Biology of the Reptilia: Index V

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V2–V3 foramen 20:370

V4 foramen 20:408

V4 for the first dorsal constrictor 21:523

VII chorda tympani 21:595

Vaccinia 14:664

Vacuolar cell 2:284–285

Vacuole(s) 2:2, 46, 48, 58; 3:86, 137, 162, 179, 181–182, 254, 297, 310, 327, 334, 336; 6:46, 69–72, 74–75, 91, 112, 115, 259–260, 264, 289, 292

Vacuolization of mesenchyme 6:455–456

Vacuum freeze-drying (see Lyophilization)

Vagal (see Vagus)

Vagina 6:85, 87, 89–90, 95; 15:174

Vaginal

pouch (see Vagina)

stimuli 18:48

Vago-sympathetic nerve trunk 5:65

Vagotomy 5:309; 8:482–483; 19:63, 319

Vagovagal reflex 10:25

Vagus(al) 8:651, 653–654; 12:237, 241–242, 247; 13:19

activity 5:238

canal 9:59; 20:240

fiber(s) 5:310; 17:399

foramen (see also Jugular foramen) 2:202, 227– 229, 234, 237, 239, 242, 246–247, 251–252, 255, 259; 20:33, 114, 206, 223, 226, 232, 234, 239, 247, 249, 382, 485, 567; 21:493

ganglion 11:28, 145

influences 5:294

inhibition 5:237–238, 303, 305, 322

innervation 5:307

nerve (see also Nerve, vagus) 2:197, 228–231, 235, 237, 247, 251, 259; 3:112–116, 203; 4:101, 226–227, 285; 6:375; 11:12, 15, 22, 26, 28, 43, 66, 76, 98, 109, 112, 124, 138, 140, 145–146, 160, 170, 213, 233, 237–238, 364–365; 14:616–617; 18:344; 19:313, 318, 320–321, 402, 438, 449–454, 472

nucleus 12:242

or jugular foramen 20:407, 529, 539

stimulation 5:305, 307, 309; 8:605

trunk 10:14

Valency 8:355

Valine 3:23, 40, 42

Vallecula 9:88

Valve(s) 5:276, 289, 325

aortic 19:386–387, 410, 430, 439–440, 443

atrioventricular 19:382, 384, 386, 390, 394– 395, 405, 411, 413, 415–416, 427–429

bicuspid 19:382, 395, 410–411, 414, 430

in colon 6:188, 211

membranous 19:412

muscular 19:415

nasal 19:117

sinoatrial 19:411

semilunar 19:384, 386, 396

septal 19:404

spiral 19:387

tricuspid 19:397

Valved nostrils 5:318

Vane 5:75

-Wright Classification (see Mimicry, classification)

Van’t Hoff

law 5:30

effect 5:164

equation 5:264; 19:342

Vanzoia 20:118, 296

Vapor

density deficit 12:451, 453

pressure of air (see Eggs; Egg shells; Thermal

balance)

Varanic acid 8:624; 19:513–514

Varanidae (varanid) 5:7, 143, 172, 180, 187, 228, 300, 421, 423; 7:9, 21, 263, 289–291, 318, 367, 377–378, 496–497; 8:1, 46, 66, 146, 624, 659, 665, 688–689; 9:161, 163, 235, 333, 338; 10:221–222, 241, 303; 12:5, 99, 115, 117; 13:304; 14:665; 15:44, 51, 333, 374, 664, 667–668; 16:36–37, 118, 123, 129, 142, 245, 257, 282, 284, 288, 296; 19:9, 11, 36, 41, 49, 63, 65–66, 68, 378, 381, 388, 392, 399, 411–412, 414, 428, 446, 513; 20:18, 40, 56–57, 78, 195–196, 199, 218–219, 222, 226–227, 229, 231–233, 235–236, 254–256, 261, 265–266, 269, 271, 309, 352, 363, 378, 583–584; 21:16–17, 56, 64, 67, 90, 110, 141, 153, 162, 187, 247, 279

adrenal 3:280

axial muscles 11:357, 382–384, 422, 429

axial skeleton 1:241–243, 247, 249, 253, 255, 257, 259–263, 268–269, 301

blood cell morphology 3:77, 80, 82

blood chemistry 3:28, 31, 50

chondrocranium 11:61, 108–113

dentition 1:170–171

ear 2:240–241, 249, 268, 271

eye 2:20, 27

histology of gut 6:229, 232

internal relief of gut 6:178

jaw muscles 4:289, 316, 384–394, 405, 413, 415, 418, 479

nose 2:120, 127, 131, 133, 139–140, 142–143, 172

parathyroid 3:255

pituitary 3:136, 143, 145–148, 151, 154, 157, 178–179, 193–194

replacement 20:18

taxonomic literature 2:320

thyroid 3:204, 206

ventricle 5:279

Varaninae, dentition 1:170

Varanoid(s) 21:564, 582, 608

lizards 21:609

Varanoidea 19:22, 28–30, 39, 70–71; 20:75, 196, 216; 21:16, 123, 564

axial skeleton 1:242, 255

blood cell morphology 3:82

dentition 1:170–171

internal relief of gut 6:178

pituitary 3:195

thyroid (see also Platynota) 3:206

Varanops 9:297–298

Varanopsidae, origin and evolution 1:8

Varanosaurus 21:83

dentition 1:193

origin and evolution 1:14, 27

Varanus 5:41, 132, 141–145, 160, 172, 178–181, 184, 187–188, 200, 202, 204–205, 207, 229–230, 239–240, 250–251, 254–255, 260, 262–264, 281–282, 286, 337, 347, 353, 384, 421, 427–428, 451, 454, 457–458, 464, 468, 470, 475, 477, 479, 488, 491; 7:21, 263, 289–291, 301–302, 308, 314, 359, 367–368, 496–497, 585, 663; 8:44, 52, 58, 71, 76–78, 80, 146, 627, 646, 649–650, 662, 689; 9:14, 17, 20–21, 31, 77, 157, 295, 333, 341, 409, 418, 420, 422, 426–428, 435; 10:7, 166, 175, 189, 203, 309, 317, 325; 12:115, 117, 174, 176, 180, 183, 185, 230, 253, 256, 331, 351, 359, 362, 369–370, 377, 379, 384, 445, 456, 463, 489; 13:2, 4, 24, 34, 72, 74, 81, 84, 86–87, 89–90, 94–96, 137, 157, 161, 164, 166, 168–169, 172, 192; 14:193, 617; 15:44, 333, 342; 16:6, 17, 37, 50, 52, 54, 56, 68, 118, 123, 127, 129–131, 142, 249, 251, 257, 263, 282, 284, 288, 301, 339, 342, 404, 418; 17:328, 497, 500, 503–505, 507, 509–510, 512, 517–519, 522–524, 527–528, 531–535, 540–547, 549–551, 553–556, 558, 566; 18:436–437, 461; 19:4–5, 21, 29–30, 38–39, 62, 71, 324, 354, 428, 449, 473, 519; 20:40, 45, 51, 57, 59, 61, 196, 223–224, 226, 228, 232–233, 236–239, 253–254, 260, 271, 274, 303, 309, 586–587; 21:16, 41, 66, 71, 99, 111, 123, 131, 143, 146, 153, 155, 159–160, 170–171, 181–182, 185, 216, 224, 226–228, 240, 249–250, 252, 254, 256, 258–259, 270, 272, 275, 277–278, 280–281, 285, 287, 289, 291–292, 294, 297–298, 300–301, 303, 305, 307, 309, 311, 313, 316–319, 328, 337–338, 345, 347, 351–352, 356–357, 361–362, 374–375, 378–379, 381–383, 385, 388–390, 392–393, 503, 505, 546–548, 582, 591, 598, 603

acanthurus 19:32, 80

adrenal 3:269, 280, 290–291, 296, 298, 302

axial muscles 11:357, 382, 384, 425

axial skeleton 1:247–248, 250, 252, 256, 258, 260–261, 263

bengalensis 18:26; 19:31, 80, 378, 386, 411, 418; 20:58, 303, 309; 21:7, 56

blood cell morphology 3:77, 79, 81–83

blood cell numbers 3:103

blood chemistry 3:5, 10, 13, 15, 21, 25, 28, 33, 52

brachyurus 20:227

caudolineatus 20:309

chondrocranium 11:22, 30, 34, 36, 58, 108–113, 196–197

dentition 1:121, 123–124, 141, 169–170

dumerilii 20:228, 30, 303

ear 2:249, 268, 271

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:93, 95–96, 98–101, 103–104, 106–109

eremius 20:309

exanthematicus 18:460; 19:3, 17, 31–32, 43, 49, 51–61, 80, 328, 330, 333, 337–340, 346, 356, 418, 433, 442, 446, 456–459, 471, 475, 525; 20:58–59, 226–229, 231, 303, 309; 21:41, 125, 207, 288

eye 2:14, 20, 27–28, 30–32, 41, 89

flavescens 18:273; 19:31, 80, 489, 525; 20:303; 21:7

giganteus 21:56

gilleni 20:309

glebopalma 19:32, 80

gouldii 19:60, 80, 411, 418; 21:7, 56

grayi 20:303

griseus 19:31, 80; 20:303, 309; 21:7, 288

histology of gut 6:255, 279

indicus 19:32, 80; 20:229, 231, 303; 21:7

internal relief of gut 6:178

jaw muscles 4:315, 319, 350, 384–393, 405, 416, 418–419, 479

komodoensis 18:172, 468; 19:418; 20:226, 228–229, 303, 309; 21:53, 124, 155, 172

lymphatics 6:412

mertensi 19:32, 80; 21:56

mitchelli 19:32, 80

monitor 19:418; 20:303

muscle tissue 11:278–279, 281, 292, 336

niloticus 19:31–32, 80, 433–434, 442, 461–462, 475, 514; 20:53, 58, 226, 228–229, 231, 303, 309; 21:7, 288, 373

nose 2:120, 124, 127, 133, 140–141, 159, 171–172, 178, 182

olivaceus 20:226, 228, 231, 303

parathyroid 3:255, 257

pituitary 3:178–179

prasinus 19:32, 80; 20:226, 228, 309

salvadorii 19:32, 80; 20:303

salvator 19:31, 80, 338, 356, 411, 418, 489, 525; 20:63, 227, 229–230, 303; 21:56, 61, 172, 207

storri 19:31, 80

thymus 3:113

timorensis 19:32, 80; 20:229–230, 303, 309

urinogenital system 6:25–27, 38, 61, 71–72, 77

varius 19:32, 80, 400, 418; 20:303

yemenensis 19:32, 81

Variance 5:156; 12:218

Variation

biochemical 15:490

character 15:481, 483–485

clinal 15:482

coefficient 15:481–482, 488

color pattern 15:482, 488

in parthenogenetic forms 15:480–491

in scutulation 15:481–482, 484, 488

karyotype 15:490–491

morphological 15:481–490

scale count 15:481–482, 485

Varicose sinus 6:411

Varicosity 10:252, 260, 263, 270, 282

Variodens, dentition 1:191

Vas

aberrens 6:53

deferens (see also Ductus deferens; Wolffian

duct) 3:278; 24–28, 39, 45, 49–50, 56, 64–69, 106–107, 116, 338, 353; 10:10, 40; 16:355

efferens (see also Epididymal tubule) 6:52, 62, 65–70, 106

Vasa deferentia 15:47, 194

Vasa vasorum 5:308

Vascular

beds 5:326

canals 1:52, 73, 313

disease (see also Pathology) 19:524

lung 5:232

nephritis 8:508

permeability (see Membrane permeability)

perusion 5:54

plexus 18:436

regulation 19:354

remodeling theory 19:534, 541–543, 571, 573–574, 577

resistance 5:311, 323; 12:245; 19:435, 449, 451–455

sinus 3:148, 152, 169, 172, 174, 176–178, 181, 183, 188–190, 193

smooth muscle 12:243–244

tracheal air chambers 19:176

Vascularity 11:267, 281, 300; 19:111

Vasculature 5:53, 59, 104, 309, 314–315, 327; 9:329; 10:1, 32, 37, 45

cerebral 10:36

coronary 10:8, 36

cutaneous 10:37

intestinal 10:36–37

mesentery 10:11

pulmonary 10:8

splanchnic 10:39

systemic 10:36

Vasculogenesis 19:537, 571–572, 574, 576

Vasectomy 18:157

Vaseline 18:124, 127, 145, 171

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) 17:591, 649, 660, 665, 668, 670, 672; 19:454

Vasoconstriction 3:18, 33; 5:309, 323–325, 465; 8:505; 12:244; 13:19; 19:389, 453, 460

Vasoconstrictor 10:33, 43

control 5:305

Vasodilation 5:309–310, 313–315; 8:483, 504, 524; 19:441, 453–454, 460, 471

Vasodilator 10:2, 32, 37

Vasodilatory metabolites 5:314

Vasomotor

control 5:309

fibers 2:53

materials 5:323

responses 12:243–248, 251–252

Vasopressin (see also Pitressin) 17:590, 688

Vasotocin (see also Arginine oxytocin) 6:118; 15:588; 17:593–601, 665

Vater-Pacini corpuscle 9:421, 433

anastomotic 9:18

ectomeningeal 9:25

Vectors 5:26–27

Vectorial analysis 5:292, 294

Vein(s) 5:64, 309; 12:243; 19:348

abdominal 5:65; 14:147; 19:401, 487–488

allantoic 14:146–147, 175; 15:539

azygous 19:409

capsular 19:551, 558–559, 565, 574

cardinal 14:147–148

caudal 5:69; 15:315, 321, 328

caval 5:308

collateral 19:543

common cardinal 19:40

common hepatic 14:147

coronary 10:36; 19:378, 392, 401, 404, 409

crural 5:65

femoral 5:64–66; 15:570

gastric 19:488

gastroesophageal 19:488

great 5:87

hepatic portal 19:154, 392, 404, 487–491, 500, 506, 521, 524, 535, 537, 563–564, 574, 576

hepatic venule 19:491, 501, 517

hindlimb 5:69

internal jugular 9:3, 13, 15, 46

intersegmental 14:147–148

intestinal 19:488, 561, 571, 574, 576

intrahepatic 15:536

intrasplenic 19:563

jugular 5:64–65, 290, 316; 14:616–617; 19:449–450

lateral head 9:58

lienalis 19:557

lienogastric 19:488

mesenteric 19:576–577

mesenteric portal 14:147

middle cerebral 9:58, 69, 87, 94–95, 99–100, 103–104, 109, 111, 122–125, 128–129

of hemipenis 6:444

omphalomesenteric 14:147, 163

parapineal 9:367

parietohepatic 19:488

peridural 9:19–20

pituitary 9:18

postcaval 19:378–379, 381, 390–393, 405, 407–408, 411, 413–415

posterior cerebral 9:15, 58–59, 87

precaval 10:12; 19:378–379, 381, 392, 404–405, 407–409, 411, 413–416

pulmonary 19:11, 132, 149, 165, 169, 325, 378, 381, 390–391, 394, 406–410, 414–416, 431, 452–453

renal portal 5:497

sinusoidal 19:541, 561, 566

splenic 19:537, 559

splenic portal 19:564

trabecular 19:540

tracheal 19:131

umbilical 15:537, 539–540, 546, 552

uterine 15:534, 537, 541

vena cava 19:154, 378, 390–391, 403–404, 409–410, 487–489, 563

vertebral 14:147–148; 19:488

vitelline 14:99, 146, 162–163, 165, 174; 15:536–537

Velociraptor, dentition 1:186

Velocity 11:303

-selective unit 17:299

Velum

palatini 11:240

transversum 9:225, 246–247, 335

Vena

capitis 11:24, 26, 28, 31–32, 35, 69, 79, 84, 105–106, 112, 124, 146, 160, 187–188, 212, 214–215, 217, 219

capitis lateralis (see also Vena capitis) 21:513

capitis medialis 11:187–188; 20:31

cava 10:14, 20

cava posterior 3:266, 270, 272–274, 279

cerebralis media 2:13

cerebralis posterior 20:73

Venezuela 2:322

Venom(s) (see also under specific names) 1:124, 170–171, 173, 175–177; 3:34–35; 13:5, 95; 8:146, 364, 438; 19:137; 20:488, 535

absorption 8:441, 450

as tools 8:146, 438

apparatus 11:164, 168

color varieties 8:187

composition 8:167–169

concentration 8:102, 167

constituents

enzymes 8:237

inorganic 8:170–175

high molecular weight 8:237

low molecular weight 8:193

definition 8:438

dialysable components 8:196

digestive role 8:664

distribution 8:451–454

duct 8:81

effects of bite 16:165–166

elimination 8:454

extraction of 8:95, 577

evolution 8:213, 222–224

fractionation 8:176

fractions 15:652, 654

genetic (immunological) differences 8:189, 191–192

geographical variation 8:213, 228, 571, 577

gland(s) (see also Gland, venom) 4:287, 422–423, 443, 445, 448, 450–455, 457–466; 8:44, 73, 80–82, 94–141, 144–146, 151, 438; 11:168; 20:508, 535, 547

accessory 8:106, 109–110, 113, 120–124

capsule 8:111, 149

homogenate 8:166

main 8:125

tubule 8:82

grooves 20:220, 225

“ideal” 8:7

immunity to 16:167

-injecting apparatus 20:359

injection 8:103–104, 163

mimicry 16:155, 161, 164–205

oral 8:163

parental care 16:307, 315

phylogenetic distribution 16:36, 41–42, 58, 69, 132, 164–165

primordium 8:141

production 8:96–97, 138, 562

reservoir 8:91

solubility 8:167

spitting 16:39, 41, 132

stability 8:175–176

synthesis 8:83, 99, 131

toxicity (see also Toxins) 8:563, 578

uncertainty of delivery 16:166–167

variation 8:191, 564, 577–578

viscosity 8:167

yield 8:98–101, 163, 167, 563

Venomous species 15:610, 622, 634, 652, 654, 657, 666–668, 671–672, 676–677, 679

Venous

blood 5:62, 100, 280–281, 283, 301

return 5:278, 280

saturation 5:252

sinus(es) 5:316; 9:39, 42, 44, 47–48, 50, 53, 56–57, 59, 83, 87, 92, 95–99, 101, 104, 109, 114, 118, 121, 126, 367

longitudinal 9:46, 95, 97, 107, 109, 117, 119

system 5:309; 6:315–317, 324, 331, 447, 450, 452–453, 455–456, 458

Vent 19:96, 165

region 5:50

Ventilation(ory) (see also Breathing) 5:23, 49, 226, 229–230, 233, 236, 238–241, 245–246, 248–249, 304–306, 350–351, 353, 356, 358, 360; 12:241–24219:46, 48, 59, 61, 63–64, 66, 68, 70, 117–118, 137, 146, 155–156, 300–301, 303–304, 306, 316–319, 325–326, 331, 337, 340, 344, 346, 398, 452–458, 466, 468–469, 471

and pulmonary blood flow 13:18–22

control of 5:225–226, 238; 19:301–323, 345

cost of 19:306–312

cycle 5:234–235; 19:302–303

frequency 5:230; 13:8

intermittent 19:462, 474

irregularities 8:439

mechanics of 5:225–226, 228–229, 231, 235

mechanism 19:302, 305–306

minute 5:352

movements 19:353

pattern- 5:228; 13:17–23; 19:302–306, 310, 312, 335–341

-perfusion 19:332

distribution 19:333

heterogeneity 19:332–333

inhomogeneity 19:327

matching 19:470–471

mismatching 19:328, 330–333

ratio 5:285, 303; 19:332

period 19:303, 309–310

power 19:138

rate 19:59, 321

relative 5:348

responses 5:243; 19:302–312, 314–315, 461

state 19:426, 455, 457

tachycardia 13:19

temperature sensitivity 19:305–306

underground 19:305, 312, 322

Ventral

abdominal collectors 6:347

abdominal lymphatic vessel 6:344

amygdaloid nucleus (see also Brain study) 18:98

annular ligament 21:299

aorta 5:276

aponeurosis of M. adductor mandibulae

externus 1b 4:360, 364–365

buccal collector 6:348

caudal trunk 6:320–321, 372

cervical plexus 6:324

collector of anterior limb 6:318–320, 333, 378, 388–389, 392

collector of posterior limb 6:318–320, 331, 333–335, 338, 342, 348, 362, 367, 372, 379, 391–396

conchal space 2:116–117, 166

cruciate ligaments 21:151

diverticulum of vestibulum 2:127, 182

femoral collector (see Ventral collector of

posterior limb)

foot process of prefrontal 20:480

gland 18:166

glenoid buttress 21:275

glial limiting membrane 3:139, 166

horn 9:179–182; 17:508

keel of centrum 1:217, 219

ligament of atlas 1:273, 289

mediastinal plexus 6:323–324

nasal gland (see also Medial nasal gland) 11:109, 120

pancreatic Anlage 3:320

part of the perivertebral lymphatic system 6:401

passage (see Nasopharyngeal duct)

plexus of the neck 6:378

posterior process of vomer 20:462, 523

presphenoid 11:236

process of columella (see Columella, pars

interhyalis)

protractor lentis muscle 2:82

pulmonary collector 6:432

ramus of spinal nerve 11:356, 360, 367, 397

recess 2:107, 111–112

retinaculoa 21:351

rib 11:356

roots 9:183

scales 11:417

scutellation 5:105

scutes 3:203; 19:101

snout 20:381, 415, 436, 456, 462

sulcus 2:105–107, 110, 112

superficial collector of tail 6:402–404, 406

supraoptic decussation 17:256, 276, 321

thalamus 9:221–223, 228–229, 231–132; 17:610, 649

transverse segmental collectors 6:370, 372–373

trunk of the tail (see Ventral caudal trunk)

tubercle 21:579

ventricular wall 5:278, 282, 287

Ventraler Muschelraum (see Ventral conchal

space)

Ventricle 3:238, 246, 249, 252, 256; 5:7–8, 63, 277–278, 282, 286, 289–292, 299, 308, 325; 6:446; 9:181, 188; 10:20; 19:125, 346, 376, 378–379, 381–382, 385–387, 389–390, 393–398, 400–401, 403–405, 407–410, 413–414, 416, 426–427, 429–430, 437–440, 447, 451, 458

fourth 10:210

lateral 10:260

Ventricles of the brain 2:4

Ventricular

anatomy 19:472

blood 5:239

cava 19:388, 442, 445–446, 449

chamber 5:276, 278

contraction 12:241

depolarization 5:87, 296; 12:242

diastole 5:282, 288; 19:385

ejection 5:290–291, 325

fibrillation 8:481

filling 5:287

hypertrophy 5:277

muscle 19:383, 406

myogram 5:293

output 5:276, 283

pressure 5:289; 19:398, 440, 446, 450, 459

repolarization 5:87, 296

ridge 19:386, 413

septum 19:376, 384, 386, 393, 427–428, 435

shunt 3:17

sulci 9:221

system 19:314

systemic output 5:302

systole 5:280, 282, 285; 19:385

tissue, mammalian 5:93

Ventrolateral crests 20:43

Ventrolateral diverticulum (see Caviconchal

recess)

Ventrolateral thalamic area 10:166, 189, 296, 302

Ventromedial hypothalamus (see also Brain

study) 18:35, 42

nucleus 18:78, 81, 98–102, 445

sulcus 2:110

Ventroradial collector (see Ventral collector of

anterior limb)

Venturi tube flowmeter 5:103

Venus 5:392

Verbindungsstück (see Epididymal tubule)

Verhoeff’s “membrane” 2:33

Vermicella 7:386, 505; 8:23, 25–26; 15:654; 16:127, 150, 181, 233; 19:223; 20:550

annulata 8:26; 19:152, 198; 20:630

ear 2:272

minima 8:25

multifasciata 8:26

Vermicellini 19:223

Vermiculite 16:563–564, 569, 579

Verschlussmuskel (see Constrictor muscle

of naris)

Vertebrae 1:12, 15, 18, 105–106, 201–311, 322–324, 328, 332; 4:13, 53, 56, 65–66, 68, 71–72, 75–76, 78, 426; 6:346, 349–350, 355–356, 375, 386–387, 396–397, 399–401, 404, 452–455; 10:60, 62; 11:10, 12–13, 29, 38, 82, 149, 355–356, 358, 360, 362–363, 367, 369, 371, 373–374, 376–380, 382, 389, 391, 394, 398–399, 417, 421, 428, 430; 19:20, 75, 94; 20:584, 586

amphicoelus 14:495; 15:326

autotomous 15:313–315, 325, 327, 338, 340

caudal 15:304–310, 313–315, 324, 326–327, 329–330, 332–335, 337–340

central canal 15:313, 338

development 14:152–153, 176, 435, 514

formation 15:311

fracture planes 15:304–341

ossification 14:313; 15:311

postpygal 15:304, 306–307, 325–326, 328–329

procoelus 15:307

pygal 15:304, 307, 315, 324–326, 330–331, 333

transverse processes 15:305, 307–308, 339–340

Vertebral

artery 6:331, 386–387

canal 6:350, 355

centrum (see Centrum)

column 10:60; 21:59–62, 135–136, 224, 321

hypapophyses 8:591

lymphatic vessels 6:378, 433, 454

mechanics 11:358, 399

morphology and mode of life 1:295–299

numbers 1:203–204, 209, 226, 235–236, 241–243, 255, 267, 271–272, 282

segment of rib 1:208

shield 1:315, 317, 325–330, 333–335; 6:447–448

spine (see Neural spine)

trunk 6:321, 330–331, 386, 412

vein 6:329, 331, 386

Vertebrate(s) 5:38, 74, 127–128, 137, 165, 168– 169, 199, 208, 225–226, 228, 238, 243, 251, 253–254, 275, 318, 338, 344, 346, 365–366, 382–383, 414, 447, 465, 482, 496

blood 5:265

cells 5:413

circulatory system 5:277

fauna 5:366

kidney 5:447

Vertebrocostal

canal 1:229–230, 253

segment of rib 1:230–231, 235

tunnel 1:224–225; 11:363

Vertical

lamina of nasal 20:397–398, 404, 424, 432, 437, 446, 448, 454, 462, 466, 470, 475, 499, 523–524, 536, 552, 554, 557

lamina of vomer 20:470, 472, 529, 539

septum 5:279, 287; 11:389

Vesical lymphatic vessels 6:342

Vesicles 5:422; 6:257–258, 260, 263; 11:316, 320

Vesicula oblongata membranosa 19:104

Vessels (see Arteries; Veins; Lymphatic sinuses)

Vestibular

aqueduct 2:202–203

cavity 20:114

efferent 10:220

foramen 20:376

membrane 2:209–210, 213, 217–218, 250, 253, 260

muscles 2:129–130, 146

nuclear complex 17:498, 507, 524, 536–541, 544, 546, 548, 550–551, 560

portion of otic capsule 4:251, 257

system (see also Nuclei, vestibular; Tract) 10:170, 220

window 2:197, 200, 302–203, 226, 230–231, 233, 242, 251, 256, 259–260

Vestibule 2:194, 202–203, 207, 218, 229–230, 236, 242, 247–248, 252, 256–257, 259; 18:427; 21:575

Vestibulocochlear

ganglion 2:217

nerve 2:196, 203–204, 206, 208–211, 217–218, 228, 263

Vestibulum 2:100–102, 105–108, 111–112, 116–117, 121–135, 144–147, 153–156, 166, 169–173, 176–179, 181–184

nasi (see also Vestibulum) 19:115

Vestopal W 6:226

Vetalar 5:44, 47

Viadril 5:44

Vibrio cholerae, neuraminidase 8:122

Vidian

bridge 20:125, 127, 271

canal 2:8, 11–12, 50; 11:22–24, 32, 62, 99, 110, 112, 123, 154–155, 158, 175, 184–185, 187, 190, 219, 236; 20:30, 42, 44, 70, 75–76, 125, 135, 147, 156, 158, 164, 166, 172–173, 183, 186, 192, 205, 209, 216–217, 222–223, 225, 231, 234, 239–240, 246, 248, 271, 276, 278, 280, 282, 287, 370, 376, 382, 422, 427, 438, 449, 452, 464, 466, 478, 484, 526, 561, 567; 21:515–516, 520, 525, 528, 530, 532, 535

foramen 20:389–391, 399, 408, 416, 422, 427, 431–432, 434, 436, 438–439, 441, 443, 445, 447–448, 452–453, 455, 463, 465–467, 471, 473, 477, 484, 490, 497, 502–504, 507, 509, 511, 513, 525, 527, 532, 538, 540, 543, 562, 567, 569

groove 20:70, 390

Vilcunia 15:635, 671

Villi 6:173, 185–186, 188, 191–192, 203–204, 209, 214, 216, 219–221, 283, 419

Villiform papillae 5:249

Viper (see also Vipera; Viperidae) 8:96, 562

Vipera (see also Pelias) 5:135, 386; 7:101, 104, 201, 207, 219–220, 222, 225–226, 388, 390–392, 394, 398, 505; 8:32, 51, 58–59, 62, 68, 74, 76, 95, 99, 101–103, 118, 120–123, 125–130, 132–138, 140–141, 143–147, 151, 167, 169–170, 173–174, 176–177, 180–181, 184, 187–188, 192–193, 229–231, 233, 235–239, 241–243, 247–248, 250–251, 253, 257, 262, 265, 267–268, 272–273, 286–287, 290, 292–294, 296–297, 300, 306–307, 309, 311–312, 314, 318, 320, 323–324, 326, 328, 331, 333–334, 339–342, 344–347, 352–353, 357, 359–360, 362, 366, 370–372, 374, 376–378, 445, 450, 453, 472, 477, 481, 484–493, 498–500, 502–504, 507, 509–513, 517, 528–529, 563, 565, 568, 574–575, 581, 603, 605, 615–617, 655, 657, 664, 696–697; 9:26, 149, 151, 153–154, 158, 252, 368; 10:204, 230; 12:133, 144, 332, 351–352, 465, 475; 13:58–60, 63, 68–71, 74–76, 78–79, 90–103, 105, 109, 112–113, 115–120, 122–124, 126–131, 204, 208; 14:4, 11, 15, 31, 49–50, 64, 385, 532, 613–614, 650, 664–665, 712; 15:3–4, 8, 10–11, 13, 15–17, 19, 22–23, 26, 29, 46, 122, 152, 211, 235, 242–243, 533, 555, 569, 614, 659–662, 671; 16:18, 21, 49, 122, 152, 197–198, 201, 214, 483, 521, 538; 17:180, 183, 186–187, 191–193, 195, 197, 200, 202–203, 206, 309, 431–432; 18:118, 147, 158, 171, 489; 19:5, 65, 98, 123, 125, 130, 156, 158, 193, 219, 507; 20:499, 506, 508, 516

adrenal 3:281, 308, 311

ammodytes 8:32–33, 130–131, 138, 167, 169, 177, 187–188, 229–231, 235–237, 242, 247–248, 250, 257, 262, 287, 307, 314, 318, 326, 339, 341, 344, 346–347, 352–353, 362, 366, 371, 445, 453, 472, 481, 484, 507, 509–510, 512, 528, 615–617, 664, 696; 19:152, 193; 20:619

aspis 18:30, 115, 118, 124, 137, 144, 264, 487; 19:99, 106–107, 112, 114–115, 121, 193, 486, 525; 20:498, 507, 520, 619

axial muscles 11:357

berus 8:32, 95, 99, 125, 176, 187, 233–234, 339, 342, 352–353, 366, 445, 492, 528, 603, 605, 655, 657, 664, 696–697; 18:53, 119, 123–125, 138, 145–148, 158, 164, 312, 331, 470, 495; 19:99, 107, 112, 114, 124, 127, 132, 134, 193, 545–546, 579; 20:498, 619

blood cell morphology 3:75, 78, 80, 83–85

blood cell numbers 3:98–102, 104–107

blood chemistry 3:6, 19–21, 26, 29, 34

bornmuelleri 8:32; 19:193

chondrocranium 11:164–168, 175, 185–186, 202

dentition 1:148, 177, 183

ear 2:272

eye 2:6, 53–54, 56–58, 60–61, 91

histology of gut 6:252, 255, 278

internal relief of gut 6:193, 209

jaw muscles 4:421, 423, 458, 482

kaznakovi 8:32; 19:193; 20:619

latastei 8:32, 250, 253, 352, 449; 20:505, 515, 521, 619

latifi 8:32, 563, 565, 568, 574–575, 581

lebetina 8:32, 130, 176, 188, 241, 250, 253, 297, 312, 320, 323, 326, 339, 252–353, 359, 445, 499, 563, 565, 568, 574–575, 591; 19:193; 20:618

lymphatics 6:356, 402, 404, 406, 412

muscle tissue 11:274, 336, 338

nose 2:121, 175, 179

palaestinae 8:32, 62, 68, 74, 76, 95–97, 101–102, 104, 118, 120–123, 125–137, 140–141, 143–147, 170, 180–181, 187, 229, 248, 265, 267–268, 272, 290, 293, 306–307, 372, 374, 445, 477, 485–491, 499–500, 502–504, 507, 510–511, 517, 615–617, 664, 697; 19:60, 64, 81, 99, 134, 193; 20:618

pancreas 3:329

parathyroid 3:248

persica 8:32, 98, 125, 339, 353, 445, 510–511, 563, 565, 568, 574–575, 581; 21:565

pituitary 3:148, 160–163, 165

raddei 20:619

russelii (russellii) 8:32, 99, 167, 173–175, 177, 181, 184, 187–188, 193, 235–236, 238, 242, 244, 247–248, 250, 257, 262–263, 272, 286, 288, 291–294, 297, 300, 306–307, 309, 311, 314, 318, 320, 323–324, 326, 328, 331, 333, 339–341, 346–347, 353, 357, 360, 362, 370, 374, 376, 378, 445, 472, 484, 491–493, 498, 500–501, 507, 513, 529, 664; 18:324, 488; 19:114, 119, 124, 132, 193; 20:618

seoanei 20:619

thyroid 3:209, 217–219, 221, 224, 228

urinogenital system 6:21, 23, 32, 37, 40–41, 43, 49, 57–59, 64–65, 67–68, 71, 74, 76–77, 79, 82, 89–90, 95, 98–99, 105, 110–111, 117–118, 122

ursinii 8:32, 352, 563, 697; 19:193.; 20:619

xanthina 8:32, 230–231, 339, 352–353, 359, 563, 581; 18:147; 19:81, 328–329, 356; 20:619

Viperidae 5:150, 192; 8:3, 8, 29–38, 48, 94, 104, 106, 113, 120, 124, 142, 150, 441, 664, 695–697; 12:5, 126, 131–133, 446, 456, 467; 14:31, 665–666, 712; 15:8, 29, 46, 48, 533, 654–660, 663–664, 667, 671, 675; 16:38, 44–48, 121, 123, 130–131, 151, 164–165, 167, 191–202, 212–215, 288, 296, 315, 343, 455, 482–483, 485–487, 493, 521; 19:100, 103–104, 116, 122, 125, 127–128, 130, 134, 136–137, 139, 141–142, 145–146, 151–152, 158, 162, 164, 170–171, 190, 219–220, 412, 416, 493, 513–514; 20:353–354, 484, 488, 491–492, 494–495, 498, 500–502, 504, 508, 512–514, 516–519, 521–522, 534, 546, 549, 557–558, 560–561, 565, 573, 579, 592, 611; 21:554, 564, 577, 613

adrenal 3:281

axial muscles 11:357, 395, 397, 399, 402–403, 411, 413–414, 421, 430–432

axial skeleton 1:286, 290, 295, 297, 299

blood cell morphology 3:78–79, 82

blood chemistry 3:34, 51

chondrocranium 11:164–169, 202–203

dentition 1:124, 133, 173, 175–178, 183

ear 2:227, 253, 270, 272

epiphyses and sesamoids 1:106

eye 2:91

internal relief of gut 6:179, 193–196, 202–203, 205–206, 208, 221

jaw muscles 4:287, 421–423, 440–441, 445–447, 455, 457–466, 468, 471, 482

nose 2:121

origin and evolution 1:6

parathyroid 3:247–248

pit organs 2:278

pituitary 3:136, 144–145, 148, 150, 153, 155, 162, 185–188, 193, 195

Viperids 21:554, 600

Viperinae 7:9, 207, 220–221, 388, 391–392, 394, 398–399, 505–506; 8:8, 29–32, 46, 117, 151, 176, 352, 664, 696–697; 9:163, 252; 19:100, 133, 139, 219; 20:494–495, 498–499, 504–508, 512–514, 516–518, 520, 617; 21:509, 569

blood chemistry 3:50–51

eye 2:56, 92

internal relief of gut 6:193

jaw muscles 4:457

pit organs 2:280, 295, 297

pituitary (see also Viperidae) 3:146, 151, 154, 194

Viperini 19:219

Viperotoxin 8:229

Viral immunity 14:664

Virginia 7:503; 8:694; 12:456, 465; 13:301, 309, 312; 15:533, 548; 16:121, 132, 149, 483–484, 520; 18:164; 19:234

striatula 18:52, 120, 139, 164; 19:217; 20:649

valeriae 19:217; 20:649

Viridovipera stejnegeri 20:616

Virus (see also Pathology) 19:517, 519, 523

Viscera 5:105, 234–235; 10:1; 19:94–97, 99, 101, 114, 132–133, 148, 157–158, 165, 168, 171, 395, 404

Visceral

arch musculature 21:212, 218

arch skeleton 20:12

cavity (see also Coelom) 5:233; 19:101, 138–139

clefts 14:509–510, 515

epithelial cell (see Podocyte)

muscles 4:1, 21, 152–154, 162–175, 182–183, 186–191

organs 5:232

skeleton 11:18, 30–36, 39, 46, 199, 215–216, 221–222, 231

volume 5:234–235

Viscerocranium 20:7, 9, 12, 39, 48, 50–51

Viscoelastic properties 19:308

Viscum 8:268

Vision 18:127, 132, 182, 190, 195

discrimination 18:327

perception 18:396

signals 18:115, 127, 129, 131–132, 135, 138– 138, 165, 168, 172, 177–178, 180, 184–185, 188–189, 196

stimuli 18:488

system 18:133

Visual

alarm reaction 7:574–575

cell layer 2:32–33

cells 2:1–4, 33–36, 38–46, 48, 54–56, 58, 60–61, 65–66, 72, 76–77, 84–90, 92

cliff 10:313

cliff phenomenon 7:638

discrimination apparatus 7:639–640

brightness 7:647, 656, 661–662

color 7:641, 646–651, 653–654, 656–657, 659–662

form 7:648, 650, 658–551

pattern 7:646, 655, 662

discrimination tasks

Crocodilia 7:642–645, 656

Sauria 7:644–645, 657–663

Serpentes 7:644–645, 663

Testudines 7:640–656

input 10:310

pigments 2:3, 45, 72, 288

purple 2:3, 42, 56, 62–63, 65, 72

representation 10:289, 297, 299, 311

stimuli 10:297, 321

streak 17:101, 105, 108, 297, 343

system 10:174, 321

threshold 17:160

Vital capacity 19:51

limit (of water loss) 12:468–472

staining 1:75

Vitamin(s) 3:32–33; 8:566, 647, 668; 14:208, 210–211, 217, 341, 359; 19:510–511, 524

A 9:376

B12 3:33

D 12:139

and reproduction 15:28

K 3:34

Vitellin 3:36–38, 53

Vitelline

blood vessels (see also Arteries; Veins) 14:78, 288, 378–379, 400, 436, 512; 15:538, 540, 559

circulation 14:102–107, 146, 160–166, 170, 176, 182, 184, 188–189, 196, 198, 205, 225, 227, 240, 380

inclusions (see also Yolk sac) 6:82, 97

membrane 14:117, 119, 121, 167, 199, 226, 240, 341, 378–380, 400

adhesion to eggshell membrane 14:226– 227, 240

and chalking 14:118–121

sac 14:78, 90, 112, 114–115, 119, 240; 16:527

movement 14:226

vessels 19:560

Vitellogenesis 6:101, 103; 13:99, 119, 204–205, 207, 210, 219–221; 14:64, 69, 209, 341–342; 15:38–39, 41–46, 50–51, 347; 18:32, 43, 149–151, 361–365, 369, 375, 378–379; 19:503, 512, 516

and temperature 15:38

duration 15:38

energy requirements 15:38–39

Vitellogenin(s) 14:341–342; 19:515

Vitreal (direction of eye) 2:3

Vitreous humour 2:5, 24, 39, 53

Viviparity (see also Life history traits, mode of

reproduction; Parental care) 1:148, 162; 5:12–13, 397; 6:85, 87, 97–103, 105, 114, 120–121; 13:98, 100, 105, 109, 129, 203, 206, 213, 250, 257, 274; 14:5, 7, 169; 18:76, 80, 87

adaption to 15:529

among vertebrates 15:529

and brooding 15:623

and climate 15:609, 619–621, 624, 631, 639, 643–644, 647–649, 652–653, 657, 667–674, 677–679

and corpora lutea 15:579

and egg retention 15:531, 611, 621–623, 646

and latitude 15:619–620

and temperature 15:620, 622, 624

benefits 15:614

costs 15:608, 614

definition of 15:607

evolution 14:16, 18, 200, 358; 15:48, 595, 609–619

selective advantage 15:616, 618

Viviparous

colubrids 5:175

snakes 5:407

species 15:40, 50–52, 579, 581, 589, 592–594, 607, 616, 622–660, 662, 674

Vocal

cords 4:181, 192

sacs 19:8

Vocality 2:222

Vocalization (see also Sound) 7:293, 464–465; 19:116, 119–120, 155–156, 298

pre-hatching 14:355, 362–363

Voeltzkowia 9:332, 337, 339; 20:138

axial skeleton 1:266

chondrocranium 11:67

eye 2:13, 15, 24

mira 20:298

Voided excreta 5:96

feces 5:103

urine 5:96, 98, 103

Volar

cartilage 21:312

lymphatic net 6:390

pores 15:644

Volatile agents 5:48

anesthetics 5:48

Voltage clamp 11:289

Volume 19:18, 31, 48–49, 61, 64, 125, 338, 377, 406

atrial 19:381, 398

caval 19:454

end-systolic 19:398

minute 19:48

of blood 19:76–77, 334–335, 463

of lungs 19:41, 43, 48, 50–51, 53, 60–61, 63, 66–67, 106, 132, 149, 303–304, 320, 334–335, 463

parenchymal 19:12, 61

-pressure 19:48, 50, 64

stroke 19:446

systolic 19:389–390

tidal 19:48–49, 59, 155–156, 301, 304, 306–309, 320, 322–323, 329, 337, 340

tracheal 19:107

zero 19:50

Volumeters 5:72, 75–76

Volumetric system 5:77–78

Voluntary hypothermia 12:227–228, 255

minimum 12:18

Vomer 1:150, 193; 2:67; 4:210, 225, 234, 250–252, 258, 278; 11:4, 6, 17, 19–20, 22, 39, 48, 50, 60–61, 72–73, 79, 81, 87–88, 97, 103, 106, 109–111, 122, 124–125, 129, 143, 152–153, 161, 165, 171, 178–179, 181, 208–209, 218–219, 224, 233, 235, 240, 244–245; 20:13–15, 17, 23–24, 41, 67, 69–70, 74–76, 78, 81, 83, 87–88, 91, 97, 100, 104, 110–112, 115–118, 122–123, 128, 132, 134, 145, 149, 154, 158, 160–163, 166, 168–171, 173, 175, 180, 185, 188–189, 191, 194, 196, 198, 200, 202, 204–205, 209, 210, 212, 214, 217–218, 220–221, 225, 230–231, 233–234, 236, 238, 240, 243–245, 247–248, 252, 257, 264, 266, 276, 281, 284, 355, 357, 368, 371–372, 376, 379–381, 383–384, 388–389, 391, 393, 397, 399–400, 402–404, 406–407, 409–410, 412, 414–415, 417–422, 425, 431–434, 437, 441, 443, 445, 451, 453–456, 462–463, 465–467, 469–470, 472–473, 476–477, 479–480, 483, 486, 489–490, 498–501, 503, 505, 507, 510–511, 513–514, 516, 523–524, 532–533, 536–538, 541–543, 555–556, 558–559, 562, 566, 568–569, 571, 576, 589; 21:545–546, 550, 553–554, 571, 574–576, 579

Vomerfeld (see Vomerine cushion)

Vomerine

concha 11:110

cushion 2:116, 118, 122, 126, 134, 137–140

fangs 1:32

foramen for vomeronasal nerve 20:406

foramina for vomeronasal nerve 20:523, 538, 541, 562

glands 8:48

pad (see Vomerine cushion)

process of palatine 11:178

process of premaxilla 20:389, 402–404, 414, 419, 426, 432, 434, 448, 454, 469, 477, 536, 539–540; 21:579

teeth 20:204, 269

tooth 8:2

Vomeronasal 8:3

concha (see Concha of Jacobson’s organ)

cupola 20:372, 381, 386, 410, 420, 426, 429, 432, 454, 470, 499, 510–511, 514, 536, 558

duct 20:24

epithelium 2:155–156, 161

fenestra 20:381, 420

nerve (see also Medial branch of olfactory

nerve) 11:15–17, 19, 22, 72, 79, 87–88, 94, 96, 103, 109, 142–143, 152, 160, 165, 170, 179, 181, 202

opening 20:14, 87, 122, 145, 154, 163, 170, 173, 185, 189, 191, 194, 202, 209–210, 214, 217–218, 221, 225, 238, 244, 248, 264

organ (see also Jacobson’s organ) 20:14, 23–24, 69, 116, 124, 134, 143, 170, 180, 204, 231, 234, 372, 381, 386, 388, 420, 424, 432, 436, 501, 538, 558

effect on maze learning 7:609

portion of the olfactory 21:579

region 20:198

system (see also Odor; Semiochemical;

Tongue) 18:98, 101, 124–125, 127, 132–133, 138, 160, 162, 177–178, 186, 206, 424, 426

accessory olfactory bulb 18:124

cues 18:129, 160–161, 190

ducts 18:124, 133, 138, 433, 492, 495

effects of deafferentation 18:495–496

effects of deafferentiation, appetitive behaviors 18:496

electrophysiology 18:454–458

nerve 18:125, 132, 435, 437–438

nerve, lesion effects 18:496

nerve, role in reproductive behavior 18:467

nerve, stimulation 18:455

nerve, organ 18:119, 124, 138, 147, 178, 202, 431–438, 447

nerve, organ, and prey recognition 18:496

nerve, organ, odorant delivery 18:459–463

trough 19:115

Vomeropalatine ligament 20:402

Vomerpolster (see Vomerine cushion)

Vomiting 8:441, 449

Vordere äussere Riechmuschel (see Preconcha)

Vordere Muschel (see Anterior concha; Preconcha)

Vorderseitenspalt (see also Lateral palatal opening) 4:425

Vorhof (see Vestibulum)

Vorhofsmuschel (see Postvestibular ridge)

Vorhöhle (see Vestibulum)

Vornierengang (see Wolffian duct)

Vornierentrichter (see Peritoneal funnel)

Vorticose veins 2:41

Voucher specimens 16:336

Vulpes 16:10–11

 

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