Biology of the Reptilia: Index S

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Saccular

macula 2:204, 208–210, 218, 257, 263

scala (see Scala sacculi)

Saccule 2:196, 203–204, 207–210, 218–219, 228–229, 231, 234, 236–239, 242–250, 252–253, 255–260; 17:5

Sacculocochlear duct (see Reunient duct)

Sacculus 9:13, 15; 11:26, 84, 140, 148; 21:503

Saccus

endolymphaticus 3:37

lacrimalis 4:109

lacrymalis (see Lachrymal sinus)

Sacral

anomalies 1:264

plexus(i) 6:318–319, 337–338, 342, 347–348, 357, 393, 396–397, 403–404, 422, 424, 434, 442; 21:35, 325–326, 333

region 10:2

rib(s) 1:32, 208, 222, 225–226, 232–233, 238, 263–265, 300, 322; 4:65

vertebrae 1:203, 205, 208, 224–226, 232–233, 235, 238, 240, 263–267, 273, 282, 293–294, 300, 322, 324; 21:143–144, 357

vesicle 6:452

Sacroiliac articulation 21:143, 320

Sacrolumbar plexus 15:84

Sacrum (see also Sacral vertebrae) 4:52, 55, 62, 65–66, 71–72, 75, 95; 6:338; 21:140

Saculus 10:215

Safety test 8:580

Saffranophily 6:68–69

Sagittal

crest 11:218–219, 227; 20:426, 446, 477

flexure of neck 1:213

Sagittarius 16:6, 10, 167

Saimiri 10:93

Saiphos 15:639–640, 643, 651, 662, 670, 675; 21:399

equalis 21:403

Sakaguchi reaction 3:41

Sakter (see also Extraconchal space) 21:560

Salamanders 12:69, 398, 453; 13:191; 16:8–9, 112; 21:37, 41, 385

autotomy 15:303, 305, 344

Salamandra 5:22; 8:3; 9:156

Saline control 5:38

Salinity 12:358–359

Saliva 5:70; 8:94, 148, 698

secretion 8:605

Salivary

fluid 5:415

gland(s) 4:383, 444; 5:415; 8:1, 70, 698; 10:26; 14:427, 515

Salmo 19:324

Salomonelaps 8:25; 19:223

par 8:25; 19:143, 198; 20:550, 629

Salmonella 5:27, 30; 14:647–648, 651–652, 657, 659

blood chemistry 3:35

Salt 3:1, 3, 53

availability 3:14–15

balance 5:38

exchanges 5:388, 391

excretion 2:67, 176, 180; 5:390, 402, 415, 423, 457

gland(s) 5:10, 101, 390, 394, 396, 402, 408, 413, 420, 441, 447; 8:59, 63; 12:325, 344–348, 354, 358–359, 363–364, 366, 371, 374–386, 497

gland activity 5:101, 422, 424, 436

gland evolution 5:436

intake 5:391

load 12:254

loading 5:415, 422, 437, 440, 451–457, 466, 469, 472, 475, 478

loss 5:389

metabolism 5:394

-secreting tissues 5:430

-secreting system 8:3

solutions 5:388, 414

Salts 5:58, 366, 370, 385, 391, 396, 402, 422, 427, 436, 440

Salvadora 5:134, 148–149; 7:227; 12:129–130; 15:617; 16:120, 148; 19:231

bairdi(i) 19:214; 20:643

deserticola 19:214

ear 2:272

grahami(iae) 19:214; 20:643

hexalepis 19:214; 20:643

intermedia 19:142, 214; 20:643

lemniscata 19:214; 20:643

mexicana 19:214; 20:643

Sammelgang (see Terminal segment of uriniferous

tubule)

Sammelrohr (see Distal segment of uriniferous

tubule)

Sampling

artifacts 5:29

errors 5:143

methods 5:59, 61

of salt gland secretions 5:102

size 5:175

Sand boa (see Eryx)

-dwelling adaptations (see Arenicolous adaptations)

Sand lizards (see also Uma) 20:87

Sandswimming 21:57

Sanitation 5:25–26

Saniwa 20:226, 228, 234

axial skeleton 1:250

ensidens 20:303

Saniwinae, dentition 1:170

Sanzinia 15:646; 19:104, 235; 21:479, 610

axial muscles 11:395

axial skeleton 1:283, 291

chondrocranium 11:169, 171–172, 174, 186

jaw muscles 4:481

madagascariensis 19:189; 20:606

pancreas 3:323

pit organs 2:290, 304

Saphenophis 19:227

antioquiensis 20:655

boursieri 19:214; 20:655

sneiderni 20:655

Saphenous nerve 2:294

Sapheosaurus 9:297; 15:339

axial skeleton 1:234

dentition 1:153

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:104, 106

Saponin 8:487, 566

Saproscincus 21:397

tetradactyla 21:400

Sarcolemma 11:268, 276, 293

Sarcomere(s) 11:267–268, 273–274, 277, 302, 312, 320; 17:464

Sarcoplasmic reticulum 3:125; 8:291, 466; 11:267, 269, 273, 276, 293–294, 297–299, 305, 308, 310, 315, 216, 338; 13:95

Sarcosuchus, skull 4:280–281

Sarcotubules 11:265, 267–268, 271, 274–275, 279, 284, 288, 293–297, 305, 321, 335

Sartorius 17:457, 461

Satellite cell 11:266, 320

Sator 12:102; 18:382

angustus 18:362

grandaevus 18:362; 20:293

Saturation deficit 5:104, 370, 374

Sauranodon 9:297

Sauria (see also Lizards) 5:145, 254, 347, 349, 367, 369, 373, 377, 379, 383, 386, 393, 399, 449, 453–454, 457, 466–467, 487, 489; 7:6, 8–10, 14, 17–18, 20, 24, 68, 98, 102, 158–201, 265–321, 351–378, 456, 465–497, 571, 585–587, 592–594, 596–599, 605–606, 612–613, 617, 623–624, 628, 630, 634, 637, 644–645, 657–663; 19:21–33, 132, 134, 379, 387, 397, 406–412, 415, 579; 21:9

adrenal 3:267, 271, 273–274, 294

axial muscles 11:357, 361, 372, 380–389, 391, 394–396, 402, 411, 417, 421, 425, 427, 429–432

axial skeleton 1:204, 226, 241–271, 276, 280–282, 285, 287–288, 293–294, 301

blood cell morphology 3:75–77, 79, 81, 83–85, 88

blood cell numbers 3:94, 96–98, 100

blood chemistry 3:2–6, 9–10, 13–20, 22, 26, 28, 30–31, 36, 38–39, 45–46, 52–53

bone 1:47, 61–63, 71, 75

chondrocranium 11:2–4, 7, 9, 12, 18, 20, 22–23, 27, 29–34, 36, 39–114, 116, 118, 120–121, 123, 125, 130–132, 134, 139, 142, 144–147, 149–151, 154–159, 161–162, 167, 169, 171–172, 174, 177–178, 182, 184, 188, 190, 192–204, 206, 210, 216, 219, 221, 232, 234, 236, 239, 245–246

dentition 1:121, 127–128, 133, 135–138, 148, 153–171, 178

ear 2:194–224, 226, 229–230, 232–233, 235–254, 256, 258, 261–263, 265–268, 270–271

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:84, 90, 92–104, 106, 108–109, 111–112

eye 2:1–48, 53–54, 63–65, 67–73, 81–83, 85–90

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:152, 168

histology of gut 6:226, 244, 246–248, 265, 271–274, 277, 279–280, 287, 296, 301

internal relief of gut 6:159, 177–190, 197, 214, 218, 220–221

jaw muscles 4:286–289, 293, 300–301, 303, 305, 311–424, 430–431, 439, 466–471, 477–479

limbs 4:31, 34, 46, 48, 50, 63, 65, 72, 74–76, 79, 89

lymphatics 6:316–317, 320, 327, 332, 336, 343, 346, 349, 355, 358, 361, 367, 372, 381–385, 392–393, 395, 404, 406–407, 409–410, 413–416, 424, 432, 437, 452–453

muscle tissue 11:272, 275, 278, 283–285, 288, 290–291, 294–295, 322–323, 325, 327, 330, 332, 336, 338

nose 2:100–101, 119–121, 127–128, 130, 135, 137–142, 144, 161, 171–172, 176, 178–179, 183–184

origin and evolution 1:1–2, 5–6

pancreas 3:322, 331

parathyroid 3:247, 250–259

pit organs 2:278, 301

pituitary 3:135–136, 140, 142, 159–160, 163, 165–166, 179, 193, 195

taxonomic literature 2:320–324

thymus 3:112–114, 117–118, 121, 124

thyroid 3:203–207, 210, 214, 216, 218, 221, 223, 225–227

urinogenital system 6:4, 8, 12, 14–15, 20–21, 24–27, 29, 31–33, 35–38, 41, 44, 49, 51, 54, 56, 58–59, 66–68, 70–71, 73, 78, 81, 83–85, 87, 90, 92, 95–99, 101–103, 105–107, 111, 113–114, 116, 119–120

Saurian

glands 5:440

kidneys 5:490

level of metabolism 5:159

patterns of metabolism 5:144

thyroids 5:198

Saurischia 7:6; 9:55–56, 66, 89, 103, 304

bone 1:73

chondrocranium 11:246

dentition 1:186–187

eye 2:80

origin and evolution 1:2

Saurischian dinosaurs 19:72

Saurodactylus

eye 2:23

mauritanicus 20:306

Saurolophus, eye 2:80

Sauromalus 5:11, 131–132, 141–144, 160, 166, 170–172, 178, 181, 183, 187–188, 194, 200, 202–205, 207, 227, 229, 239, 245, 249, 264, 337, 342, 353, 355, 367, 369, 373–379, 385, 390, 392, 399–400, 402–405, 408, 420, 423, 428–429, 459, 491; 7:16, 21, 50, 54, 165, 168, 176, 182, 187, 270, 272, 275, 303, 305, 308, 310, 368, 438, 480; 8:602, 629, 631, 633–634, 644, 656–657, 683; 9:373; 12:7, 64, 102, 178, 185, 203, 253, 289, 330, 338, 346–347, 349, 353, 355, 358, 366, 375, 383–384, 429, 460, 474, 487–488, 496; 13:34, 36–37, 62, 66, 82, 120, 128, 135–137, 161, 165, 211, 295, 299, 308; 14:648, 658, 663; 15:330, 346; 16:11, 23, 68, 116, 131, 140, 260–261, 461, 464–465, 514; 18:173, 334; 20:45, 80, 82, 84, 89, 100, 293; 21:139, 143, 145–146, 218, 220, 223, 279

blood chemistry 3:5, 9, 13–15, 43

dentition 1:155–156

ear 2:237, 266, 271

hispidus 19:60, 79, 346, 355; 20:305

internal relief of gut 6:179–180, 188

jaw muscles 4:477

klauberi 20:86, 292

nose 2:119, 128, 178

obesus 18:174, 261; 19:79, 299, 355; 20:81, 293, 305

obesus obesus 18:173

obesus tumidus 18:334

Saurophagous 20:549

Sauropod 9:51, 57–58

Sauropoda 19:74

dentition 1:187

nose 2:152

Sauropodomorpha 9:66, 98

Sauropsida, adrenal 3:286–287

Sauropterygia 7:6; 9:67, 118, 298, 304

dentition 1:191–192

Saurornithoides 9:92

Saurosternon 15:340; 21:121, 186

Saurothera 16:13

Savannah monitor (see Varanus)

Scala

lagenae 2:218–219, 236, 238–239, 242, 244, 249–250, 254, 261

sacculi 2:218–219, 238–239, 242–245, 247, 249–250, 255

tympani 2:220, 234, 242, 247, 255, 261; 9:13–15

vestubuli 2:218, 221, 234, 242, 244, 248, 255, 258–259, 261

Scale(s) (see also Epidermal shields; Morphology) 1:27; 2:193, 196, 221; 5:88, 101, 249, 374, 378; 12:401, 404–408, 423, 456–457; 18:151, 167, 194, 199

abdominal 14:572–573, 575

asymmetrization 14:536

axillary 14:527

caudal 15:321, 328

characters 15:440, 466, 468

circumorbital 15:469, 471, 473–474, 477

counts 15:440, 481–482, 485

development 14:296, 300, 405–407, 411, 450, 511, 526, 531–532, 536, 565, 581, 588; 15:16, 356–358, 387

head 14:300; 15:473

interlabial 15:369, 474, 477

neogenesis 14:564–567, 571, 580, 584

organ(s) 2:279; 11:84

parietal 14:296, 299

pattern 14:536; 15:367, 466, 468, 470

periocular 14:296, 299

regeneration 15:367

structure and habitat 12:406, 456–457

sub-caudal 15:654

tail 15:321, 328

tarsometatarsal 14:536

toe lamellar 15:469, 474

variation 14:532, 563

Scaleless, reptiles 12:408, 456

Scaling (see Body size)

Scalopocynodon 9:299

Scandensia 21:81, 90, 97, 145

ciervensis 21:123, 151

Scansorial pad 15:345, 367, 376

Scaphiodontophis 15:337; 16:148, 189–190, 230, 259; 19:224; 21:602

annulatus 19:153, 214; 20:643

axial skeleton 1:299

venuistissimus 20:643

zeteki 20:643

Scaphiophis 19:231; 20:420, 554, 559, 574

albopunctatus 19:153, 214; 20:553, 575, 580, 634

Scaphiopus, jaw muscles 4:482; 16:242

Scaphonyx 9:297

bone 1:63

Scaptira (see Eremias)

Scapula 1:19, 82, 224; 4:13–14, 23–24, 27–28; 14:155–156; 21:13, 29–30, 32, 71, 73–77, 80, 83–84, 98, 217, 222, 224, 227–228, 234, 238, 244–245, 248–249, 251–253, 256–259, 265–266, 270–273, 276, 278

Scapular

fenestra 21:74, 78, 256

lymphatics 6:377

prong 4:12–13, 15, 21, 24–27, 31, 93

region 1:282

sinus 6:324

Scapuloclavicular ligament 3:203

Scapulocoracoid 1:18, 254; 21:10, 12, 45, 59–60, 62, 75, 77–79, 81, 83–85, 93–94, 96, 98–99, 135, 227, 229, 243–244, 258, 262, 270

emargination 21:80–81

fenestra 21:30, 74, 76, 80, 82, 248–250, 258, 270

matrix 21:78

plate 21:71–73, 77–80, 84

rays 21:73

suture 21:75, 78

Scapulodeltoideus 21:31, 212

anterior 21:242

Scapulohumeral

articulation 21:103

ligament 21:97, 248, 263, 265–266

plexus 6:375, 388–389

Scapulohumeralis

anterior 21:30–31, 212

posterior 21:212, 242

Scapulosternal ligament 21:98

Scar tissue 1:323

Scavening behavior 18:487

Scelidosaurus 9:111

Sceloporinae, eye 2:25, 31

Sceloporus 5:33, 132, 138, 140, 142–144, 158, 162, 164–167, 170–171, 174, 189, 193–195, 198, 252–253, 255, 264, 298, 393, 420, 428, 454, 456, 464, 466, 468–470, 475, 477, 479–480, 490, 494; 7:49–51, 53, 55–57, 68–69, 99, 101, 104, 113–114, 148, 163, 165, 168, 170, 173–174, 177–188, 191, 196–198, 244, 246–247, 262, 270, 273, 275, 281, 308–311, 365, 367–369, 406–408, 410–412, 414, 419, 430–434, 438, 442–443, 452, 480–483, 567, 624; 8:596, 606, 657, 683–684; 9:251, 265, 271–273, 330, 340, 342, 346, 384–385; 12:42–43, 52, 61, 64–65, 68–71, 96, 102, 184, 203, 225, 230–231, 234–236, 241, 257, 369, 376, 384, 456–457, 462, 471, 488; 13:57–59, 62, 67–68, 72, 76–79, 83, 91, 93, 95, 97–98, 103, 105, 109, 111, 113–114, 116–118, 120, 122–123, 125–126, 128, 130, 133, 137, 161, 167, 177, 179–185, 187–188, 190, 203, 207, 211, 214, 216, 219–220, 235, 237, 240, 249–252, 255–260, 263–265, 289, 296–297, 299–300, 307, 309, 311; 14:28, 64, 185; 15:41–42, 47–50, 329, 342, 348–349, 374, 507, 532, 536, 543, 550, 552, 579, 583–585, 587–589, 613, 617, 620, 622–623, 633–635, 661–662, 666, 669, 671, 674, 676; 16:8–9, 15, 17,21, 23, 49–50, 116–117, 125, 140, 241–242, 248, 339, 342, 363, 446, 463–465, 474–476, 514–515, 531, 544, 565, 568; 17:8, 10, 26, 626, 631; 18:166–168, 177, 330, 333–334, 336–338, 383; 20:45, 79–80, 82–83, 86, 90, 293; 21:7, 66, 145, 190, 208, 220, 223, 235, 240, 266, 279, 294, 297, 301, 352, 361

adrenal 3:280

aeneus 18:4

augustus 20:305

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:252

biseriatus 19:488

blood cell numbers 3:97, 104

blood chemistry 3:5, 9, 38, 43

chondrocranium 11:86–90, 92, 96

clarki(i) 18:243, 254; 20:305; 21:44, 46–48, 52

cyanogenys 18:328, 338; 21:190

dentition 1:153, 156

ear 2:237, 266, 271

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:102

eye 2:26, 28

grammicus microlepidotus 18:30

grandaevus 20:293, 305; 21:67

histology of gut 6:275

internal relief of gut 6:177, 179, 181–182, 184

jarrovi 18:50, 73, 89–90, 92, 173, 175–177, 463–464, 472; 20:305

jaw muscles 4:477

magister 18:243, 254, 265; 20:305; 21:190

malachiticus 18:469

nose 2:119, 128

occidentalis 18:99, 178–179, 239, 243–248, 252–254, 260, 263–264, 267, 317, 322, 338–339, 386, 472–473; 19:487, 489, 506, 525; 20:305; 21:190, 208

occidentalis biseriatus 18:180

olivaceus 18:243–244, 246–249, 254, 328, 339

orcutti 18:261

parathyroid 3:259

pituitary 3:141, 147, 170

spinosus 20:305

thyroid 3:213–217, 221–223, 227

torquatus 18:173, 383; 20:305

undulatus 18:189–190, 261, 264, 334, 336–337, 380, 387, 397

undulatus consobrinus 18:337–338

undulatus erythrocheilus 18:338–339

undulatus tristichus 18:337–338

undulatus undulatus 18:167

urinogenital system 6:24, 26–27, 38, 59, 62, 68, 70, 72–73, 77, 81, 87–89, 93, 97, 100, 102–104, 116, 118, 121

variabilis 21:37

virgatus 18:177, 264, 276, 337, 357, 362–363, 370, 376, 380, 472

woodi 18:362

Scelotes 15:100–101, 110–115, 121–123, 131–132, 636; 16:118, 266; 20:138, 140, 144–145, 298; 21:399

axial muscles 11:357

axial skeleton 1:253, 266, 270

bipes 20:298

chondrocranium 11:65

ear 2:224, 244,267, 271

nose 2:120, 140

Scent

gland(s) (see also Gland; Pheromone) 6:296

trails (see Pheromone trail)

Schaltstück of uriniferous tubule (see Distal

segment of uriniferous tubule)

Schleifenstück of uriniferous tubule (see Intermediate

segment of uriniferous tubule)

Schleimzellen (see Mucous cells)

Schliessmuskel 2:222

Schmeckzellen (see Neuroepithelial cells)

Schnabel technique 16:345

Schultheis quick-reading thermometer 5:31

Schumacher-Eschmeyer technique 16:343, 346

Schutz-Dale 8:371

Schwann cell (sheath) 2:167, 285, 305–306; 8:470; 9:414, 417–419, 423, 431, 436

Sciatic vein 6:30, 395

Scincella 7:viii, 51, 100, 159, 163, 167, 173, 179, 183, 196–187, 191, 286–287, 494; 9:332; 12:113–114; 13:181, 184, 210; 15:325, 341, 347, 351, 353, 358, 362, 374, 389, 391, 639, 643, 670; 16:118, 141, 239–240, 248, 250, 254–255, 261, 464–465, 517; 20:43, 140; 21:397

lateralis 18:182–183, 190, 469, 473; 20:298; 21:308

muscle tissue 11:266

urinogenital system 6:58

Scincidae (scincid) 5:172, 192, 421, 423; 7:9, 21, 51, 162, 166–167, 179, 263, 286–289, 318, 366, 373–374, 377–378, 492–494; 8:46, 52, 57, 634, 686–688; 9:161, 163, 251, 332, 338–340, 344–346, 361–364, 374, 377; 12:60, 99, 111–115, 379, 472; 13:166; 14:5, 29, 502, 543, 664, 712; 15:7, 44, 84, 115, 129, 306, 324–325, 333–334, 342, 366, 376, 380, 389, 532, 618, 624, 636–645, 663–664, 667–668, 670–672; 16:34–35, 51, 59, 117–118, 123, 141, 257, 282–284, 296, 315, 455, 465, 483, 486, 516–517, 543; 17:248; 19:21, 38, 41, 409–410, 523; 20:15, 43, 45, 53, 57–58, 78, 90, 126, 137–141, 143, 145, 147, 150, 152, 156–158, 160, 163, 170–172, 184, 190, 192, 194, 242, 245, 247, 252–261, 264–271, 273–274, 285, 307; 21:14, 17, 58, 60, 67, 80, 89, 107, 117, 134, 141–142, 153, 222–223, 249–250, 259, 265–266, 271–272, 278–279, 288–289, 396–404, 546

adrenal 3:280, 283

axial muscles 11:357, 384, 386, 422

axial skeleton 1:241–143, 247, 251, 253–255, 258–260, 262–264, 266–267, 269–270, 281

blood cell morphology 3:77

blood chemistry 3:28, 31, 50

chondrocranium 11:7, 19, 23, 57, 61, 65–71, 78, 85, 105, 146, 159, 188, 197

dentition 1:149, 165–166

ear 2:222, 224, 240–241, 244–246, 267, 271

eggs 20:549

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:96

eye 2:13–14, 20, 27, 29–31, 87, 89

histology of gut 6:229, 299

internal relief of gut 6:177

jaw muscles 4:289, 358–361, 413, 418, 420, 470, 478

nose 2:120, 127, 132, 138–140, 143, 178

parathyroid 3:255

pituitary 3:136, 139, 145–146, 150–152, 154– 155, 157, 160, 174–175, 192, 194–195

thyroid 3:205

urinogenital system 6:63, 68, 98

Scincinae 20:138, 140–1432, 144, 146–148, 267, 307

Scincogekkonomorpha 21:17–18, 91, 222, 249– 251, 255, 259–260, 266, 279, 301, 350, 375

Scincoidea 20:137, 159, 280

axial skeleton 1:257

blood cell morphology 3:79–81

pituitary 3:194

Scincomorpha 8:151; 9:338; 15:324–326; 19:11, 27–28, 69; 20:75, 116, 137, 241, 254, 261, 269, 284, 352; 21:9, 18, 60, 89, 96, 112–113, 279

adrenal 3:283–284, 286, 297

axial skeleton 1:242, 246, 259, 262, 265, 267, 293

chondrocranium 11:39–73, 102

dentition 1:164–168

jaw muscles 4:350, 359, 365, 368, 392, 418

pituitary 3:136, 194

thyroid 3:205

Sincopus 21:399

Scincus 7:288, 307; 8:687; 9:151, 153, 157, 332; 12:113, 334, 351–352; 13:87, 95; 15:115, 636, 638, 670; 16:118, 141; 17:208–209; 19:544; 20:138, 142, 146, 148–149, 298, 307; 21:51, 89, 96, 123, 145, 155, 172, 229, 275, 294, 298, 302, 375, 386

axial skeleton 1:257–258, 270

blood cell morphology 3:77, 81

dentition 1:165

ear 2:271

eye 2:14, 27, 30

internal relief of gut 6:177, 183

jaw muscles 4:478

mitranus 20:307

nose 2:120

parathyroid 3:255, 257

pituitary 3:192

scincus 18:469; 19:550, 579; 20:142, 145, 298; 21:396

thymus 3:112

urinogenital system 6:38–39, 57, 61, 67

Sclera 2:5, 15–18, 20, 22, 24, 31–33, 40–41, 50–52, 64–65, 68, 70, 74–75; 11:84, 143, 157, 170, 179, 220, 244

Scleral

cartilage 2:15–16, 19–20, 23–24, 41, 50, 64, 68–69, 75, 84, 87; 11:17, 24, 39, 50, 53, 63, 105–106, 124, 128, 157, 203, 212

(direction of eye) 2:3

ossicle 2:2, 15–21, 23–32, 50, 64–65, 68–70, 75, 79–84, 87, 89, 92; 4:279; 11:17, 24, 39, 63, 84, 105–106, 128, 157, 203, 220, 244; 14:132, 133, 173, 296, 314, 616, 651; 20:142, 145, 298

papillae 14:132, 173

ring (see Scleral ossicle)

Scleroblasts 14:529

Sclero-corneal junction 2:15, 50, 70, 74

Sceleroglossa 19:21; 20:17, 42, 49, 52, 54, 56, 59, 75–76, 78, 82, 84, 86, 116, 122–124, 147–148, 155, 164, 170, 172, 176, 182, 191, 193, 204, 210, 214–215, 222, 241, 252–257, 259–262, 264, 266, 268–272, 274, 277, 280–284, 286–288, 352, 368, 395, 585

Scleroglossa 21:16

Sclerosed cartilage 1:90, 93

Sclerotomal segmentation 11:38, 355

Sclerotome(s) 1:226, 236; 14:121, 152–153, 435; 15:310–311

Sclerotomite(s) 1:226, 236; 15:310

Scolecophidia (see also Typhlopoidea) 8:148– 151; 16:37–39, 151; 19:95, 125, 129, 138, 144–145, 149–150, 165, 170; 20:353, 364– 367, 369–370, 372, 390, 392, 394–398, 400, 585, 589–590, 594–595, 597; 21:478, 484, 507–508, 512–513, 534, 536–541, 546–547, 549–553, 557–558, 560–561, 564, 568–569, 572–573, 575–576, 581–583, 589, 593–597, 600–601, 603, 607, 609, 614

axial muscles 11:399, 411, 417–423, 430–431

chondrocranium 11:4, 152, 180–185, 200–201

internal relief of gut 6:192, 196

urinogenital system 6:113

Scolecophidian 17:216; 21:614

Scolecophis 16:179; 19:232

atrocinctus 19:153, 214

Scoliosis 14:455–456

Scope for activity (see Aerobic metabolism,

aerobic scope)

Scorpaeniformes 19:566

Scorpions 12:418; 21:45

Scotophase 12:227–228

Scotopic

cones (see Polysynaptic cells)

pigments 2:3, 45, 84, 91–92

spectral sensitivity 7:620–621

Screen phosphor 5:85

Sculling 21:56

Scute(s) (see also Epidermal shields) 5:105

abdominal 14:299

clipping (see Marking methods)

development 14:281, 294, 296, 450

inframarginal 14:296, 299

keratinous 14:157

marginal 14:176, 226, 296

thoracic 14:299

vertebral 14:176, 226

Scutellation 19:99, 168

of carapace 14:101

Scutosaurus 9:296

Scylacosaurus 9:299

Scyliorhinus 9:155–156

Scymnognathus 9:299

Scytale guerini 20:655

Sea

snake (see also Hydrophiidae) 13:2–4, 6, 8, 12, 14, 17, 21, 24–25, 27, 29, 31–33, 35, 39–40, 57; 21:571

turtle 7:465; 13:2–3, 17, 25, 32–33, 56, 59, 276; 19:19–20, 66, 68–69

water 3:15; 5:366, 380, 388–389, 391, 397, 408, 415–416, 422–423, 436, 440

acclimation 12:364, 430

Seal 8:609

Sealing materials 5:65, 98–100

Season 12:224, 230, 240, 250–251, 256–258, 293, 302, 308, 340, 343, 489

Seasonal

adaptation 12:243

changes in body temperature 5:165–166

cycle(s) 3:19, 21–22, 30, 53, 73, 85, 93, 99–102, 104–107, 128–129, 157, 209, 214–219, 223, 257, 269, 292, 294, 311–312; 5:34, 128–129; 6:37–38, 41, 58–59, 61–65, 67–68, 70–79, 82–84, 87–88, 90–92, 94–95, 99–100, 104–105, 117, 121–122; 13:53, 59, 61, 65–67, 73–83, 101, 295

differences 5:165, 210

fluctuations in metabolic rate 5:167

layering of bone 1:69

metabolic activity 1:319

rhythm 5:169

status 5:3

variations 5:9, 33, 35, 167, 255; 8:639, 642; 19:554

in body composition 13:136–138

Sebaceous gland 18:122

Sebecosuchia 9:83

Sebecosuchia

dentition 1:186

eye 2:73

skull 4:264–268, 270, 273–277, 279

Sebecus 9:81, 83–84

skull 4:270, 273, 279

Second

distal carpal 21:10

distal tarsal 21:10, 176

metacarpal 21:127, 285

metatarsal 21:175, 177, 179–180, 387, 389

order pathway 10:122

messenger 19:495

Secondary

anterior cerebral vein 2:50

anterior vidian foramen 20:416, 422, 427, 471, 484

bone 1:153

bony armor (see Epithecal shell)

cartilage 11:5, 10

centers of calcification 1:92, 97, 106, 111

choana (see Choana)

coracoid fenestra 21:73, 82, 274, 278

coracoid ray 21:234

endosteal bone 1:61

eyelid 2:14

girdle 21:281

Haversian systems 1:61, 77

hypapophysis (see Paraseptal apophysis)

neural spine (see Dorsal paraseptal apophysis)

osteone 1:46–47, 56–58, 73

palate 1:8, 12; 2:101–102, 113, 137–138, 142, 145, 151, 153, 173; 4:202, 212, 223, 229–231, 234, 252–253, 265, 271–273, 276; 6:226; 11:61, 70, 120, 218, 244–245; 18:433; 20:14–15, 109, 120, 140, 145–146, 149, 152, 157, 167, 184, 188, 240, 243, 247, 265–266, 387, 400, 410, 419, 424

rods 2:84

sexual characteristics 6:71–72, 75, 77, 83, 116, 121; 15:280; 16:209–210, 354–356

trabeculae 1:54

tympanic membrane 2:197, 219–220, 222, 224–225, 227, 229–230, 233–234, 238, 242, 244, 246–248, 261–262; 11:27–29, 69, 145–146, 237–238, 246; 20:11, 34, 71; 21:486

vascular canals 1:46

vidian canal 21:520–522, 532

Secretatogue 8:599

Secretin 3:332; 8:618; 17:670, 682

Secretion 8:110; 18:117–120, 158, 163, 165–169, 198–199–204

control of 10:24

cycle 8:80, 136–138

duct 18:200

granules 19:16, 47

lobules 18:192

mechanism 8:91

of enzymes 8:147

of interstitial cells 6:71, 74–77

of sex segment 6:38, 41

rate 5:422, 426, 433, 435; 8:141, 668

Secretomimetic drug 8:91

Secretory

activity 8:110

canaliculi 6:261

cell(s) 5:417; 8:84, 130

nomenclature 8:45

cells of maxillary teeth 8:87

cycle (see Secretion cycle)

droplets 8:111

granule(s) 2:175; 6:35, 38, 41–44, 65, 67, 69, 71–74, 78, 91, 115, 117, 263, 266–267, 289, 293

processes 5:429, 448, 488

tubule 8:93, 138

vesicle 8:132

Sedimentation rates 5:61

Seeds 12:496–497

Segment

à bordure (see Proximal segment of uriniferous

tubule)

à brosse (see Proximal segment of uriniferous

tubule)

Grêle (see Intermediate segment of uriniferous

tubule)

sans brosse (see Distal segment of uriniferous

tubule)

Schweiger-Seidel (see Intermediate segment of

uriniferous tubule)

Segmental

canal 6:7

cellular cord 6:8

duct (see Wolffian duct)

lymphatic sinus (see Costal sinus)

vesicle 6:5–7, 13, 15, 17

Segmentation 19:24

in vertebrates 14:121

of tail muscle 15:368

somitic 15:128

Seitliche Nasendrüse (see External nasal gland)

Seitlicher Nebenraum (see Extraconchal space)

Seitz filtration 8:565, 573

Sekundire Choana (see Choana)

Selachian 17:208

denticles 14:431

Selachii

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:101, 103–104, 114, 152, 162, 168

muscle tissue 11:292

thyroid 3:215

urinogenital system 6:4

Selected body temperature 13:298

Selected temperature 12:22, 37, 39, 98, 217, 228, 230

Selection (see also Evolution) 14:19, 200, 530, 550; 16:49

pressure 19:348

Selenium 8:174

Selfish herd 16:412

Sella turcica 3:148, 168, 176, 178, 181, 192; 9:70; 20:416, 526; 21:533

Semen 6:44

Semi-erect posture 21:58

Semicircular

artery 2:23

canal(s) 2:259; 4:256–257; 9:54, 70, 84, 96, 100, 108, 112, 114, 122; 14:136, 173; 20:11, 76, 89, 101, 114–115, 126, 134, 146, 192, 195; 21:503

anterior 20:31, 72, 89, 102, 113, 164

lateral 20:11

posterior 20:31, 33, 73, 113, 172

ducts 2:203–207, 216, 218, 226, 252, 256, 259

tendon (see Pterygoideus-tendon aponeurosis)

Semilunar valve 6:188

Seminal

canal 14:145

fluids 18:52

furrow 15:197, 201, 205–206, 216, 218–219, 222–223, 225, 227, 229, 238–239

receptacle(s) 6:89–90, 95; 15:47; 18:376

vesicle 6:24, 44, 89–90, 95

Seminatrix 7:227; 16:120; 19:234

pygaea 19:214; 20:648

Seminiferous tubule(s) 6:50–51, 56–61, 63–65, 67–73, 75, 77–80, 83, 106, 116, 121, 442; 14:151, 340, 441, 632, 634

development 15:154, 156, 162, 164–165, 167–170, 249, 269, 276

effect of estradiol 15:254, 260–261, 263, 277, 280

in intersexual gonad 15:265

of hybrids 15:472

secretory activity 15:241–242

Semiochemical (see also Pheromone) 18:25, 115– 116, 131, 133, 153, 159–160, 163, 165, 178, 184–185, 187, 191–192, 195, 202, 205

Sendai virus 14:664

Senescence 16:353, 356, 498

Sense organs 11:7, 9, 228

Senses 16:15–16, 18, 28, 62, 162–163, 177–180, 184, 189–190, 217

Sensitization 7:573

Sensor 12:224, 230, 240, 250–251, 256–258, 293, 302, 308, 340, 343, 489

Sensorimotor transformation 17:333

Sensory

axon 11:320, 324

capsule 9:3

cells (see Hair cells; Olfactory cells; Visual

cells)

hairs 15:367

mechanisms 19:301

modalities 18:77

organs of muscles (see also Muscle, spindle) 11:316–334

“pits” of scales 2:278–279

“plaques” of scales 2:278

“pores” of scales 2:278

receptors 5:303, 316; 8:471

“tubercules” of scales 2:278–279

Senticolis 19:231

triaspis 19:142, 153, 214

Separating fold (see Postvestibular ridge)

Sepedon, eye 2:63

Sephadex 8:183, 191, 225

Sepharose 8:354

Sepsina 15:636

tetradactyla 21:403

Septa

of neurohypophysis 3:140, 183

of thymic capsule 3:118, 120

of thyroid capsule 3:207

Septal

arrangement 19:23

cusp 19:382, 390, 395

defects 19:436

muscles 19:44

organ 18:424

ring 19:24

valve 19:404

Septaldrüse (see Medial nasal gland)

Septale Nasendrüse (see Medial nasal gland)

Septicemia (see also Pathology) 19:519

Septomaxilla 4:202, 230, 278; 11:17, 20, 22, 48, 50, 60, 71–73, 75, 79, 81, 88–89, 100, 106, 119, 122–123, 126, 129, 143, 152–153, 161, 165, 171, 175–176, 179, 181, 184, 218, 244; 20:6, 14, 24, 41, 47, 69, 75, 97, 111, 115–116, 123, 127, 134, 145, 149, 153, 163, 166, 170, 180, 191, 196, 204, 210, 212, 214, 217–218, 221, 225, 227, 230–231, 234, 238, 240, 243, 245, 248, 355, 357, 368–369, 371–372, 375–376, 378–381, 383, 386, 388–389, 391, 397, 399, 402–404, 406–407, 409–410, 414–415, 417– 418, 420–421, 431–432, 434, 437, 439, 445, 447–448, 453–456, 462, 465–467, 469–470, 473, 476, 479, 483, 489–491, 497–501, 503, 505–507, 509–511, 513, 523–524, 527, 532–533, 536–541, 543, 553–557, 559–560, 562, 564, 566, 568–569, 571, 589; 21:545, 557, 571, 574–577, 579, 583–584

-frontal contact 21:574

-frontal hinge 21:578

frontal joint 20:535, 560

-prefrontal ligament 21:585

-vomer conplex 20:406, 426, 436–437, 536, 558

-vomer fenestra 20:539

Septomaxillary 21:559

dorsolateral process (see Conchal process of

septomaxilla)

foramen for vomeronasal nerve 20:406

-frontal joint 20:537

-maxillary ligament 21:560, 562

process of frontal 20:395, 561

Septosphenoid 11:23, 58, 84, 241; 20:125, 128, 135, 137

Septum 10:178, 253, 263, 265, 274, 308; 17:608, 627, 629, 682; 18:35, 41, 48, 97–98, 101, 391, 443, 495; 19:7–8, 12, 14–15, 18, 21–22, 24, 27–28, 30, 32, 37, 42–44, 52, 67, 76, 107–110, 145–146, 407, 426, 554, 566–568

aorticopulmonary 19:387, 394–395, 412–413

atrial 19:412

horizonal 19:427

interaortic 19:395, 400

interatrial 19:381, 384–385, 390, 393–395, 409, 413–416, 427

intercameral 19:6, 9, 38, 61, 72

interedicular 19:11–12, 42

interfaviolar 19:13, 42, 52, 64, 108

interlobular 19:9, 38

internal 19:413

intracoelomic 19:4, 28, 39, 41, 111

intraparenchymal 19:12, 14, 63

intrapulmonary 19:20, 26–28, 30, 33, 36, 67, 70

intraventricular 19:395

laryngeal 19:119

mammalian interalveolar 19:8

membraneous 19:394–395

muscular 19:386, 392, 395

post-hepatic 19:4, 7, 27–29, 40, 487

post-pulmonary 19:4, 7, 20, 30, 32, 39–41, 49

pulmoarterial 19:406

radial 19:405

respiratory 19:4–5, 17

sinus 19:378–379, 381, 392

trabecular 19:108

transverse 19:7, 39, 487

ventricular 19:376, 384, 386, 393, 427–428, 435

vertical 19:383–386, 390, 405–406, 408–413, 415–416, 428

Sergeev’s method 16:348

Serial homology 21:68, 210

D-Serine 3:25

Serine 3:23, 40; 8:614; 11:292; 19:350

Sernylan 5:45

Serology (see Blood chemistry)

Sero-mucous cells 6:299

Sero-muquex 8:45

Serosa (see also Coelomic epithelium; Peritoneum) 5:384; 19:8, 376, 506

Serosal parietal net (see Subpleural net)

Serotonin(e) 8:193–194, 466, 474, 499, 526, 654; 10:247–251, 253–254, 259, 264, 266, 268–269, 276, 279, 282; 12:230, 235, 240, 244, 247, 253, 256, 17:65, 72, 158, 328, 399, 531, 589; 18:235–238, 317; 19:46

sensitive receptors 8:667

Serous 8:73

cells 6:244–246, 248–249, 251–253, 256–264, 268, 299, 301; 8:45, 47, 59, 87

glands 2:11–12, 176

Serpentaria 8:95–96

Serpentes (see also Ophidia; Snakes) 7:6, 9, 12, 18–19, 70, 100, 104, 201–228, 378–399, 456, 497–506, 571, 576–578, 587–589, 594, 598–599, 607–609, 614, 617, 624–625, 644–645, 663; 19:21, 65, 94, 96, 135, 379, 381, 398, 404, 412–416, 579; 20:5; 21:9

Serrate teeth 1:121, 154–155, 186–187

Serratus anterior 21:212

anterior superficialis 21:212

Sertoli cells 6:57–58, 60–61, 78–81, 116, 120–121; 16:357–358

Serum (see also Antiserum) 5:70, 203, 366, 370, 480

electrolytes (see also Body fluids) 5:396

albumin 19:514; 21:549

glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase 8:509

sickness 8:365

Sesamoid(s) 1:81, 93, 197–112; 14:514; 21:306

bone 20:507, 515

Sessell’s pouch 14:715

Set-point 12:47–48, 214, 217–218, 220–221, 224, 226, 255

Sets of teeth 1:120

Sex 5:43, 137

attraction (see also Mating) 18:116, 118, 120, 123, 148, 152, 157–158

chromosomes 14:442; 15:275, 285, 287; 16:402, 551

cords 6:50–52, 77; 14:441; 15:154, 156–158, 162, 164–166, 168, 170, 254, 256, 259–260, 276–277

determination 6:105; 12:30, 66–67; 13:209

and gonad size 14:445

and hormones 15:276

and temperature 14:7, 150, 208, 273–274, 280, 308, 332, 336, 352, 355, 440, 442, 444–445

differentiation 6:353, 402–403, 551–553, 572–573, 580, 583–586

genotypic 15:275–276, 284–285

temperature dependent 15:264, 285, 613, 623

differences 5:129, 175, 210

differences (dimorphism) (see also Sexual

differentiation) 18:15, 80, 82, 171, 192, 312, 314–315, 330–331, 337, 340, 397

differential mortality 14:336

dimorphism (see Life history traits)

discrimination 18:426

eye color 18:331

hormones 16:553

and genital development 15:246–264, 274, 276

H-Y antigens 16:553

mimicry 16:160, 209–210, 215

parental care 16:297–298, 312–313, 315

ratio(s) 13:130; 14:274, 332–333, 336–337, 355, 444; 15:428; 16:353, 363, 402, 415, 418

and temperature 15:27–28, 264–265, 272–274, 278–280, 283–286

biased at birth 7:223–224

crocodilians 7:231, 236

effect of hormones 15:157, 241, 246–264

heterogeneous 15:286

in decapitated embryos 15:246–248

in populations 15:283

seasonal variation 15:284

snakes 7:222–224

recognition 18:145, 152, 155, 169, 171, 173, 182–186, 189, 195–196, 198, 204, 331–332, 343, 352, 357, 378

segment of kidney (see segment of uriniferous

tubule)

segment of uriniferous tubule 6:6, 21, 33–45, 77–78, 107, 116

selection 16:399

steroid (see also Gonadal steroid hormone) 6:37; 18:33–34, 344, 361, 373

androgens 18:33–34, 37, 41

binding protein 18:91

concentrating sites in brain 18:33, 35, 37, 41, 48, 54

estrogens 18:33–39, 41–43, 51, 54

progestins 18:33–35, 37, 39, 41, 48, 54

Sexual

behavior (see also Breeding; Mating) 14:530; 18:24–25, 28–35, 37, 39, 41, 45–46, 48–50, 53, 56, 118–119, 171, 195, 331–332, 334, 353

associated 18:29–30, 54

attractivity 18:24–25, 40–44, 46, 157

bellowing 18:202

constant 18:29–31

dissociated 18:29–30, 55

female (see Sexual, female behavior)

heterotypical 18:81, 85

pushups 18:383

ramming 18:194, 426

bipotentiality 6:48–50, 105

cycle (see also Seasonal cycle) 3:73, 100, 149, 226, 311–312

differentiation 15:154–155, 162, 240–241, 243, 245, 247, 254–257, 259–261, 263; 18:80

and environmental factors 15:286

and hormones 15:613

and temperature 15:151, 264–287

dominant/neutral model 18:77–80

feminization 18:78–81, 84

hormonal inheritance 18:15

masculinization 18:78–81, 84

nongenetic aspects 18:15–16

dimorphism 3:98, 102; 6:30, 43; 7:105, 109–112; 13:76, 118, 122–123, 238, 278, 299–301, 304; 14:496; 15:195, 240–241; 19:97, 122, 129, 131–132, 139–140, 149, 151, 162–164, 167, 501, 503, 512, 537; 20:38, 43, 106

female mate choice 18:341–342, 377, 392

female behavior 18:38, 53–55

lordosis 18:25, 45, 53

proceptivity 18:24–25

receptivity 18:24–28, 34–38, 41, 43–46, 48–50, 52–54, 56, 157–158, 184, 341, 354, 374–376, 379, 381–382, 399

receptivity, inhibition 18:49–54

receptivity, neck bending posture 18:25, 27, 34, 183

receptivity, posture 18:37

rejection, sidlehopping (back-arching) 18:356–360, 370, 374–375, 380

rolling 18:163

maturation 18:340, 352, 375, 378, 380–381

maturity 13:277–280, 304; 14:10, 333–336, 442, 496; 16:354–356

segment secretion granules (see also Renal sex

segment) 18:156

selection (see Evolution)

Seymouria 21:83

axial skeleton 1:203

bone 1:71

dentition 1:120–121, 150

eye 2:80

origin and evolution 1:10, 15, 23–25, 31–32

Seymouriamorph 9:294–295

Seymouriamorpha 19:71, 74

dentition 1:120

eye 2:80

origin and evolution 1:10–11, 14, 23, 25, 27, 30–33, 39–40

Seymouriidae, origin and evolution 1:35

SH groups 6:229, 237, 246–248, 252, 265, 271–272, 280, 294

Shade-seeking 12:218

Shaker muscle (see Rattlesnakes)

Shape factors 12:317–318

Shark 10:299, 309, 315, 323–324, 326, 331

Sharpey’s fibers 1:46, 72–73

She-males (see Multiple within-sex phenotypes)

Shear 20:501

Shearwaters 7:241

Shedding 5:36, 378; 12:404–405, 412–414, 431, 446

/molting 18:136, 145, 147–148, 150, 162–164, 171

sexual attractivity 18:480

of shields 1:319

of teeth 1:136

Sheep 8:484, 486, 498, 605

Shell (see also Turtles) 1:203, 311–339; 5:63, 89, 98–99, 153, 232, 315, 327; 18:195

carapace 18:191

gland (see also Egg, shell) 6:85; 14:349

histogenesis 1:312–314

histology 1:312–314

membrane(s) 6:85, 92; 15:4, 531, 550, 571, 575

morphogenesis 1:312–314, 327

morphology 1:327–331

of egg 6:91, 114

ontogenesis 1:313–314

phylogenetic history 1:331–337

plastron 18:191

terminology 1:314

(Testudinine)

development 14:151–161, 281

evolution 14:156

ossification 14:156–158

rot 14:211

Shells (egg) (see Egg shells)

Shield furrows 1:312, 326–327, 330

Shields (see Epidermal shields)

Shinisaurus 16:36, 126, 142, 249; 19:70; 20:209– 217, 254, 256, 266; 21:90, 148, 160, 172

axial skeleton 1:205, 242–243, 247, 253, 255, 257, 260, 263, 268–269; 13:2

crocodilurus 19:30, 79; 20:213, 302, 309

eye 2:20, 27, 32

jaw muscles 4:318, 378–379

pituitary 3:195

Shivering (see Temperature regulation, endogenous

heat production)

thermogenesis (see Parental care)

Shock 8:439, 449, 524–525

absorption 20:48, 51, 62

Short

ciliary artery 2:52

fundus of stomach (see Corpus of stomach)

Shortening rate (see also Contraction time) 11:298–301, 303, 308

Shoulder 21:19, 28, 40, 59

girdle 21:62, 68–69

joint 21:242

musculature 21:212

Shrew 8:163

Shunt(ing) (see also Cardiac shunt) 19:300

flow 19:431, 433, 456, 458

fraction 19:431, 433–435, 456, 460

fractional L-R 19:458

intrapulmonary 19:319, 326, 328–330, 332–333, 397–398

kinetic 19:436

Left-Right 19:430–434, 443–444, 447, 451, 454–455, 457, 460–461, 463, 469–472

mechanisms 19:436–451

net 19:435, 444, 456–459, 461, 469, 471

open interface 19:436

pressure 19:436, 441–445, 447, 451

pulmonary 19:326

Right-Left 19:430–435, 439, 441, 443–444, 446–447, 450–452, 454–461, 463–469, 471, 473

standard equation 19:431, 433

three-vessel model of 19:434–436

two-vessel model of 19:435

unidirectional shunting 19:435

wash-out 19:389, 392, 436, 441, 445–451

Shuttle box learning

comparison with problem box 7:591

comparisons among taxa 7:594–595

one-way vs. two-way procedure 7:592

Sauria 7:592–594

Serpentes 7:594

Testudines 7:592

Shuttling 12:215–222, 228, 231

Shwartzman reaction 8:497

Sialic acid 3:29, 33, 51; 8:488; 19:506

Sialidase 8:122

Sialoglycoproteins 8:59

Sialomucin 8:122

Sialoprotein 8:488

Siamese twinning 15:373

Sibon 16:120, 148, 230, 482–484, 519; 19:100, 132, 134, 214, 229; 20:567, 572, 577

annulata 19:203 (as Dipsas), 214

annulifera 20:651

anthracops 19:214

carri 19:214

dimidiata 19:214

dunni 19:214

ear 2:272

eye 2:54–55, 62, 91

fasciata 20:651

jaw muscles 4:443, 481

nebulata 19:214

sanniola 19:164, 168, 214

Sibynomorphus 5:134, 148; 19:132, 229

ear 2:272

mikanii 19:153, 214

turgidus 19:153, 215

vagus 19:215

ventrimaculatus 19:215

Sibynophiinae 19:224

Sibynophiini 19:158, 171

Sibynophinae, jaw muscles 4:441, 448

Sibynophis 16:148, 259; 19:224; 21:577, 599, 602

bivittatus 19:215; 20:643

chinensis 19:215; 20:643

collaris 19:215; 20:643

ear 2:272

geminatus 19:215; 20:643

jaw muscles 4:441, 481

melanocephalus 20:643

melanogaster 19:215

nose 2:140

sagittarius 19:142, 153, 215; 20:643

subpunctatus 20:643

Side cavity (see Extraconchal recess)

Siderophily 6:78

Sidlehopping (back-arching) (see Sexual, female

behavior, rejection)

Siebenrockiella 14:107; 15:275; 16:402

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:104

Sigaloseps 21:397

Sigmoid cavity 21:116

fossa 21:116

notch 4:17, 19; 21:102, 114, 116

Sigmoidicity 5:252

Signal transducers 19:495

Signature bob (see Display signature)

Silastic tube 5:101

Silent displays 19:67

Silica 8:566; 14:315

column 18:203

gel 5:103; 8:268

Silicon, in eggshells 14:374

Silicone rubber 5:98

Silkworms, parthenogenesis 15:453

Silver 8:174

methenamine reaction 3:330

nitrate 6:283

-oxide chloride 5:88

proteinate 6:283

staining 3:301, 331

Silybura, dentition 1:179

Simian 9:160

Simiscincus 21:397

Simoliophiidae 20:594–595

Simoliophis 20:595

Simonatrix 15:649–650, 652, 671, 675

Simophis 16:231; 19:232

rhinostoma 19:153, 215

Simosaurus 9:297

dentition 1:191

Simoselaps 8:25; 15:654; 16:150, 181, 233, 520; 19:223; 20:544, 549–550

anomalus 20:629

approximans 20:629

australis 8:25; 19:198; 20:549, 629

bertholdi 8:25; 19:198; 20:629

bimaculatus 19:198

calonotus 19:198

fasciolatus 8:25; 19:152, 198; 20:629

incinctus 8:25

litoralis 20:629

roperi 19:198; 20:629

semifasciatus 8:25; 19:198; 20:629

warro 8:25; 19:198; 20:629

Simplex retina 2:90

Simultaneous choice test 18:149

Sine wave generators 5:52, 85

Sinemydidae, shell 1:336

Sineoamphisbaenia hexatabularis 21:625

Single

cell (see Single cone)

cone 2:32, 34, 36, 43–46, 54, 56, 58, 60, 65, 72, 76–77, 84

unit activity 18:451, 453

Sinking tendency 5:228

Sinoatrial

aperature 19:407, 415

junction 19:402

opening 19:381–382, 406, 408, 410–416

orifice 19:409

valve 19:378–379, 381–382, 392, 398, 402, 404–405, 408, 415–416

Sinomicrurus japonicus 20:537, 622

Sinonatrix 16:148; 19:233; 21:579

aequifasciata 19:215

annularis 19:215; 20:648

percarinata 19:215

Sinus 19:396, 414, 539, 551, 558, 568

cell 10:13

der Pseudoconcha (see Postconchal cavity)

hair 9:431

maxillaris (see Extraconchal space; Maxillary

sinus; Nasopharyngeal duct)

nasal 19:115

nasolacrimalis (see Lachrymal sinus)

nerve 19:318

pericapsularis 21:495

septum 19:378–379, 381, 392

splenic 19:541

terminalis 14:290; 15:540, 542, 546–549, 559–560

venosus 5:87, 293–294, 308; 10:10, 14, 17, 20; 14:147, 163; 19:376, 378–379, 381, 384, 388, 390–392, 398–414, 416, 445

Sinusoidal vessels 19:540, 564, 568, 572–573, 575

Sinusoids 19:488, 491, 493, 507–508, 511, 521, 561, 570

of parathyroid 3:236, 254

Siphlophis 19:226

cervinus 19:215; 20:655

geminatus 20:655

longicaudatus 20:655

pulcher 19:215

urinogenital system 6:30

worontzowi 20:656

Siphonium 4:225, 237, 239; 11:237, 239, 243, 245

Siren 16:8

lacertina 19:567

Sistrurus 7:386, 394, 506; 8:37, 170, 173, 176, 193–194, 250, 263, 297, 317, 326, 328, 337, 341–342, 348, 350, 358–359, 372, 377, 447; 15:658; 16:16, 39, 45–48, 54, 122, 130, 152, 214; 17:426; 18:159, 476, 489; 19:125, 193, 220; 20:488

axial muscles 11:357

blood chemistry 3:51

catenatus 8:37, 100, 176, 251, 263, 297, 317, 328, 337, 341–342, 348, 350, 358–359, 372, 377, 447; 18:324; 19:142, 193, 523, 525; 20:616

catenatus tergeminus 18:489

ear 2:270, 272

internal relief of gut 6:193–194, 197, 199, 207, 211

jaw muscles 4:482

miliarius 8:37, 170, 173, 193–194, 251, 263, 297, 317, 326, 328, 348, 372, 447; 19:193; 20:513, 515, 521, 616

miliarius barbouri 18:324

ravus 8:37; 19:168, 193; 20:616

Sitana 7:489; 12:107; 13:308; 16:49, 258–259, 512; 21:134, 184

ear 2:271

ponticeriana 7:164; 20:101, 294; 21:190, 401

urinogenital system 6:59

Size (see Body size; Life history traits, body

size)

Skeletal

bed 10:36

maturity 1:81

muscle (see also Muscle, skeletal) 5:8, 58, 85, 90, 160, 164, 196, 200–207, 209, 259, 309, 311, 315, 323, 325

Skeletochronology (see Age; Life history

methods)

Skeleton 1:1–44

appendicular 14:124

axial 14:121

Skin (see also Alpha-layer; Cutaneous; Mesos

layer; Scales; Oberhäutchen) 2:154, 195–197, 222, 224–225, 231–232, 261, 278–279, 281, 289, 291, 294–295, 297, 305–306; 5:9, 37–38, 57–58, 64–65, 85, 88, 98–100, 197, 226, 232, 249, 313–315, 365, 370, 374, 378, 380–382, 385, 387–389, 395, 399, 403; 9:407–408, 421; 11:360–361, 372, 374, 379, 385, 387, 411, 417; 12:7, 344, 397, 401–405, 408–412; 13:35; 18:118, 136, 138–139, 143–145, 147–149, 153, 155, 163, 170–171, 173, 187–189, 192; 19:460, 508

α-layer 18:153–154

and autotomy 15:321, 335

β-layer 18:154

cast (shed) 18:153, 155, 163

cutaneous water loss 18:153–154

grafts (transplants) 14:15, 583, 639–642, 644; 15:429, 432–433, 437, 439–440, 488

hinge region 18:151

lacunar cell layer 18:153

tissue 18:154

lipids 18:134, 136, 151–153, 155, 160, 162, 169, 171, 204, 496

mesos 18:143–154

cell 18:153

region 18:153

moisture conservation 18:139

morphogenesis 14:8

Oberhautchen 18:154

secretions 18:144–145, 147

shedding 14:525, 534–535, 537–558, 563, 572– 573, 575–576, 578, 584, 589; 15:304, 381

source of pheromone 18:482–483

surface 18:153

tearing 16:32, 51–52, 127

tubes 18:148–150

Skink (Scincidae) 5:30, 145, 168, 199, 298–299, 397, 479

burrowing 10:222

eating 20:480

Skull 1:1–44, 152, 158–159, 165, 174, 226; 2:119, 151–152, 177, 196–197, 225, 227; 3:113, 115; 4:201–284; 5:94–95, 316; 11:1–263, 362–363, 366, 369–370; 21:217

characters 20:6, 251

development 14:124–126, 310, 312–314, 462, 514

diapsid 14:495

embryology of 11:1–263

ossification 14:126, 132, 172, 312, 456

roof 1:12

structure 15:646

vertebral theory of 11:1

Skunk 8:378

Sleep 10:312, 326; 12:227, 255

cycles 10:250

paradoxical 10:250, 326

slow-wave 10:250, 326

Slice technique 5:494

Sliding

filaments 11:265

joint 20:422, 518, 574, 576, 579

Sloughing 5:378

Slow

potentials 18:452

reacting substances (SRS-C) 8:473, 521–522

walk 21:51–52

Slug

-eating snake(s) 8:6

eaters 20:571–572, 580

Small intestine 3:322; 5:57–58; 6:166–176, 182, 187–188, 191–192, 197, 202–209, 211, 214–221, 227–231, 272, 274–289, 291, 295, 301–302, 346, 349, 352–353, 379, 398, 415–421, 424, 427, 440, 446, 458; 19:535

Small single cone (see Type A2 cone; Type C

cone)

Smooth muscle (see also Muscle, smooth) 6:29, 42, 57–58, 65, 67, 85–87, 89–90, 92, 94–95, 120, 214, 237, 239, 268–270, 279–280, 284, 287–288, 291, 293

Snail(s) 5:397; 8:656; 12:363

-eating dipsadines 20:580

Snake(s) (see also specific families, specific genera, and

specific groups; Ophidia; Serpentes) 5:2, 7, 10, 20, 23, 25, 28–29, 31, 33, 37–38, 40, 42, 44, 47, 49–51, 53, 59, 63–64, 71–72, 75, 88–89, 91, 93–97, 100, 103, 105, 126, 133–135, 138, 145–152, 154, 156, 160, 166, 168–170, 175–176, 179–180, 183, 189–194, 196, 198, 209, 230–231, 241, 243, 245–246, 248–251, 264–265, 281, 286, 293–295, 316, 318, 321, 327, 348, 365–366, 371, 375, 381–384, 394, 406–408, 421, 430–431, 433, 435–436, 438– 440, 448, 450–451, 453, 455–458, 461–462, 464–466, 469–485, 488, 491–497; 8:590, 593–594, 628, 659, 662–665, 690–697; 9:9, 12, 19, 27, 30–31, 34, 43, 57, 66, 75, 148, 151–152, 158, 161–162, 166–167, 218, 236, 248, 252, 275, 280–281, 288–289, 296, 323, 367–369, 389, 407, 421–422, 434, 437; 10:5, 25, 28–29, 39, 42–43, 59, 80, 84–85, 96, 100–101, 120, 122, 133, 157, 167, 169, 174, 191, 204, 207, 210, 212, 217, 221, 223, 225, 227, 233, 235, 239–240, 289, 313; 12:6, 29, 33, 57–58, 93, 125–134, 142–143, 146, 172–173, 197–202, 223, 22, 238, 244, 246, 250, 317, 326, 333, 362–363, 368, 379, 412, 416, 418, 424–425, 431–432, 449, 472; 13:2–4, 6, 8, 10–12, 14, 16–19, 21, 24–25, 27–29, 31–33, 35, 39–40, 57, 60–61, 63, 67, 75, 92, 96, 98–99, 113, 119, 125, 128, 130, 132–133, 159, 177, 182, 204, 208, 210–212, 216, 239–240, 246, 262, 276, 279–282, 290–294, 300–301, 303; 14:19, 88, 113, 200, 209, 331, 347, 358, 375, 442, 451, 497, 532, 534–537, 545, 548, 550, 553–555, 557, 560, 567, 587–588, 604, 609, 625–626, 635–636, 638, 642, 652–654, 659–66662, 664– 665, 681, 695, 697, 700, 706, 711–715; 19:2, 7, 9, 11–12, 20, 33–34, 38, 41, 64–66, 93, 181, 299, 319–323, 328, 330, 334–335, 337, 344, 347, 353, 376, 378–379, 387, 429, 452, 485, 489, 491, 506, 508, 511, 515–516, 521–523, 554, 577–578; 20:10–11, 23, 49, 196, 205, 239, 241, 251, 269, 281, 352–353, 361–363, 365–366, 382, 389–390, 395, 401, 408, 420, 435, 438, 458, 484, 583–584, 588; 21:17

antipredator mechanisms 16:6–15, 17–19, 21, 31, 33–34, 36–48, 123–124, 142–152

aquatic 5:33; 19:137, 146, 155, 156, 170

arboreal 19:123, 126–128, 146, 148, 151, 155, 157, 161–162, 165, 169, 170

black (see also Coluber) 5:44

blind (see Leptotyphlops)

boa (see Boa)

boa constrictor (see Boa)

boid 5:146–147, 150

brown 5:176

cages 5:23

capture methods 16:339–340

carnivorous desert 5:387

caudal autotomy and regeneration 16:189, 259, 265–266

cobra (see Naja)

colubrid 5:146–147, 150, 175, 406

-eating elapids 20:550

eggs and embryos 16:529–532, 538, 545, 565–568, 574

elapid 5:50

file (see Acrochordus)

fossorial 19:140, 146, 170

fresh water 5:453, 456, 466, 474

garter (see Thamnophis)

gopher (see Pituophis)

indigo (see Drymarchon)

life history 16:336, 345–347, 349–350, 355–357, 361–364, 367–368, 443–447, 454–456, 477–500, 518–521

lungs 19:75, 93–236, 328

historical review of literature 19:97–100

marine 19:65, 137, 150–151, 156–157

marking methods 16:342–343

mesophilic 5:494

milk 5:44

mimicry (see Mimicry)

mole viper (see Atractaspis)

nests 16:534–538, 543

non-boid 5:491

ophiophagous 5:24

ovoviparous 5:36

parental care (see Parental care)

phylogenetic relationships 16:25, 37–38, 40–41

pipe (see Cylindrophis)

predation on 16:6–15, 37–48, 119–122

python (see Python; Python)

rat (see Elaphe; Zaocys)

ribbon (see Thamnophis)

river (see Acrochordus)

saw-scaled viper (see Echis)

sea 5:101–102, 198, 227, 318, 422, 431, 433–439, 451, 456, 458

spleen 19:550–556

systematics 19:94–97, 135, 168–171

terrestrial 5:232, 266, 474, 488

viper (see Vipera)

water (see also Natrix; Nerodia) 5:20, 53, 461–462, 464, 469, 476–477

water moccasin (see Agkistrodon)

xerophilic 5:474–475

yellow-bellied water 5:44

Snakebite 16:164–168; 20:497

treatment 8:584

Snapping turtles (see Chelydra)

Snell’s formula 9:150

Sniffing 18:195–197, 203–205

Snout 5:50, 101; 20:352, 355, 361, 364, 370, 372, 376, 378–380, 385–388, 391–393, 397–398, 401, 403, 406, 414, 417, 419–420, 425–428, 430, 432–433, 437–438, 443, 447, 457–459, 461–462, 466, 470, 475–477, 480, 483–484, 490, 498–500, 502, 510, 522–524, 531, 535–536, 539, 543, 552–553, 558, 561, 565, 567, 573, 583, 587–589

movement 20:456, 501, 559

-palate relationships 20:583

-prefrontal relationships 20:559

-rubbing, conspecifics 18:478

shifting 20:415, 420

-vent length 5:105; 19:96, 101, 103, 106, 121, 131–133, 135, 145, 152, 162, 169–171

Social

behavior (see also Territoriality) 7:265–321; 12:145; 18:115, 180, 330–332

behavior and aggregation 18:115–116, 118– 120, 125–135, 153, 173, 181–184, 192–193, 200, 424–426, 465, 474, 477–480, 495

neonatal responses 18:477

sites 18:134, 140–141

behavior and aggression 18:37, 46, 84, 138, 165, 173, 175, 186–189, 334, 338, 344, 348, 354, 378, 394, 425, 472–473

agonistic behavior 18:178, 182, 187–188, 471–472

body-bridging 18:159–160, 475

combat 18:53, 131, 138, 147, 156, 170, 190, 194–195, 202, 426

male combat 18:53

skin shedding 18:473

communication

in different environments 7:440–443

use of displays in 7:406–438

display 18:299, 328, 333–361

environment 13:212, 298–299

hierarchy (see also Social behavior) 18:172

position, determined by

body size 7:427–430

previous experience 7:425–427

territory 7:427–430

Sociality 16:16, 18, 28–30, 49, 60, 134, 168, 209–210, 249–250, 401, 403, 412, 418

Sociochemicals (see also Semiochemical) 18:425

Sodium 3:3–7, 13–16, 45; 5:11, 54, 67, 366, 370, 383, 387–392, 394–401, 405, 413, 422, 427, 429–430, 435, 441, 471, 478, 495; 6:118; 8:171–173, 469; 12:168, 326–335, 341–349, 351–357, 359, 362–366, 369–370, 375–379, 383–385, 426, 487; 13:85–87; 14:315

absorption 12:366–368, 425–428

alginate 8:566

bicarbonate 3:18; 5:58, 495; 18:145

chloride 5:53, 55–58, 61, 380, 396, 413, 423, 433–434, 438, 456, 465, 471, 480; 8:59; 12:349, 363, 366, 370, 384; 18:145

citrate 5:60

excretion 5:467–468, 478

fluoride 5:60, 66

in eggshells 14:374

influx 5:60

ion(s) 5:53, 102; 8:168–170

load 5:428

loss 5:390

-potassium pump 17:24

potassium ratio 5:61

pump 2:311

reabsorption 5:389, 465, 468–473, 480

salt 5:61

thiocyanate 5:69

thioglycolate 8:321

transport 2:311, 313; 3:14; 5:384, 398, 469, 472, 477

uptake 13:85

urate 5:10

Soft palate 4:277

Solar

heating 5:314

radiation 12:283, 319–320

rhythm 3:107

Solenlopsis geminata 18:120

Solenobia 15:459

Solenodonsauridae, origin and evolution 1:11, 25–40

Solenodosaurus 19:68

origin and evolution 1:4, 25–30, 33, 35

Solenoglypha (see also Viperidae) 8:563

Solenoglyphous 19:104; 20:488

Solenoglyphy 1:175, 178

Solenoid valves 5:74

Solitary fasciculus 10:139, 147, 169–170, 190, 202, 206, 209, 213, 216

Solubility coefficient 5:344, 348

in water 5:490–491

of gas 19:332

product 5:58

Solum supraseptale (see also Planum supraseptale) 9:3, 6

Solute

concentrations 5:9

-linked water flow 12:371

transport 5:472

Solutes 5:383, 388, 401, 413, 438, 447–448, 469, 471

Solutions 5:54

Somali Republic 2:324

Somatic musculature 21:212, 217, 225

Somatopleur 6:5

Somatopleural crest 6:8

Somatopleure 14:503

and limb bud 15:61, 67, 94

Somatosensory

afferent 10:291

information 10:301

input 10:316

representation 10:300, 316, 393

unit 10:300

Somatostatin 17:65, 159, 590, 608–610, 612, 688

Somatotropes 14:688, 702, 709–710

Somatotrophic cell (see X cell)

Somatotropin 3:22; 6:115; 14:709

Somite(s) 6:2, 5–6, 8, 12, 15–16, 108; 14:96, 99, 101; 21:24

and carapace development 14:152

and limb development 14:123, 158; 15:61, 63–64, 66, 84, 87–88, 94, 100, 113–115, 128, 130–131–133

and vertebrate segmentation 14:121

cultured in vitro 15:87

development 14:8, 18, 115, 117, 121–124, 172, 191, 228, 390, 395, 405, 502–503

explanted 15:87–88

formation 15:12

grafts 15:88, 133–134

hyoid 14:122

mandibular 14:122

metotic 14:123

number 15:128, 132–133

number and developmental stage 14:13, 281, 285, 287–290, 292, 394, 397–400

occipital 14:123

postotic 14:121, 123–124

premandibular 14:122

prootic 14:97, 121–123

removal (ablation) 15:87–88

transplants 14:640

Somitic

cell migration 15:61

and limb muscles 15:61

in phallus development 15:225

extensions

and limb development 15:61, 63, 65–68, 70, 94, 101–105, 107, 110, 113–115, 121, 124–125, 127, 132–134

lysosomes in 15:104

mesoderm 21:24

Somitogenesis (see Somite, development)

Somitomeres 14:398

Sonora 7:225, 389, 393, 503; 15:647; 16:55, 120, 148, 230; 19:232

aemula 19:164, 215

ear 2:272

episcopa 18:139

michoacanensis 19:215

semiannulata 18:120; 19:153, 215; 20:643

Sonora gopher snake (see Pituophis)

Sonorines 20:556, 560

Sonorini 19:133, 232

Sordellina 19:227

punctata 19:215

Sørensen’s buffer mixture 5:54

Sound (see also Vocalization) 19:66, 119–120, 156

production (see Antipredator mechanisms)

South America 2:321–322

Southern Africa 2:324

South-West Africa 2:324

Soxholet extractor 18:163

Soybean tripsin inhibitor 8:165–166

Space 12:300–303

competition 18:120, 173

constant 11:287

Spacing patterns

Agamidae 7:276–277

Anguidae 7:300

ant-eaters 7:305–306

carnivores 7:301–303

Chamaeleonidae 7:295–299

changes in captivity 7:306–308

Cordylidae 7:300

effect of food 7:309

effect of food specilization 7:301–306

effect of foraging strategy 7:273–290, 299

effect of habitat visibility 7:279

effect of phylogeny 7:316–318

field experiments 7:308

Gekkonidae 7:291–295

herbivores 7:303–305

Iguanidae 7:269–277

in reptiles 7:265–321

Lacertidae 7:282–286

model of 7:319–321

Scincidae 7:286–289

Teiidae 7:277–282

Varanidae 7:289–291

Xantusiidae 7:299–300

Spain 16:7, 60

Spalerosophis 5:134, 149, 179, 181, 189, 373, 377, 379, 387, 406–407; 7:227; 8:91, 94, 142; 12:129, 198, 465, 475; 13:161, 166–167, 297, 312; 14:617–618, 625–626, 628–629; 15:593; 16:148, 198, 200, 519, 538; 19:231

arenarius 19:215

diadema 8:94; 19:60, 81, 215, 415, 419, 554, 579; 20:644

microlepis 19:215

Spaltlinien (see Split-lines)

Spathorhynchus 21:685, 687

fossorium 21:626, 687–688, 707

natronicus 21:626, 634, 687–688

Spatial

behavior 18:426

discrimination 7:604, 631–632; 10:313

orientation 10:314

relationships 18:131

Spatium anterosseum 21:114

Spatulate teeth 1:164, 187, 192

Special segment of uriniferous tubule 6:22

Specialized predator 8:8

Speichermilz (storage spleen) 19:544, 570

Species

characters, as indicators of niche differences 7:71–72

definition by blood chemistry 3:48–49

density of amphibians 7:13, 26–29

density of birds 7:13, 26–29

density of mammals 7:13, 27–29

density of reptiles 7:13, 27–29

diversity of reptiles

correlated with annual precipitation 7:27–29

correlated with birds 7:27–30

correlated with evapotranspiration 7:27–29

correlated with mammals 7:27–29

correlated with sunfall 7:27–29

definition of 7:1

latitudinal gradients 7:12

lizards 7:3, 11, 17, 20, 24

MacArthur’s model 7:4–5, 11

numbers of species 7:2–3, 5, 25

prey related 7:22, 25

relative importance of species 7:2–3

snakes 7:12, 18–19

species-area model 7:14–15

within-habitat 7:3, 5, 16–18

recognition 18:173, 184–187, 195–196, 204–205, 426

Specific

dynamic action 13:236; 19:335

gravity 4:11; 5:48, 327

site defense

definition of 7:267

evidence for 7:267

examples 7:282, 286, 290, 292, 296, 300

factors affecting 7:314–315

function of 7:311–312, 314

use of displays in 7:316

Spectacle(s) (see also Brille) 2:14–15, 21, 49, 51, 83, 88; 11:84, 143, 170, 201; 12:472–475

Spectral irradiation 18:300

reflectance 18:300–301, 329

sensitivity 7:620–621, 651–654; 10:291

Spectrophotometer 5:69, 79

ultraviolet 5:67

visible 5:67

Spectrophotometric methods 5:256

Spectrophotometry atomic absorption 5:67

ultraviolet 5:67

Speed 11:268, 273; 12:33, 93, 134–135, 142, 172, 197, 326, 329, 333, 362, 368–369, 397, 493; 21:46, 48

of contraction 21:204

Sperm 6:39, 41–42, 44, 50–51, 58–65, 67–68, 71, 73, 76–77, 79–81, 83, 92, 94–96, 106, 120–121; 14:340, 352; 16:355, 357–358; 18:39, 43, 155–156, 158

competition 18:53, 56

production 13:241, 246–247

storage 13:98, 203, 205; 18:28, 43, 53, 56, 376, 378

storage (retention) 14:275, 340, 348, 497

transfer 14:497

viability 18:28

Spermatic artery 6:56

furrow (see Seminal furrow)

vein 3:274; 6:56

Spermatid(s) 6:58, 60–61, 80–81; 15:38, 473

Spermatocyte(s) 6:58, 60–61, 81; 15:38

Spermatogenesis (see also Testis) 3:218–219; 6:51, 58, 60–61, 63–65, 71–72, 74–76, 79–80, 106, 116, 118–122; 13:99–100, 119, 124, 203, 205– 209, 218; 14:209–210, 339–340, 343; 15:37–38, 41–47, 50–51; 18:82, 88–89, 93–94

and temperature 15:37–38

in hybrids 15:471–472

Spermatogenic cycle 15:40

Spermatogonia 6:50–51, 58, 60–61, 78–79, 81, 111

Spermatozoa

maturation 15:40

retention 15:40, 431

(sperm) deposition 15:40

storage (see also Sperm) 15:37, 40, 47

Spermiogenesis 6:61, 65, 73, 77–78; 12:230

Spermophilus 16:199

columbianus 21:336

richardsoni 21:336

Sphaerodactylidae

thyroid 3:205

urinogenital system (see also Gekkonidae) 6:14, 18

Sphaerodactylinae(i) (see also Gekkonidae) 19:25, 70; 20:117, 120, 124, 126

axial skeleton 1:243, 245

eye 2:20, 22, 26, 29, 31, 45, 88–89

Sphaerodactyls 21:95–96

Sphaerodactylus 7:469; 12:462, 464, 474; 14:28, 585; 15:7, 17, 351, 356, 359–360, 379–380; 16:23, 32, 52, 137; 17:99; 20:117, 124, 126–127, 296, 306; 21:145, 397

adrenal 3:279

axial skeleton 1:245

chondrocranium 11:77, 79

dificilis 20:306

ear 2:239,242, 266, 271

eye 2:20, 22, 31, 42–43, 45

molei 20:296

thyroid 3:210–211

Sphargis (see Dermochelys)

Sphenacodon 9:297

Sphenacodont 9:125, 127, 297

Sphenacodontia

dentition 1:121, 124, 193

origin and evolution 1:14

Sphenethmoid 11:21–22, 130

commissure 11:12, 15–20, 22, 43–46, 52, 66, 68, 72, 76–77, 83–84, 87–88, 90, 93, 96, 103, 105–106, 110, 115–117, 119, 124, 127, 131, 142, 161, 196–197, 202, 208–209, 212, 229, 231–233, 235, 240; 20:10, 361

ganglion 2:12

Sphenethmoidal cartilage 9:6

Sphenoccipital

epiphyses 20:70, 147

foramen 20:102, 104

suture 20:125

tubercle 21:499

tuberosity 21:490

Sphenodon (see also Rhynchocephalia) 5:37, 41, 71, 93, 96–97, 135, 151–152, 160, 173, 179–181, 199, 209, 293, 365, 369, 377, 383, 436, 454, 457, 459, 467–468, 475, 477, 479, 487–480; 7:240–242, 399–400, 419, 447, 570, 572, 609; 8:49, 54–55, 59, 65, 70–71, 151, 591, 676–677; 9:4, 7–8, 11–12, 14–16, 19–21, 26–28, 31, 34, 42–43, 52, 66, 121, 138, 164, 173, 220, 234–235, 240, 252, 283, 285–288, 290, 295–296, 363, 366, 370–371, 408; 10:5, 10, 29, 134, 166, 203, 230; 13:57, 99, 102, 161, 166, 206, 210, 262, 279, 290, 301; 14:7, 10, 21, 27, 43, 48–49, 169, 450, 495–516, 537, 609, 616, 626, 636, 647, 657–658, 663, 693–694, 709, 712, 714; 15:19, 22, 41, 50, 84, 240, 303, 313, 315, 334–335, 351, 367–368, 370, 381; 16:9, 28, 58, 66, 114, 136, 244–245, 353, 531; 17:13–14, 16, 29, 98–99, 185, 189–190, 208–209, 249, 282, 300–301, 500, 506, 626–627, 646, 648, 668; 18:7, 190, 205, 433, 435–437; 19:4–5, 11, 21, 37–38, 68, 405, 409, 513, 521; 20:10–12, 19–20, 42–43, 51, 62, 64–68, 70–74, 76, 78, 94, 113–114, 128, 251, 253–254, 256–260, 263, 266, 269–273, 279, 286–288, 304, 485; 21:5, 9, 17, 29, 41, 46, 65, 68, 77, 86, 91, 93–94, 111–112, 116, 120–122, 128, 137, 140–143, 148, 152–155, 160, 163–165, 171–172, 176, 182–183, 185, 220–221, 224–227, 229–230, 233–235, 238, 246, 250–253, 259–261, 266, 268–269, 271, 275–276, 278, 285, 288, 290–294, 297–300, 303, 305, 307, 312–313, 316–317, 331, 338–339, 347–348, 350, 363, 355, 357, 361–362, 367–379, 575, 378–379, 382–384, 388–389, 391, 393–394, 396, 482

adrenal 3:269, 271, 274, 278–279, 286, 291–292, 296, 298–299, 305–306

axial muscles 11:356, 376–380, 382, 387, 391, 411, 414, 429

axial skeleton 1:203–204, 206, 234–240, 243, 245, 252–253, 255, 268, 270, 300–301

blood cell morphology 3:75–76, 79–85

bone 1:63

chondrocranium 11:29–30, 32–33, 36, 38–39, 48, 61, 71, 80, 89, 105, 114–115, 117–125, 184, 192–193, 197–198, 201, 206, 223, 236, 246

dentition 1:135, 147, 152–153

ear 2:229, 236, 239, 246–247, 252, 256, 262, 265, 270

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:84, 104, 106–109

eye 2:25–26, 30, 63–66, 82, 84–85, 87–90

guentheri 20:1, 64, 291

histology of gut 6:244, 246, 252, 255, 273, 283, 287, 296, 298, 301

internal relief of gut 6:175, 219

jaw muscles 4:286–313, 317, 350, 388, 392, 398–399, 409, 414–416, 422, 476–477

lymphatics 6:453

nose 2:100–101, 103–104, 116–118, 131, 136–138, 149, 153–154, 156, 158–161, 164–170, 172, 174–175, 178, 182

origin and evolution 1:1, 3

parathyroid 3:245–249, 251

pit organs 2:279

pituitary 3:139–140, 154, 157–160, 166

punctatus 18:237–238, 462; 19:3, 21, 78, 381, 383, 406, 417, 501, 525, 545, 550, 579; 20:1, 64, 291, 304; 21:7

thymus 3:112

thyroid 3:202–203, 227

urinogenital system 6:5–6, 8–13, 15, 18, 20–21, 24–27, 29, 36, 41, 56, 58, 70, 85, 89–90, 108, 110–111, 120

Sphenodontidae (sphenodontid) (see also

Tuatara) 7:399–400; 8:46; 9:57, 127; 15:41; 19:405; 21:137, 146, 166, 181, 396

axial muscles 11:356

axial skeleton 1:203, 234, 254

chondrocranium 11:114–125

dentition 1:152–153

ear 2:240–241, 265, 270

jaw muscles 4:476–477

origin and evolution 1:3

parathyroid 3:248

pituitary 3:136, 139, 146, 151, 154, 166

Sphenoid 4:431, 434; 11:3, 6, 127; 20:6–7, 9, 15, 25, 27–31, 44, 50, 52, 70, 88, 101, 104, 112, 115, 124, 127–128, 135, 137, 146–147, 150, 156, 158, 164, 172, 181–183, 186, 195–196, 204–205, 207, 209, 215, 217, 222–223, 225, 231, 234, 238, 240, 246, 248, 267, 270–271, 276, 278, 280; 21:496, 499, 512, 529–530, 533, 535, 568

articular surface with basioccipital 20:451

bone 2:196

complex 20:355, 357, 360, 366, 370, 375–376, 382, 390–391, 399, 415–416, 422, 426–427, 432, 438, 443, 448–450, 458, 464, 466, 478, 484, 490, 502, 504–505, 507–509, 532, 540, 560–561

-pterygoid ligament 21:569

rostrum 21:537, 545

Sphenoidal-occipital hypapophysis 20:508

Sphenolateral plate 9:2, 34; 11:20, 230, 234, 241

Sphenomorphus (see also Lygosoma) 5:132, 141, 379; 7:viii, 69, 82, 167, 263, 494; 12:44, 54, 69–71, 113, 461–462, 471, 474; 13:203; 15:44, 533, 538, 542, 551, 554, 559, 562, 536, 564, 566–571, 578, 594, 638–639, 642–644, 662, 670, 675–677; 16:118, 141, 249, 255, 292, 517; 19:409, 418; 20:138, 144–145, 149, 298; 21:207

aignanus 21:397

alfredi 21:399

anotus 21:399

atrigularis 21:397

bignelli 21:397

brunneus 21:397

butleri 21:399

cinereus 21:397

cranei 21:397

derooyae 21:397

dussumieri 20:307

eye 2:27

fasciatus 20:298; 21:397

forbesi 21:399

fragilis 21:397

fragosus 21:397

gracilipes 21:398

inconspicuum 21:398

indicus 20:298, 307

judei 21:399

kosciuskoi 18:90

lawtoni 21:398

leptofasciatus 21:398

longicaudatus 21:398

maindroni 21:398

minutus 21:398

mulleri 21:399

nigriventris 21:398

nigrolineatum 21:398

nose 2:120

oxycephalus 21:399

pratti 21:399

quoyii 20:298

rarus 21:399

schultzei 21:399

scutatus 21:399

solomonis 20:146, 298; 21:398–399

tanneri 21:398

taylori 21:398

textum 21:398

urinogenital system 6:59

Spheno-obturator membrane 11:186–187

Sphenocccipital tubercle 11:112

Sphenopalatine

foramen 21:554–555, 557

ganglion 21:554

Sphenoprootic suture 20:44

Sphenops (see also Chalcides) 9:9, 124; 12:113; 16:266

boulengeri 21:399

sepsoides 21:122, 184

sphenopsiformis 21:402

Sphenosuchus, chondrocranium 11:246

Spherocytosis 8:488–489

Spherodactylinae 19:27

Sphincter 19:489

muscle of the neck (see M. sphincter colli)

Sphingomyelin 18:154; 19:350

Spider(s) (see also Invertebrates) 8:7, 618

Spike 11:285–286

Spilotes 7:384, 503; 16:39, 129, 134, 148; 19:127, 162, 231

axial muscles 11:357

poecilostoma 20:643

pullatus 19:127, 161, 215; 20:644

Spina

bifida 14:227, 452, 465

prootica 20:126

quadratojugalis 4:210, 223, 234, 256

Spinal

afferent 10:293

canal (see Vertebral canal; Neural canal)

cord 1:201; 9:22, 176, 178–182, 184, 235–238, 240, 295; 10:2, 24, 59–102, 111–129, 139, 169, 172, 174–175, 177, 179, 183–184, 187, 191–193, 201, 210, 220, 227, 236–237, 301; 11:368; 17:325, 332, 414, 505, 536, 550, 599–600, 633, 637, 651, 663, 679, 682, 685; 19:63, 452; 21:50–51

cord and autotomy 15:324

cord and fracture plane 15:321

cord in serpentiform reptiles 15:96, 131

cord regeneration 15:360, 362

ganglion 9:183

gray matter 10:62–63, 66, 68–69, 71–74, 85, 100–101, 119, 124

gross anatomy 10:60

lemniscus 10:139, 141, 143, 145, 147, 149, 151, 153, 155, 157–159, 161, 163–164; 17:526

lymphatic trunk 6:399

motoneuron 17:652

needle 5:62–63

nerve 1:207, 222–223, 227; 9:183; 11:356, 364–367, 403, 431

and limb buds 15:82

neuronal types 10:75

quotient 21:51

regional variation 10:60

valve 6:187, 221

vein 6:30

Spinalis capitis 20:51

Spindles

adaptation 11:329, 332

focally innervated 11:332

multifascicular 11:327

muscle 11:320–332

phasic 11:329–332

tonic 11:327, 329, 331–332

twitch 11:327, 332

unifascicular (see also Muscle, spindle) 11:334

Spingomyelin 8:266

Spinous

crest (see Neural crest)

process (see Neural spine)

Spirolactone 5:394

Spitting cobra (see also Hemachatus; Naja) 8:8

“Spitting” of venom 1:176

Splanchnic beds 5:323; 10:36

circulation 19:462

Splanchnocoele 6:8, 11–12, 108

Splanchnocranium 11:10

Splanchnopleure 6:108; 14:48, 503

Spleen 3:74, 320–325, 328; 6:349, 356, 414, 417, 421, 446–447; 10:9, 37; 13:95; 15:384; 19:39, 169, 505, 507, 533–580

anatomy (see also Spleen, morphology) 19:535–570

comparative 19:561–570

and immune system 14:614, 626–628, 637, 642, 657, 660–662

appearance 19:545–546

architecture 19:548

avian 19:578

capsule 19:539–540, 543, 547–550, 554–555, 557, 559, 561, 564, 566–570

defense 19:544, 570

development 14:162, 636–637

dorsal 19:535, 562, 572, 577

double-layered architecture 19:542–543

double-layered venous zone 19:565

drainage route 19:543

early (Dipnoan) form 19:571–572

ellipsoids 19:542–543, 547, 549, 551–554, 556, 558–559, 562–569, 571

embryology of 19:559–561

evolution of 19:561, 570–577

extra-enteral 19:572, 576

extra-intestinal 19:572, 578

extrasplenic vasculature 19:536–537

fibrous capsule 19:538–539, 551

fibrous tissue 19:520

fibrous zone 19:548, 552–553, 556, 558

functions 19:544

hilus 19:537–539, 543, 547, 549–554, 559, 567, 569

intermediate zone 19:542, 569–570, 574–575

intestinal 19:535, 564, 572, 575–576

lobules 19:552, 562

location and number 19:535

marginal zone 19:539, 542–543, 549, 570, 674–575

melanomacrophage center 19:543–544

morphology (see also Spleen, anatomy) 19:534–544

nodules in 19:552, 554, 556, 558, 561, 568–569

nodular zone 19:548, 555, 559

origin 19:571

outer double-layered venous zones 19:564

periarterial lumphoid sheath 19:540–541, 549, 552, 554, 556, 569

periarteriolar macrophage center 19:542

periellipsoidal lymphoid sheath 19:549, 552, 569

periellipsoidal white pulp 19:569

perilymphatic arterial net 19:541

perilymphoid fibrous zone 19:554–556

physiology 19:511–516

position 19:545–547

premordium 19:560

pulp 19:539–543, 548, 550–553, 555, 558–559, 562, 565–566, 569

red 19:539–544, 547–548, 550–551, 553–554, 556–559, 561–562, 564–568, 570, 573–575, 577

white 19:539–541, 543, 547–550, 552, 554, 556–558, 561–562, 564–568, 570, 573–575, 577

S/B (spleen/body) ratio 19:537, 545, 557, 562, 565, 570, 577

sinusoid 19:489, 491, 494, 506, 574

storage 19:570

subcapsular zone 19:542

trabeculae 19:539–540

vascular remodeling theory 19:573–574

vasculature 19:545–547

vasculated zone 19:554

venous zone 19:540–541, 563, 565, 574, 577–578

ventral 19:535, 562–563, 572, 577

weight 19:537–538

Splenectomy 14:626, 648, 651; 19:544, 567–568

Splenial 4:116, 138, 142, 189, 191, 203–204, 211, 215, 217, 219, 221, 239, 240–241, 250, 258, 279, 306, 374; 11:39, 63–64, 73, 80–81, 113, 135, 156, 179, 184, 220, 231, 235, 244; 20:35–37, 43, 74–75, 78, 89–91, 102, 104, 114, 116, 126–127, 130, 136–137, 148, 150, 157–158, 164, 166, 172, 174, 184, 186, 193, 195–196, 207–209, 216–217, 224, 226, 232, 234–235, 239–241, 247, 249, 274, 276–277, 356–357, 369, 375, 377–378, 589, 391, 394, 400–401, 409–410, 412–413, 418–419, 423, 425, 430, 433, 435, 441, 443–444, 461, 471, 481–483, 497, 506–507, 519–521, 530, 533, 550, 552, 579–581; 21:602–604, 606–609

-angular 21:609

-angular articulation 21:601

-angular contact 21:603

-angular joint 20:522, 531; 21:604

bone 14:419; 21:596

Splenic

artery 3:321

capsule 3:320

collectors 6:446

diverticulum 3:321–323, 328

lymphatic net 6:446–447

lymphatic vessels 6:427, 446–447

Splenius capitis 20:51

Splenogenesis 19:537, 560, 571–572, 574–575

Splenomegaly 14:642

Split-lines 4:246–247

Spongy bone 1:51, 53–54, 62, 313

Spontaneous discharge 2:286–287, 292, 309

Spotted membrane 12:401

Sprawling locomotion 21:20, 44, 49–50, 58, 82, 174, 182, 203, 245, 321

Spraying of venom (see “Spitting” of venom)

Spreading factor (see Hyaluronidase)

Spring emergence 18:157

Sprint speeds 21:45, 47, 49, 56, 206

Squalene 18:151–152, 203

Squamata(e)(es) (see also Amphisbaenia; Lizards;

Snakes) 5:10, 275, 277–278, 287, 292–293, 296, 305, 337, 342, 449, 451, 453–454, 466–467, 487, 490; 7:6; 8:3, 54, 66, 144, 147, 589; 9:9, 11, 19, 22, 66, 75, 138, 157, 251, 295–296, 408–409, 427; 10:59, 217, 219, 225, 233, 240, 327; 12:241, 247, 397, 401, 404–405, 409, 413, 418; 17:216; 19:21, 37, 74, 304, 386, 399, 406, 473; 20:4–5, 11–12, 14, 19–20, 31, 48–49, 51–52, 70, 108, 246, 250–252, 257, 263, 272–274, 286–288, 352, 360, 373, 389, 400, 416, 567, 583; 21:9–11, 17, 29

adrenal 3:269, 273–274, 278–284, 286, 289, 291–292, 298, 305–306, 309, 311

axial muscles 11:357–358, 362–363, 372–373, 375, 378–379, 423

axial skeleton 1:204, 206–209, 234, 240–299, 301–302

blood cell morphology 3:80, 83

blood chemistry 3:4–6, 21, 26, 50–53

cardiac shunting 19:441–449, 455–458

cardiac structure 19:406–416, 426–429

chondrocranium 11:3–6, 8, 11, 18–20, 25, 30, 38, 48, 82, 96, 99, 108, 114, 121, 123, 125, 127, 132, 137, 146, 158, 175, 191–194, 205, 207–208, 210, 213, 215–216, 219, 222–223, 227, 232, 234

dentition 1:148, 153–184

ear 2:221–230, 237–255, 265–272

eye 2:83, 90

heart 5:280–281

histology of gut 6:229, 296, 298–299

jaw muscles 4:285–490

muscle tissue 11:266, 274–275, 278–279, 284, 290–291, 295–296, 298, 320, 322–323, 325, 328, 331, 334–335

nose 2:100, 102–104, 118–144, 149, 154, 156, 159–161, 164–169, 171–172, 174, 177–179, 182, 184

origin and evolution 1:2–4, 10, 39

pancreas 3:328–329, 335

parathyroid 3:247–259

pituitary 3:140, 145, 148, 159, 163, 194–195

stapes 9:15

taxonomic literature 2:319, 321

thyroid 3:222

Squamate secondary palate 20:387

Squamosal 1:18, 20, 31; 2:198, 232; 4:105, 108, 110–113, 115, 133, 138–139, 147, 163, 174, 186, 203–205, 209–211, 213–214, 216–222, 233–234, 236–237, 244, 247, 249–252, 254– 257, 259, 266, 277, 291, 294–300, 302–303, 305, 309, 322–323, 328–330, 332, 336, 341–343, 347, 353, 356, 360, 363, 374–375, 378–382, 387–389, 394, 396, 401–402, 420, 453, 459, 462, 466, 471; 11:28, 39, 59–60, 63, 68–69, 71, 73, 80, 82, 100–101, 107, 112, 119, 124–125, 134, 156, 184, 199, 209, 214, 218, 220, 231, 237, 243–244, 366; 14:126; 20:14, 17, 19–22, 42, 44, 48, 52–56, 67–69, 74, 84, 91, 96, 99–100, 104, 108, 110, 115, 122, 128, 133, 136–137, 143–144, 149, 154, 160, 162, 166, 170, 173, 178–179, 181, 185, 190–191, 194, 202, 205, 209–210, 213–214, 217, 221, 225, 230–231, 234, 238, 240, 244, 248–249, 260–264, 272, 275–276, 278, 280, 282–285, 287, 289, 363, 365, 584; 21:220

ossification 14:312

Squamous stratified epithelia 8:48

Squatina squatina 19:562

Squid 8:440, 470

Squirrel 10:300

monkey (see also Saimiri) 10:230, 276

SS groups 6:229, 237, 246–248, 252, 265, 271–272, 280, 294

S-T segment 5:92

Stability 8:175–176

Stable age distribution 16:351

Stages of development 14:11, 13, 16, 21, 32, 77, 95–97, 99–101, 109–111, 141, 152, 159, 217, 219, 240, 282–307, 319–416, 502–503, 508–511, 683; 15:3, 6–8

indices of 14:91–99, 279–280, 502

at oviposition 14:10–11, 13, 110, 114, 184, 279, 282, 499–500

rationale and criteria 14:159, 280–281

Stamina 5:195, 255

Stammteil 2:118, 126, 131, 134, 137

Stance phase 21:43, 46, 48, 50

Standard rate 5:129, 138, 193, 209

Standing crop 13:234

crop ratios 5:191

Standing waves 21:45, 48, 61, 241

Stapedeo-saccular strand 2:256–257

Stapedial

artery 2:12, 197, 199, 222, 230; 11:15, 28, 35, 69, 79–80, 132, 187, 214–215; 21:482

footplate 20:361, 379, 382, 390, 398, 425–427, 438, 478, 484–485, 527, 529, 569; 21:499

foramen 2:199–200, 223, 230; 11:73, 80, 83, 85; 20:126

nodule 21:477

notch 2:200

process 2:226

shelf 21:485

Stapes (see also Columella auris) 1:7, 12, 14, 25, 27, 30–31, 38; 2:31, 196–197, 199–201, 224, 226–228, 230–233, 247; 4:202, 237, 371, 374; 20:12, 34, 48, 73, 75, 89, 102, 112, 114, 116, 126, 128, 135–137, 148, 150, 157–158, 164, 166, 172, 174, 183, 186, 193, 195, 206, 209, 216–217, 224, 226, 232, 234, 239–240, 242, 244–249, 272, 361, 376, 382, 384, 390, 393, 401, 407–408, 418, 426, 428–429, 432, 438, 442, 450, 452, 459, 474, 478, 484, 493, 519, 526, 563; 21:484, 525

inferior 11:207, 221

Star cells 2:38

Starch

gel electrophoresis 3:27

hydrolysis 8:611–612

Starling pressure 19:346, 467

Starvation 5:169; 13:70

effect on thyroid 3:208

Static defense 5:179

Statistical analysis 5:150; 16:346, 363–365, 393–396, 406–407, 443, 445, 447, 450–453, 459, 461, 463–464, 467, 469–470, 472, 475–476, 482, 487–488, 490–492

Statoacoustic organ 10:214

system 10:214

Statoconia 2:205

Statoconic membrane 2:205, 208–210

Statolith 2:208–209, 255

Staurotypinae

axial skeleton 1:215

limbs 4:53, 75, 88

Staurotypus 7:460, 465; 14:83, 89–90, 103, 108, 120, 162, 171, 179, 181, 185–186, 189, 191–193, 204–205, 213, 215–216, 220–221, 226–228, 231; 15:275; 16:122, 135, 402

blood chemistry 3:28, 50

eye 2:68

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:153, 180–181

limbs 4:4, 89

nose 2:114

Steady-state

energy balance 12:278, 284, 293–294

response 2:287

temperature 5:302

Stearic acid 18:123, 194, 199

Stefan-Boltzmann

constant (see Thermal balance)

equation 12:284, 320

Stegocephalia, dentition 1:118–119

Stegoceras 9:105–108

Stegonotus 16:233; 19:146, 215, 236; 20:573; 21:577, 600

batjanensis 19:215

borneensis 19:215

cucullatus 19:215; 20:644

diehli 19:215; 20:644

ear 2:272

heterurus 20:644

magnus 19:215

modestus 19:215; 20:644

muelleri 19:147, 215

parvus 20:644

Stegosauria 19:74

dentition 1:187–188

Stegosaurus 7:7; 9:57, 61, 67, 109–111

Steinkern 9:41

Stellate

complex 5:237

ganglion 5:307

ganglion complex 19:403

reticulum 1:146

Stellio 12:107–108; 14:604–606, 609–610, 612, 639, 664; 15:43, 445; 16:258

stellio 20:294

vulgaris 20:294

Stem

amniotes 21:194

cells of blood 3:73, 103

reptiles 19:498

tendon (see Mandibular adductor tendon)

Stenobionts 15:445

Stenodactylus 7:469; 12:124; 15:9, 328, 344–345, 350, 376; 16:115, 138, 254, 260–261; 20:117, 296; 21:41, 89, 96

chondrocranium 11:74–75, 77, 79

ear 2:266, 271

eye 2:26

nose 2:120

petrii 20:306

slevini 20:306

sthenodactylus 21:7, 400

Stenometopon 9:297

Stenonychosaurus 9:51, 57, 89–91, 93, 137

Stenophis 19:225

granuliceps 19:215

Stenoplacenta 15:534–535, 540, 546, 560

Stenorrhina 15:647; 19:215, 232

degenhardtii 19:215

freminvillei 19:215

Stenothermy 12:21–22, 46, 68

Stenotosaurus, dentition 1:120

Stenson’s duct (see Duct of Jacobson’s organ)

Stereocilia 2:214–215; 3:327

Stereoscopic vision 17:209

Stereospondyli, origin and evolution 1:23

Stereotyped behavior (see also Acts; Act, system) 7:335–403

avoidance 7:384–387

courtship and mating 7:341–349, 362, 369–375, 392–398, 402–403, 433–424

Crocodilia 7:400–403

defense 7:382–387

definition of 7:335

female rejection 7:367–368

interspecific comparisons 7:349–351, 375–378, 398–399

intraspecific aggression 7:340–341, 351–367, 387–392, 402

negative 7:382

Rhynchocephalia 7:399–400

Sauria 7:351–378

Serpentes 7:378–399

Testudines 7:337–351

Sterility

in hybrids 15:477

test 8:580

Sterilization 5:26

of needle 5:86

Sternal

fontanelles 21:63–67, 85, 87–89

groove 21:70, 74, 247

plate 21:30

rib(s) 1:236, 261–262; 11:384; 21:63–64, 67, 69, 86, 94, 218, 234

segment of rib 1:208

Sternocoracoid

articulation 21:238

ligament 21:94, 99

Sternocoracoideus

externus 21:212

internus 21:212

Sternocostal segment of rib 1:230–231, 235, 253; 11:378, 394

Sternohyoid muscle 6:378

Sternoscapular ligament 21:97–98, 234, 263, 265–266

Sternothaerus

limbs 4:3

subniger 19:19, 77

Sternotherus 5:136, 153, 170, 194, 197, 202–203, 242, 249, 319–320, 347; 7:68, 98, 345, 350–351, 460, 465, 569; 9:233; 10:203, 221, 225; 12:139, 140, 429; 13:36–38, 120, 125, 205; 14:78–79, 101, 103, 114, 118–120, 148–151, 179–180, 182, 184, 188–189, 195, 204–205, 209, 213, 215–216, 220–221, 226, 228, 235, 712; 15:151, 159, 170, 264, 269, 281, 283; 16:8, 11, 25, 113, 122, 127, 135, 337, 354, 362, 365–367, 392, 398, 400, 403, 415, 437–438, 532, 552; 18:198–199, 327

adrenal 3:265, 275

blood cell numbers 3:95, 100

blood chemistry 3:4, 8, 50

carinatus 18:197

ear 2:254, 258, 270

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:88

head muscles and visceral skeleton 4:103, 123, 153

limbs 4:3–4, 6, 11

minor 19:299

nose 2:104, 110, 113

odoratus 18:90, 95–96, 191–192, 197–198, 200, 251, 258

shell 1:321, 329–330, 334

urinogenital system 6:5–6, 49–50, 52, 59, 64, 71, 74, 98, 107, 109–111

Sternothyroideus 21:212

Sternum 1:203, 228, 230, 235–237, 240, 254–255, 261; 4:319; 5:62; 6:381–382; 11:375; 19:411; 20:584, 586; 21:10, 15–16, 29, 33, 40, 45, 59– 60, 62, 65, 68–71, 86–88, 90, 93–96, 98–99, 135, 217–221, 230, 234, 236, 240–241, 267

Sterocholanic acid 19:513

Steroid (see also Gonadal steroid hormone) 6:75, 80, 117; 18:147, 171, 183–184, 188

and skin shedding 14:543, 545, 572

biosynthesis 14:340 3-B-d-dehydrogenase 6:77

from theca interna 14:56

hormones 3:128; 5:390, 394

synthesis (steroidogenesis) 15:242–243, 274, 276–277, 285, 580, 594; 18:45

Steroids (see Estradiol; Estrone)

Steroidogenesis 3:296; 6:76, 102–103, 121; 8:518

Sterol(s) 18:169–170, 203

esters 3:36; 18:154, 203

Stiffness 11:299–300, 302–303, 311, 314

Stilosoma 16:120, 148, 230; 19:232

ear 2:272

extenuatum 19:215

Stimulation 11:303, 311

Stimulus 11:284, 286

control 16:15–16

Stock solutions 5:58

Stoichiometric ration 5:172

Stoliczkaia 19:224; 20:556; 21:592

jaw muscles 4:442, 481

borneensis 19:215

Stomach 3:17, 320–325; 5:309; 6:159, 163–166, 175, 179–182, 190–191, 195–202, 208, 213–214, 218–221, 226–230, 234–235, 241–271, 284, 301, 349–350, 352–354, 356–357, 379, 410–415, 419, 426, 458; 8:592–610, 618–621, 657, 666; 10:21–24, 26; 19:39–40, 137, 139, 158, 404, 486–487, 533, 535–537, 547, 550, 557, 567, 569

content analyses 18:162

development 14:142–143, 174, 309, 311, 439

glands 14:142, 174

mucosa 14:142

muscles 14:142

stones 13:9

stratum circulare 14:142, 174

strip 10:247

tunica propria 14:142

Stomatosuchus, skull 4:270–271, 275, 279–280

Stomodeum 8:2; 14:420, 681, 683–684

Stopcock grease 5:100

Storage 13:234–236, 238, 243, 246, 248, 255

Storeria 5:134, 148, 168, 175–176, 450; 7:225, 383, 385, 393, 503; 8:6, 610, 694; 13:97–98, 104, 107, 111, 115, 117, 122–123, 126–129, 131, 133; 15:45, 533, 546, 581, 586, 652; 16:8, 22, 120, 132, 148, 482–484, 519; 18:115, 131, 478; 19:234

blood chemistry 3:11

dekayi 18:115, 126–127, 131, 133, 137, 143, 477; 19:215; 20:648

ear 2:272

nose 2:121

occipitomaculata 19:153, 215; 20:648

storerioides 19:215; 20:572

urinogenital system 6:94, 97, 100

Stork 14:7

Strain gage 5:96

Stratification level 17:58

Stratified cortex 1:76

Stratum

album centrale 9:199; 10:143, 145, 153, 159, 164–165, 176, 227, 263–264; 17:194, 258–259, 262, 276, 310, 321

album profundum 9:199

corneum 2:14; 12:400, 420–421

fibrosum et griseum periventriculare 10:176, 263–264

fibrosum et griseum superficiale 10:145, 153, 159, 174–175, 263–264, 290; 17:193, 198, 202–203, 258, 290, 301–302, 304, 310, 314

fibrosum periventriculare 17:194

germinativum 18:154, 166

granulosum 12:420–421

griseum centrale 10:143, 145, 151, 153, 158–159, 164, 168, 175, 264, 290; 17:194, 258, 262, 276, 293, 321

griseum periventriculare 10:145, 153–154, 159, 165, 174, 176, 227; 17:194, 262, 299

intermedium 1:146

opticum 10:143, 145, 151, 153, 158–159, 164, 174–175, 263–264, 290; 17:193–198, 250, 301–302, 321

terminativum 3:220

zonale 9:177, 179, 182, 184–185, 192, 196, 198–199, 210–211, 214–215, 231; 10:290; 17:194, 301, 321

Streamlining 13:3–4

Strengthening of skull 4:271–274

Streptognathy 4:436

Streptosaurus (see also Petrosaurus) 7:436–437, 450, 483

Streptostyly 11:59, 101, 125, 151, 161, 193, 198, 245; 20:48–49, 52–53, 55, 58–59, 61, 81, 176, 249, 261–262, 269, 276, 283, 286–289, 367, 590

Stress 5:21, 27, 37–38, 40, 82, 374; 18:126, 340, 346–348, 365, 367, 395, 398; 19:459

Stretch

receptors 5:303; 12:242; 13:19

reflex 21:51

Stria medullaris 10:177; 12:226; 18:442–443

Striated

border 6:275, 277, 280–281, 287, 294–295, 297

muscle 6:296, 447–449, 451–454; 18:192, 200

Striatum 10:178, 253, 259–261, 265, 270–271, 274, 280, 294, 310–312, 316, 329–330, 332; 17:328, 534–535, 610, 621, 627, 635, 667, 682, 689

ventral 10:179, 192, 259–260, 262, 270, 272–273, 277, 282, 329

Stride

frequency 21:52

length 21:43, 45, 52, 61, 71, 282, 336

Strike 20:488, 502, 516

Strike-induced chemosensory searching (SICS) 18:426, 488–492

and chemical learning 18:490

non-venomous snakes 18:492

Strikes

defensive, and tongue-flicking 18:491

predatory, and tongue-flicking 18:491

Strio-amygdaloid complex 10:178

Strobilurus 20:80, 82, 293

torquatus 20:305

Stroke volume 5:301–302; 12:238

Stroma 6:49–51, 81–82, 96, 106

Structural

diversity 19:2

principles 19:2

type 19:2, 10, 50, 55

variation 19:403

Struthio 10:65

urinogenital system 6:114

Struthiocephalus 9:128, 299

Struthiomimus 9:93

Struthiosaurus 9:111–112

Sturgeon (see Acipenser, oocytes)

Stylohyal 2:233; 4:250–251

Stylopod 15:62, 70, 74, 79, 109; 20:393, 407, 418

Stylopodium 21:29, 59

Styptostylic 8:631

“Stypven” 8:177, 238, 493

Styracosaurus 9:114

Styxosaurus 9:297

Subacrodonty 1:164

Sub-angular 4:167

Subarachnoid space 9:23

Subarticular

process 4:383

-brillar space 2:15

Subarcuate fossa 11:52

Subcapsular process 2:233–234, 259, 261; 11:170, 173–174, 211, 222, 226, 233, 237–238, 241–243, 245–246

Subcentral

boundary 9:179, 181–182, 185–186, 188, 196, 198–209, 211, 214–219, 226–227, 284, 307, 327

foramina (see Foramina subcentralis)

ridge (see Margo inferior)

Subclavian

artery 3:114, 203; 6:323, 390

jugular trunk 6:327

plexus 6:374, 390

sinus 6:322, 354

trunk 6:317–319, 322–323, 325–326, 345, 347, 362, 378–381, 383, 385, 389–390, 397

vein 3:203; 6:316–317, 322, 324, 326–327, 354, 374, 378, 381

Subcommissural organ 9:222, 246–247, 255–261, 280, 282, 289, 363–364, 325, 371–373

Subconchal recess 2:122, 131, 133–135, 137, 159; 11:46, 79, 102–103

Subcoracoscapularis 21:30, 212

Subcortical structure 10:329

Subcostal net 6:329–330, 403

Subcutaneous 8:94

lymphatic nets 6:316, 361, 367, 370–374, 382, 388–389, 395, 404, 428

lymphatic vessels 6:368, 375, 384, 429

muscles (see Cutaneous muscles)

placement 5:89

temperature 5:313

Subdental

groove 20:157

gutter 20:126, 130, 166, 273

ridge 20:36, 74, 91, 172, 174, 184, 196, 224, 226, 232, 234, 239, 241, 273–274

shelf 20:116, 157, 207–208, 216–217, 273; 21:601

Subdigital adhesive pads 21:129, 132–133, 187–188

Subendothelial layer 6:450–451

Subepicardial lymphatic net 6:444–446

Subepidermal lymphatic nets 6:367, 371–372

Sub-germinal

cavity 15:22–23

fluid 14:114

space 14:78, 112–113, 115–117, 137, 168, 505

Subiculum infundibuli 9:6; 11:15, 20–21, 45, 52, 66, 76, 90, 93, 110, 112, 117, 119, 121, 124, 209, 210, 224

infundibuli cartilage 2:7–8

Sublingual

collector 6:409

gland(s) 4:171, 175; 6:232, 234; 8:49–50, 53–63, 72–73, 77, 144; 11:143; 21:595

plicae 21:573

plicae (anterior processes), snake, specializations 18:460–462

Submandibular

artery 6:385

collector 6:348, 375, 379–380, 382, 385, 410

lymphatic vessel 6:318, 386–387

trunk 6:320–321, 375, 378, 381–382, 431

vein 6:385

Submaxillary gland 4:144–145

Submergence 5:41, 285, 292, 306, 317, 319–322, 325, 327, 436

Submesothelial areas 6:458

Submucosa

of larynx 6:431

of stomach 6:268–270, 272

Submucosal 6:385

lymphatic net of esophagus 6:410–411

lymphatic net of gall bladder 6:426–427

lymphatic net of large intestine 6:421–424

lymphatic net of oviduct 6:441

lymphatic net of rectum 6:425

lymphatic net of small intestine 6:415–416, 418–420

lymphatic net of stomach 6:412–414

lymphatic net of urinary bladder 6:434–436

plexus 17:676

Subnasal muscle 2:130

Suboccipital muscles 11:370

Subocular sinus 6:381

Subolfactory

lamina of frontal 20:499, 532

process of frontal 21:582

processes 20:253

Suborbital (see also Postorbital) 21:589

fenestra 20:14–15, 18, 25, 69–70, 74, 88, 120, 124, 128, 134, 142, 146, 158, 160, 163, 167, 171, 173, 175, 182, 185, 199–190, 192, 194, 198, 202, 204, 210, 218, 220, 224–225, 228, 230–231, 233, 236, 240–241, 245, 247–248, 268, 277; 21:564–566

ligament 20:503, 512, 576

maxilla 20:544, 547–548

ossification 20:479; 21:587

process of parasphenoid 20:501, 503, 507–508, 531

Subordinance (see also Social behavior) 18:193

Subpallium 10:329

Subpapillary net 6:407–408

Subperitoneal lymphatic net of stomach (see

Subserosal lymphatic net of stomach)

Subpleural net 6:396, 429–433

Subpubic

plexus 6:318, 342, 393–394

sinus 6:320, 332–338, 357, 362, 367, 392, 395, 404, 406

Subseptal vein 2:13

Subserosal

lymphatic net of large intestine 6:421–423

lymphatic net of small intestine 6:415, 417, 419, 421

lymphatic net of stomach 6:379, 412–415

net (see also Subcostal net) 6:351, 379

Substance K 17:639, 644

Substance P 17:65–66, 72, 103, 159, 399–400, 531– 532, 591, 627, 637–638, 644, 646–650, 652–653, 664, 667, 672, 686, 688–690; 19:454

Substantia

gelatinosa 10:69, 95, 120; 17:392, 411, 682, 685

nigra 10:151, 165, 178, 251, 254, 276–277; 17:328– 330, 635, 641, 646, 660, 681–682, 689

pars compacta 10:276–277

pars reticulata 10:277

propria 2:15, 64

Substratal vibrations 2:226

Substrate 5:23–24, 26, 41, 80, 193, 209, 320

licking (see also Tongue) 18:173–175, 178

oxidation 5:80

Subtemporal fenestra 20:15, 25, 36, 74, 165

Subthalamus 10:301

Subthecodonty (see Protothecodonty)

Subtrabecular nodule 11:172

Subtracheal sinus 6:327, 335, 348, 362, 383, 409, 458

Subtrochinienne crest 21:101

Subtrochiterienne crest 21:101

Sub-tunical layer of cells 6:73–74

Subunguis 21:130

Subvertebral

collector system 6:404

muscles (see M. subvertebralis)

trunk (see also Lumbar trunk; Thoracic duct) 6:374, 386–387, 395, 397

Subvesical sinus 6:318–320, 332–334, 336–342, 344, 346, 348, 358, 361, 392–393, 395, 435–437,443

Successive

female defensive polygyny 18:147

habit reversal 7:632–638

Crocodilia 7:633, 636

Sauria 7:633, 637

Testudines 7:633–636

Succinate 3:45; 5:183, 196; 8:515

dehydrogenase 6:231, 241, 249, 253, 269–270, 284, 292–293, 295–296; 8:126, 144, 147, 514

Succinic

acid 13:177

dehydrogenase (SDH) 2:288, 306; 3:46; 5:205, 423; 6:36, 43; 11:268, 280–281, 293, 322–323; 17:372, 399, 419, 421, 464–465

chorionic epithelium 15:564

Succinoxidase 8:514

Succinylcholine 8:457; 11:332

chloride 5:53

Sucrose 5:53, 56, 61, 69, 429; 12:340

Sudan black B 3:239–240, 267, 293–294; 6:229, 246, 248, 252, 267, 294, 300; 14:604–609, 611

Sudanophily 3:292–294, 297; 6:43, 80, 83

Sugars 13:73, 79–82, 92–93

Sulcus 2:15–18, 20–22, 29, 31, 64, 68, 70, 75, 79–80, 82–83

anterior 17:504

cavernosus 11:214, 219

intrahypothalamicus 10:258

limitans 9:235; 10:141

medianus dorsalis 17:500

posterior 17:504

supracristularis 11:213–214

Sulfate 3:4–7; 5:488; 8:171, 174; 13:86–87

groups 6:283

Sulfated

acid mucopolysaccharide 3:126

mucins 8:117, 124

Sulfhydryl 3:18, 39, 42

Sulfhydrylated protein 3:156, 209

Sulfobromophthalien (BSP) 19:516

Sulfur 8:174

-hydrogen bond 3:329

Sulfuric acid 5:103

Sulphate 14:315

Summation 11:285

“Summer and winter” bands 1:67

Suncus murinus 19:569

Sunlight 5:24

Sunning habits 2:277

Supercooling 13:54, 60

Superficial

adductor fascia 4:289, 293

caudal collectors 6:334, 395, 402–407

collectors of anterior limb 6:345, 348

collectors of posterior limb 6:394–395

femoral aponeurosis 21:372, 378–379, 390–391

head vein 20:460

hepatic collectors 6:426–427

jugular trunk 6:318–319, 324–327, 333, 345, 347, 360, 362, 367, 369, 371, 373–380, 382–385

lateral jugular trunk 6:382

layer of the rectus capitis dorsalis 21:510

lymphatic net of esophagus 6:410–411

lymphatic net of gall bladder 6:426

lymphatic net of kidney 6:434

lymphatic net of lung (see Subpleural net)

lymphatic net of stomach (see Subserosal

lymphatic net of stomach)

lymphatic net of urinary bladder 6:434–435, 437

lymphatic nets 6:315

mandibular collector 6:374, 383

portion of the pterygoideus 21:612

radial nerve 4:22

Superior

alar process of prootic 20:442

alveolar nerve canal 20:17–18

branchial nerve 4:22

colliculus 10:188, 300; 17:242, 302, 323, 334, 338, 430, 552

ear flap 11:237, 243

fornix 2:9–12

labial gland 11:129–130, 143, 165, 187

nasal artery 2:12

nasal gland (see External nasal gland)

oblique muscle 2:7–8, 11–12, 49–50, 67, 73–74

olive 10:139, 141, 149, 157, 161, 167, 173, 212, 216–217, 223, 234

orbital artery 2:10, 12, 40, 50; 11:35

orbital fenestra (see Supraorbital fenestra)

palpebral vein 2:13, 50

rectus muscle 2:7–8, 11–12, 49–50, 67, 74

sagittal sinus (see Venous sinus)

temporal arch 11:63–64, 70–71, 73, 80, 85, 91, 95, 100, 104, 107, 111, 114, 125, 134, 155, 184

temporal fenestra 11:243, 245; 21:507

temporal fossa 11:60, 63, 70, 73, 101

temporal vein 2:13

thyroid artery 3:203

Supernumerary shields 1:329

Supination 4:84; 21:112, 114, 283

Supinator

longus 21:212

manus 21:212

Supine position 5:40–41, 63

Suppliers 5:20–21

Supporting cell (see also Sustentacular cell) 2:204, 210–214, 250, 253–254, 258, 260, 263; 18:427–428

Supportive cells of taste bud 6:232

Supra-acetabular buttress 21:138, 142–144, 146

Supraangular 20:520

Supracardiac

chamber 6:327

plexus 6:331

Supracaudal shield (see Marginal shield)

Suprachiasmatic nuclei (see also Brain study;

Circadian rhythms) 12:219, 228; 18:232, 247–248, 267, 279

Supraciliary 11:63, 244

Supracleithra 14:155

Supracoracoid

foramen 21:30, 83, 245

nerve 4:23, 25

Supracoracoideus 21:30, 207, 212

Supraglenoid

buttress 21:103

foramen 21:74

Syprailium 21:144

Supralabial

gland(s) 2:49; 8:49–50, 62, 66–73, 76, 85–86, 94, 113, 121, 146, 148, 151; 20:473, 478

scale 2:289, 292, 302–304

Supralingual gland 8:59, 62

Supramarginal shield 1:314–315, 328, 333–334

Supranasal

sac 2:297

scale 2:280, 297

septum 9:18

Supraoccipital 4:105, 108–110, 112, 114–116, 124– 125, 138, 147, 186, 205, 209–211, 213–214, 216–221, 224–227, 233, 252, 254–257, 278, 408–409; 11:22, 29, 59–60, 81, 85, 100–101, 106–107, 112, 117, 124, 133, 151, 153, 185, 199, 218, 224, 242; 20:15, 17, 28, 30, 32, 34, 50, 52, 67, 70, 72, 76, 83, 89, 101, 104–105, 108, 113, 115, 119, 126, 128, 131, 135, 137, 140, 147, 149, 152, 156, 158, 160, 164–165, 168, 172–173, 183, 192, 206, 216, 220, 223, 225, 228–229, 232, 234, 236, 239–240, 242–243, 246, 248, 255–257, 276, 285–288, 355, 357, 562, 365, 369, 371, 373–375, 379, 387–390, 398–399, 404, 407, 409, 411, 415, 421–422, 425–427, 431, 434, 439, 442, 445–447, 449, 453, 455, 458, 462–463, 465–467, 471, 473–475, 479, 484, 486, 497, 501, 504–506, 509, 511, 513, 519, 523, 525–527, 529, 533, 538–539, 541, 543, 561–569, 571, 587, 589; 21:541, 543

articular surface with exoccipital 20:449

articular surface with prootic 20:449

crest 11:100

ossification 14:312, 314

-prootic suture 20:400

spine 1:211

tendon lobes 4:105, 107, 110, 125

Supraocular 11:63

Supraolfactory process of frontal 20:420, 432, 472, 596

Supraoptic nucleus 3:137–138; 6:117

nucleus of the hypothalamus 17:590

Supraorbital (see also Palpebral bone) 11:63, 106–107, 110–111, 175; 20:356–357, 382, 431–432, 434, 436, 439–441, 448, 462–463, 478; 21:590–592

artery 2:50

bar 20:84

bone 2:48

fenestra 2:6–7; 20:106, 110

process of parietal 20:408, 415, 426, 457, 491, 524, 532, 542

process of prefrontal 20:373, 408

Suprapatella 1:91, 103, 108–111; 21:117

Suprapolar process 11:229–230, 236, 241, 245

Suprapygal

bone 1:320

ossification 14:313–314

Suprarenal

cortex 6:53; 15:155, 165, 172

gland (see Adrenal gland)

Suprarostral scale 2:303

Suprascapula 4:12–14, 21–22, 24, 27; 21:10, 14, 16, 29, 71, 73–76, 80, 222–223, 225, 227–229, 234, 248, 256–257, 259

Supraspinal pathway 10:91, 97–98, 123, 125

Suprastapedial (see Processus dorsalis of

columella; Dorsal process of columellar

apparatus)

Supratemporal 1:15, 18, 20, 22, 27, 30, 38; 4:124, 202, 318, 322, 363, 365, 374–375, 388, 394, 396, 401–402, 420, 463, 470–471; 11:28, 34, 59–60, 63, 68, 79–82, 101, 106–107, 112, 134, 144–146, 148, 151, 153, 156, 161, 184, 189, 199, 220, 244; 20:17, 19–23, 34, 42, 44, 46, 51–52, 54–55, 62, 68, 74, 86, 91, 100, 104, 110, 115, 122, 128, 136, 144, 149, 154, 158, 162, 166, 170, 173, 178, 185, 191, 194, 202–203, 209, 214, 221, 224–225, 230, 232, 234, 238, 240, 244, 248, 261–262, 264, 272, 276, 278, 280, 286–287, 289, 356–357, 363–365, 369–370, 376–377, 379, 384, 393, 398–401, 404–405, 412, 414–415, 418, 421– 422, 425–427, 429, 431, 434–435, 438–439, 441–443, 445, 447, 451, 453, 455–456, 459, 463–465, 467–468, 471, 473–475, 477, 479–480, 484, 486–487, 493,497, 501–502, 504–507, 509, 511, 513, 519–520, 523, 525, 527, 529–531, 533, 538–541, 543, 549, 562–566, 568–569, 571, 578–579, 584, 587, 590–592; 21:479, 507

arch 20:364, 366, 584, 588

fenestra 1:8; 4:133, 204, 213, 217, 220, 222, 224, 232–133, 238, 246, 249, 252–254, 267, 270–271, 275, 300, 312, 317–318, 326, 333, 335, 340, 363, 375–376, 379, 415–416

fossa (see Fossa temporalis superior)

-quadrate ligament 20:539

Supratrabecular

bar 11:43–44, 53, 93, 121, 224

fenestra 2:6–7

membrane 2:7, 13

Supratrigeminal

ligament 4:320

process 4:320; 20:31, 47, 78, 89, 91, 104, 135, 148, 150, 156, 164, 166, 172, 174, 183, 186, 206, 232

ridge 20:33

Supravenous process 20:125

Surangular 4:104, 107–108, 112, 114, 131–133, 136, 146–147, 204–205, 209–211, 213, 215–219, 221, 223, 239, 248, 250, 254, 258, 297, 315, 317, 322, 324, 329, 350, 356, 388, 400–402, 408, 410, 417; 11:24, 63–64, 73, 80–81, 85, 106, 113, 119, 124, 129, 133, 135, 146, 151, 156–157, 179, 187, 211, 214, 220, 231, 237, 244; 20:35–37, 44, 46, 74–75, 78, 89–91, 103–104, 114–116, 127, 130, 136–137, 148–150, 157–158, 162, 164, 166, 173–174, 184, 194–196, 208–209, 216, 224, 226, 232, 235, 239, 241, 247, 249, 356, 401, 412, 423, 481; 21:599, 611

crest of compound bone 20:357, 377, 401, 413, 423, 430, 433, 435, 441, 444–445, 447, 452, 460–461, 465, 471, 474, 481, 519, 531, 550, 569, 579–581

foramen 20:194, 239

ridge 20:418

Surface

area 12:454–457; 13:36; 19:13, 42, 51–54, 56, 61, 63, 65, 67–68, 70, 76–77, 106

density 19:13

lung 19:13

-mass relationships 5:39

pulmonary 19:77

relief of shell 1:325

respiratory 19:13, 49, 52–55, 57, 60, 323

tension 5:75; 19:42–43, 56, 77, 349, 352–353

Surfactant 8:267; 19:14, 25, 42–43, 298, 348–354

amount and composition 19:350–351

function 19:352–353

Surgery 5:37, 43, 47, 52, 98

anesthesia 5:50

instruments 5:98

soap 5:98

treatment 5:288

Surinam 16:6, 400

Surital 5:45

Survival 5:390, 402, 436, 457

in dry conditions 5:366

in hypoxic environments 5:191

in nitrogen 5:193

in sea water 5:391, 397

time 5:191–193, 198, 320

under anoxia 5:191

Survivorship (see also Embryos; Life history

methods; Life history traits; Parental

care) 13:242–243, 305

age-specific 7:149, 182–184, 200, 232–234, 237

altitude factors, lizards 7:180–181

annual variation in 7:184–185, 200, 224

interspecific comparisons 7:219–221

interspecific variance with size 7:175–180

latitudinal factors 7:180–181

lizards 7:181–182

methods of estimating 7:174–175, 219–221

snakes (see also Mortality) 7:221–224

Sus 16:11, 404

muscle tissue 11:282

thyroid 3:222

Suspension

bridge model (of lung support) 19:42–43

cables 19:108

of the quadrate 21:472

Suspensorium 20:355–356, 405, 484, 582

Suspensory

fibers (of lens) 2:5

ligament of testis (see Mesorchium)

Sustentacular cell (see also Sertoli cell) 2:156– 159, 162, 164

Suta 8:19, 25; 12:131–132; 15:533, 546, 552, 560, 654; 16:150; 19:222

dwyeri 19:416, 419

fasciata 19:198

flagellum 19:198

gouldii 19:198; 20:629

monachus 19:198

nigriceps 19:198

punctata 19:164, 198; 20:629

suta 8:25; 19:127, 198; 20:630

Sutural teeth 1:330

Suture(s) 1:320, 323, 330; 5:64, 99; 20:7–8, 15–16, 24, 33, 39–41, 43, 63–64, 71

purse-string 5:102

stainless steel 5:99

Suzuki’s tissue 1:89

SV wave 5:87, 293

Swallowing (see also Deglutition) 8:590; 10:25; 19:118, 120, 137

Sweat glands 5:388

Sweden 2:322

Sweet potatoes 5:170

Swimming 13:2–6, 14; 19:340, 460; 21:56, 241

Swing phase 21:43, 46, 50

Swinging-door model 20:378

Symbionts 5:170; 8:618, 620, 627, 631–635, 656

Symbols 13:236, 243, 246–248, 306

used in cardiorespiratory physiology 5:266– 267

Symmetrical gaits 4:6; 21:42

Sympathetic

augumentation 5:303

blocking agents 5:312

chain 19:452

constrictor mechanisms 5:323

control 5:309; 12:243

drugs 5:309

fibers 5:307

influences 5:294

nervous system 10:8, 30, 93; 12:237, 242, 244, 247; 14:176, 309; 18:345

nervous system activity 5:236–237, 430

nervous system cell 10:3

nervous system fiber 10:6, 10, 14, 17, 20, 31, 35, 37

nervous system trunk 10:2, 9, 14, 28, 30, 39

stimulation 19:441

trunk 5:310

Sympathomimetic

effects 5:38, 61, 81

responses 19:402

Sympathopheochromoblasts 3:268, 312

Sympatric populations 14:179

species 14:349

Sympatry

and bisexual species 15:499, 501

and parthenogenetic species (or taxa) 15:430, 434, 441–443, 445, 450–451, 455, 460, 465–466, 468, 470, 474, 477, 482, 485, 487–488, 495, 499–500, 503–505, 507

Symphimus 19:231; 20:572

leucostomus 19:215; 20:644

mayae 19:215; 20:644

Sympholis 19:231

lippiens 19:153, 215; 20:644

Symphysial tendon 4:447

Symphysis(es) 20:36, 78–79, 102–104, 128, 136–137, 184, 186, 193, 208, 224, 247, 249, 273, 367, 787, 587; 21:29

of the mandible 21:593

Symposia 8:164

Symptons, classification by 8:449–450

Synanceia verucosa 19:566

Synapomorphy 19:70, 150, 157, 165–166

Synapophysis 1:202, 209, 230, 237, 244, 250, 252, 260, 262, 274, 277–279, 287

Synapse 3:341

axoaxonic 17:309, 398

dendrodendritic 17:288

glomerulus 17:398

nest 17:281

ribbon 17:31, 33

Synapsid(s) 19:2, 67–68; 20:257; 21:84

reptiles 8:148

Synapsida 9:68, 124, 138–139, 304

dentition 1:124, 193–194

origin and evolution 1:3

skull 4:279

Synaptic bodies 2:213

ribbons 2:38–39, 61, 78

vesicles 2:38–39, 61, 213; 3:341; 6:42; 11:324

Synaptomosomes 8:466

Synaptonemal complex 14:51–52

Synaptosauria (see Euryapsida)

Synarthrosis 1:210; 20:384

Synbranchus 16:204

Synchronization 10:310, 327

Synchrony, developmental 14:14, 355

Syncitial tissue 6:31, 57, 70–71, 78–79

Syndactyly 15:136

Synergists 21:203

Synonymy 21:6

Synophis 19:224

axial skeleton 1:286, 298

bicolor 19:215

lasallei 19:215

Synostocephalus 9:299

Synostosis 4:243

Synovial

cavities 15:312

joint(s) 11:24, 35, 58, 62, 104, 130, 135, 199; 20:376–377, 418, 438

mesenchyme 1:83

Synthetase 6:252

Systematics 8:190, 192; 19:2, 4, 18, 20, 32, 41, 70, 75, 94, 96, 130, 135, 163, 168–171, 180–217, 300

and blood chemistry 3:46–52

Systemic 19:416

arches 5:8, 282–287, 289–290; 12:243

arches pressure 5:276, 309

arterial circuit 5:276–277, 281–282

arterial output 19:388

arterial pressure 5:459, 463–464; 19:442

arteries 5:276, 308

beds 5:276

blood flows 5:285

blood pressure 5:461

cardiac output 5:283, 302–303, 316, 323

circuit(s) 5:280, 286–287, 303, 323; 10:35; 19:436

circulation 5:7; 19:375, 389, 397, 430–431, 436, 442–444, 455–456, 466, 472

oxygen transport 19:471–472

perfusion 5:277

resistance 5:287, 316

vasculature 5:327

venous blood 19:385, 388, 452

venous returns 5:275, 278, 281–282, 287

Systems

closed 5:71–72, 74–75

open 5:71, 73, 80

Systole 5:286–290; 19:385, 389–390, 392, 395, 397–398, 410–411, 428–429, 439–443, 445–447, 449–451

Systolic

arrest 8:480

ejection 5:287

events 5:292

pressure 5:281–282

 

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