporalis) 4:113

temporalis anterior (see M. adductor mandibulae

externus superficialis; M. compressor

glandulae; M. pseudotemporalis)

temporalis medialis (see M. adductor mandibulae

externus medialis)

temporalis posterior (see M. adductor mandibulae

externus profundus; M. adductor

mandibulae posterior)

temporalis posterior inferior (see M. adductor

mandibulae posterior)

temperalo-maxillaris (see M. adductor mandibulae

externus)

temporo-massetericus (see M. adductor

mandibulae externus)

temporo-maxillaris (see M. adductor mandibulae

posterior)

tendineomandibularis (see M. episternobranchiotendineus)

tendino-articularis 11:358, 372–374, 424, 428

tensor laryngis 19:119

tensor membranae palatini 4:384

tensor tympani (see M. levator pterygoidei;

M. protractor pterygoidei)

tenuissimus 15:85

teres (see M. teres major)

teres major 4:12, 16, 23–28, 92

teres minor (see M. coracobrachialis magnus;

M. supracoracoideus)

testo-capitis lateralis 11:366, 424

testo-capitis medialis 11:363, 424

testocervicalis (see also M. spinalis cervicis) 11:279, 286, 289, 297

testocervicalis lateralis 1:219; 11:424

testocervicalis medialis 11:362–363, 424

testocoracoideus 4:14, 21–22, 25; 5:234

testo-femoralis (see M. iliofemoralis)

testo-humeralis dorsi (see M. latissimus

dorsi)

testoiliacus 4:52, 61–62, 71, 78

testoscapularis 4:12, 21–22, 27

testoscapuloprocoracoideus 4:21

testospinalis capitis 11:363, 369, 424, 428

testospinalis cervicis 11:362, 424

testotransversalis capitis 11:366, 424

testotransversalis cervicis 11:424

tibialis anterior 4:59, 62, 71, 77, 81, 83–84, 89; 11:300–301, 312; 21:159, 208, 365–366, 368–370, 375, 418

tibialis anticus (see M. peroneus anterior; M.

tibialis anterior)

tibialis posterior 21:374

tibialis posticus (see M. popliteus; M. pronator

profundus)

tibiali-tarsum-metatarsum I (see M. tibialis

anterior)

tonus 5:159

tractor radii 4:16, 19, 22–23, 25, 27, 36, 39–40, 48, 50–51

transversalis (see M. genioglossus externus)

transversarius cervicis 11:369, 424

transversarius obliquus cervicis 11:369, 424

transversocorporis 11:426

transversohypapophyseus 1:286; 11:361, 367, 411

transversospinalis 1:202–203; 11:356, 358–359, 362–366, 368–376, 380, 386–391, 395–399, 402, 417–421, 423–425, 428, 430–431; 21:61

transversus 1:202–203; 11:359–360, 375, 378, 383, 387, 391, 393–394, 408, 411, 421, 426

transversus abdominis 5:232–233, 235; 11:371, 426–427; 21:68

transversus abdominis pars dorsalis 11:409

transversus abdominis pars ventralis 11:409

transversus dorsalis 5:232; 11:427

transversus linguae 4:190

transversus pars dorsalis 11:392–393, 410, 412–413, 427

transversus pars ventralis 11:391–393, 410–412, 427

transversus perinei 21:141–142

transversus ventralis 11:427

trapezius 10:210; 21:18, 28, 91, 93, 217–219, 221–224, 228, 233, 236, 241, 245, 247, 405; 11:281

trapezius-episterocle-idomastoideus (complex) 21:217

triceps (see also M. triceps brachii) 21:18, 72, 98, 102, 115, 215, 240, 242, 244, 246, 248, 251, 253, 260–261, 265–266, 274–275, 280, 289, 409

triceps brachii 4:12, 16, 19, 22–25, 27–28, 32– 33, 36, 40–41, 48, 50–51; 11:293; 21:209

humeral head 4:24, 27–28

scapular head 4:24–28, 92

triceps complex 21:262

triceps femoris

caput ischiadicum 4:65, 68, 73, 77

pars ambiens (see M. ambiens)

pars femorotibialis (see M. femorotibialis)

pars iliotibialis (see M. iliotibialis)

triceps femoris adductor (see M. puboischiofemoralis

externus)

tuberculo-costalis 1:278; 11:361, 390, 392–393, 420, 422, 427–428, 430

ulna-carpali-metacarpalis I (see M. pronator

profundus)

ulnacarpalis (see M. pronator profundus)

ulna-carpo-radialis (see M. supinator manus)

ulna-carpo-ulnaris (see M. extensor carpi

ulnaris; M. flexor carpi ulnaris)

ulna-digiti I–V (see M. flexor digitorum

longus)

ulnaris externus (see M. extensor carpi

ulnaris; M. extensor carpi ulnaris accessorius;

M. flexor carpi ulnaris)

ulnaris internus (see M. flexor carpi ulnaris)

uncinocostalis brevis 11:378–379, 427

uncinocostalis longus 11:378–379, 427

vastus externus (see M. femorotibialis)

vastus femoris

capites internum et externum (see M.

femorotibialis)

caput longum (see M. triceps femoris,

caput ischiadicum)

caput rectum (see M. ambiens)

vastus internus (see M. femorotibialis)

vastus ischiadicus (see M. pubotibialis)

vastus medialis (see M. femorotibialis)

vertebro-mandibularis (see M. neuro-costomandibularis)

verticalis linguae 4:173

vomero-sphenoideus (see M. retractor vomeris)

zygomasticomandibularis 4:102, 107, 110, 113

Museums 14:14

Mushroom body 2:118, 122–123, 126, 141–143, 161, 164, 172; 11:110, 120, 142, 152; 18:430, 433–435, 493

Musk 18:120, 122–123, 198–203

gland(s) (see also Gland, musk) 14:177, 413, 442

Muskelleiste 5:278–279; 19:386, 427

Mustela vison 21:336

Mutants

limb 14:7

scaleless 14:7

Mutations

and limb reduction 15:128, 131, 133

and origins of clones 15:510, 514

degenerative 15:128

deleterious 15:504–506, 508, 510

in parthenogenetic forms 15:488, 491, 508

pleiotropic effects 15:131

Muzzle unit 20:54, 56–60, 118

Myasthenia gravis 3:126; 14:623, 666

Mycotoxins 19:517

Myelencephalon (see also Medulla) 9:55, 58, 174, 177; 10:201; 14:128

Myelin 3:337, 341–342

Myelinated fibers 2:39, 278, 282, 285, 310

Myeloblast 3:74, 126

Myeloid body 2:33

Myelopoietic activity 19:554

Myenteric plexus 10:2; 17:676

Myersophis 19:233

alpestris 19:209

Mylohyoid 21:597

foramen 20:36, 90, 127, 148, 157, 164, 193, 208, 216, 224

muscle 6:407

ramus of the mandibular (V3) nerve 21:604

Myoblast(s) 3:125; 6:92; 11:294; 14:155, 623; 15:353, 356, 360

Myocardial

contractility 5:299

depression 8:481

Myocardium 5:279, 290–291, 320–321, 325; 8:509; 19:376, 381–384, 386, 399, 401, 407, 413, 451–452, 454

Myocoele (see also Provertebral cavity) 14:429– 430

Myodome 4:224, 228

Myoepithelial 8:122

Myoepithelioid cell (see Myoid cell)

Myofibril 17:465

Myofibrillar ATPase (see also ATPase) 11:280

Myofibrils 2:122, 124–125; 11:269, 273, 282, 296, 298, 300, 306, 334; 13:95; 14:622

Myofilaments 3:124–125; 11:315

Myogenesis 3:126; 14:622; 15:356

Myogenic autoregulation of blood flow 12:245

Myoglobin 5:184, 252; 8:508; 11:280–281, 293; 13:24; 19:333

Myoglobinuria 8:507–508

Myoglobinuric nephrosis 8:509

Myoid 2:34–35, 54, 56, 58, 60, 62, 76; 17:22, 24–27

cell(s) 3:119–120, 123–126, 129; 11:294; 14:618, 620, 622–623, 625–626

Myology 19:95; 21:6, 192, 202, 209, 218

Myoloid elements 1:55

Myomere(s) 11:355, 403; 15:368

Myomeric segmentation 1:222; 11:376, 380, 382, 387, 403, 423, 429

Myoneural junction (see Neuromuscular

junction)

Myoseptum 11:355–356, 359, 375–376, 381–383, 385, 387–388, 391, 403, 428–429

Myosin 11:267, 291, 295, 297–299, 321; 19:497

ATPase 5:208; 12:168; 17:465

Myosinadenosinetriphosphatase 5:9, 204

Myotendinal junction 11:333–334

Myotome 6:456; 11:355; 14:121, 153–154; 15:310

Myotube region 17:464

Myristic acid 18:194

Myrmecodaptria 20:118

microphagosa 20:291

Myron 19:228

richardsoni 19:209; 20:570–571, 580, 631

Mysis 13:260

Mysticeti 19:538

Mystriosaurus, skull 4:276, 278

Myxiniformes 19:561

Myxinoid(s) 10:11; 14:616

 

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